(lover) mistress , Baroness Mary Vetsera, at his Mayerling (The Mayerling Incident) hunting lodge in 1889 made international headlines, fueled international conspiracy (Conspiracy theory) rumours and ultimately may have sealed the long-term fate of the Habsburg monarchy. - Großer Refraktor Vienna Observatory Vienna (History of Vienna), Austrian Empire Vienna, Austria 69 cm (27" ) 10.5 m 1880
of this historical work into scholarly circulation created a stir in Russian literary circles, as the tale represented the earliest Slavonic (Slavic languages) language writing, without any element of Church Slavonic. After linguistic analysis, Ukrainian (Ukrainians) scholars in the Austrian Empire declared that the document contained transitional language between a) earlier fragments of the language of ''Rus' (Ruthenia) propria'' (the region of Chernihiv, eastward through Kiev
Empire (now Slovakia) DATE OF DEATH 19 May 1883 History The Jiu Valley is Romania’s principal coal mining region. Two other areas in Romania have some surface mining, while the Jiu Valley contains deep shaft underground mines. While providing only 12% of the Romania’s supply of coal, the Jiu Valley is the only region in Romania both completely urbanized and reliant on a single industry. Coal mining has been long been the heart and economic lifeline for the Jiu Valley
into a Memorial Museum in his honour. His early education was in Temeschwar (Timişoara) (today Romania) and Szeged (today Republic of Hungary). Jakšić lived for a time in Großbetschkerek (Serbian: Veliki Bečkerek, now Zrenjanin), where he began studying painting under Konstantin Danil. Jakšić, a son of a Serbian Orthodox priest, then went on to study fine arts in Vienna and Munich, but the revolution of 1848 interrupted his education, which he was never able to finish. In the 1848 Revolution he was wounded while fighting in Srbobran. After the revolution, deceived by the Austrians after the May Assembly, he came to live in Serbia, where he served as a schoolteacher and in various other capacities, although he was often unemployed. A political liberal, he was persecuted by authorities. He died in despair and ravaged by illness in 1878, after he had taken part in the uprising against the Turks in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1815, the bay was annexed by the Austrian Empire (Austro-Hungary since 1867) and was included into the province of Dalmatia (part of Cisleithania since 1867). In 1848 Montenegrin Prince-Bishop Petar II Petrović-Njegoš advised the denizens to fight in the Revolutions of 1848 for Croatian Ban Josip Jelačić in an attempt to unite Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia under the Habsburg crown. Contrary to this the Serb National Guard of Kotor refused the proposition of Petar II Petrović Njegoš to unite with Croatia-Slavonia, stating that Serbs have to be unified first before uniting with other Slavs.
of the Illyrian Provinces.
in this important battle, the largest since the Battle of Leipzig in 1813. There were about 130,000 Austrian troops and a combined total of 140,000 French and allied Piedmontese troops. After this battle, the Austrian Emperor refrained from further direct command of the army. The '''Battle of Wagram''' (July 5–6, 1809) was the decisive military engagement (battle) of the War of the Fifth Coalition. It took place on the Marchfeld plain, on the north bank of the Danube. An important site of the battle was the village of Deutsch-Wagram, 10 kilometres northeast of Vienna, which would give its name to the battle. The two-day struggle saw an Imperial French (First French Empire), German (Rhine Confederation) and Italian (Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic)) army under the command of Emperor (Emperor of the French) Napoleon I defeat an army of the Austrian Empire under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen (Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen). Background The work was composed after Diabelli, a well known music publisher and composer, in the early part of 1819 sent a waltz of his creation to all the important composers of the Austrian Empire, including Franz Schubert, Carl Czerny, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, and the Archduke Rudolph (Archduke Rudolf of Austria (1788–1831)), asking each of them to write a variation on it. His plan was to publish all the variations in a patriotic volume called ''Vaterländischer Künstlerverein'', and to use the profits to benefit orphans and widows of the Napoleonic Wars. Franz Liszt was not included, but it seems his teacher Czerny arranged for him to also provide a variation (Variation on a Waltz by Diabelli (Liszt)), which he composed at the age of 11. The Restored French Monarchy With the Congress of Vienna, the monarchs of Russia (Russian Empire), Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), and Austria (Austrian Empire) formed the ''Holy Alliance'', a form of collective security against revolution and Bonapartism inspired by Tsar Alexander I of Russia. This instance of reaction was surpassed by a movement that developed in France when, after the second fall of Napoleon, the ''Restoration,'' or re-instatement of the Bourbon (House of Bourbon) dynasty, ensued. This time it was to be a constitutional monarchy, with an elected (election) lower house of parliament, the Chamber of Deputies. The Franchise was restricted to men over the age of forty, which indicated that for the first fifteen years of their lives they had lived under the ''ancien régime''. Nevertheless, King Louis XVIII (Louis XVIII of France) was worried that he would still suffer an intractable parliament. He was delighted with the ultra-royalists, or Ultras, whom the election returned, declaring that he had found a ''chambre introuvable'', literally, an "unfindable house". But he later realized that they were too ultra for a royal. Metternich and containment During the period of 1815-1848, Prince Metternich, the foreign minister of the Austrian Empire, stepped in to organize containment of revolutionary forces through international alliances meant to prevent the spread of revolutionary fervour. At the Congress of Vienna, he was very influential in establishing the new order, the Concert of Europe, after the overthrow of Napoleon. "'''Himnusz'''" (in English (English language): ''Hymn'') is a song beginning with the words ''Isten, áldd meg a magyart''
in Moldavia and, after May, in northern Wallachia, viewed the alliance as broken—he had Vladimirescu executed, and faced the Ottoman intervention without Pandur or Russian backing, suffering major defeats in Bucharest and Drăgăşani (before retreating to Austrian (Austrian Empire) custody in Transylvania). Djuvara, p.301; Giurescu, p.116–117 These violent events, which had seen the majority of Phanariotes siding with Ypsilantis, made Ottoman Dynasty Sultan
the Second Italian Independence War. From 1860 it has been part of Italy Kingdom of Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)). Due to his success at executing the changes of the Tanzimat program, Pasha was went to Syria during 1860 to enforce Ottoman law after the outbreak of war (1860 Lebanon conflict). He arrived in Beirut on July 17, 1860, armed with extreme power granted to him by the Sultan (Ottoman Dynasty). His goal was to protect the Ottoman power over the region as well as keep out the European influence For example, in order to send a message to the anti-Ottoman forces; he had some Damascus notables hanged for their lack of regard for the Ottoman commitment to a multi-ethnic state (Multiethnic society). Pasha saw the events of 1860 in Syria as the converse to the idea of modernism as exhibited by Europe. He chaired the Beirut Commission in 1860 that included Britain (United Kingdom), France, Russia (Russian Empire), Austria (Austrian Empire) and Prussia. 1806–18: Departure from Vienna and life in Paris Reicha's life and career in Vienna were interrupted by Napoleon (Napoleon I of France)'s military activities. In November 1805 the city was occupied by French (France) troops. In 1806 Reicha travelled to Leipzig to arrange a performance of his new work, the cantata ''Lenore'' (stopping at Prague to see his mother for the first time since 1780), but because Leipzig was blockaded by the French, not only was the performance cancelled, but Reicha could not return to Vienna for several months. When he did return, it was not for long, because by 1808 the Austrian Empire was already preparing for another war, the War of the Fifth Coalition, so Reicha decided to move, once again, to Paris. This time three of Reicha's many operas were produced, and all failed to attract attention; nevertheless, his fame as theorist and teacher increased steadily, and by 1817 most of his pupils became professors at the Conservatoire de Paris. Reicha himself was appointed professor of counterpoint and fugue at the Conservatoire in 1818. The town has existed since at least the 10th century, as one of the Burgs of Czerwień http: wyborcza.pl 1,75476,8601329,Nazywam_sie_Czerwien.html (Red Ruthenia) strongholds under Bohemian and Polish (Poland) rule. In 981, Belz was incorporated into the Kievan Rus', Artur Pawłowski, ''Roztocze'', Oficyna Wydawnicza "Rewasz", Warszawa 2009. ISBN 978-83-89188-87-8 except 1018–1030 when it belonged to Poland. In 1170 the town became a seat of the Duchy of Belz. In 1234 it was incorporated into the Duchy of Galicia–Volhynia, which would control Belz till 1340, when it came under Lithuanian rule. In 1366 it became a fief of Poland, since 1462 a permanent part of the Kingdom of Poland (History of Poland), until the First Partition of Poland in 1772. Then, it was incorporated into the Austrian Empire, later the Austro-Hungarian Empire, where it was a part of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. Life He was born in Bochnia (Salzberg), then in Galicia (Galicia (Central Europe)), Austrian Empire, on January 27, 1861, to Gustav Sinnmayer Modrzejewski and actress Helena Opid Modrzejewska (best known outside Poland as Helena Modjeska). In 1865 his mother left Sinnmayer, and in 1868 she married "Count" Bodzenta Chłapowski. In July 1876 they emigrated to America, where, as a matter of convenience, the boy's mother altered her name to Helena Modjeska and her son's name to Ralph Modjeski. Early life Avram Iancu was born in Vidra de Sus (currently Avram Iancu (Avram Iancu, Alba), Alba County), Transylvania, then part of the Austrian Empire into a family of peasants that had been emancipated from serfdom. He attended school, studying humanities in the Piarist College (Piarists) of Cluj (Cluj-Napoca), and then graduating from law school. He became a law clerk in Târgu Mureş where he learned about the events of March 1848 of Vienna and Pest (Pest (city)). His attitude at the time showed the nature of the conflict that was to engulf Transylvania: while Iancu welcomed the transition, he was indignant at the fact that Hungarian revolutionaries (many of whom were landowners) refused to debate the abolition of serfdom (which, at the time, covered the larger part of the Romanian population in Transylvania). Ioan N. Ciolan, Constantin Voicu, Mihai Racovițan, "Transylvania:Romanian history and perpetuation, or, what official Hungarian documents say", Military Publishing House, 1993 In the Austrian Empire the title of "Ritter von" would be bestowed upon citizens who deserved more than the plain ''"von"'' but were not considered deserving enough as to be given a barony as "Freiherr". In addition to the described system, some states like Württemberg and Bavaria introduced orders of merit beginning in the late 18th century which also conferred nobility as "Ritter von" but kept the title limited to the recipient's lifetime (see Military Order of Max Joseph). thumb right ''The Sea Battle of Lissa'', by Carl Frederik Sorensen, 1868. (File:Die Seeschlacht bei Lissa.jpg) The new navy's baptism of fire came on 20 July 1866 at the Battle of Lissa (Battle of Lissa (1866)) during the Third Italian War of Independence (parallel to the Seven Weeks War). The battle was fought against the Austrian Empire and occurred near the island of Vis (Vis (island)) in the Adriatic sea. This was one of the few fleet actions of the nineteenth century, and as a major sea battle that involved ramming (ram (ship)), it had a profound, though with hindsight a detrimental, effect on warship design and tactics. Early years: in the Swedish service He was born on 15 September 1676 in the village of Chojnik. He received some elementary education in Kraków, either from the Kraków Academy or from the Nowodworski School (Bartłomiej Nowodworski High School). At the age of 13 he was sent to Vienna, where he spent two years, and afterward, he traveled to Serbia, where he volunteered to join the fight Austrian Empire forces against the Ottoman Empire (the Great Turkish War). He served as an adjutant to Michał Franciszek Sapieha, and later commanded a company of cuirassiers. He fought in the battle of Zenta in 1697. Muhlenberg was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1828 as a Jacksonian Democrat (United States Democratic-Republican Party). He remained in Congress from 1829 until his appointment as the first United States Minister to the Austrian Empire on February 8, 1838. He served in Vienna from 1838 to September 18, 1840. The first '''Battle of Raszyn''' was fought on April 19, 1809 between armies of the Austrian Empire and the Duchy of Warsaw as a part of the War of the Fifth Coalition in the Napoleonic Wars. The Austrian army was defeated. Modern times From 1708, Kreuznach belonged entirely to the Electoral Palatinate. During the French Revolutionary War (1792–1814) Kreuznach was annexed by France (First French Empire), with the southern part of the region becoming part of the ''département (Departments of France#Napoleonic Empire)'' of Mont-Tonnerre and northern areas joining Rhin-et-Moselle. When liberated from the French, the region's joint Bavarian (Kingdom of Bavaria) and Austrian (Austrian Empire) administration was based in Kreuznach. The Congress of Vienna assigned the area to the Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) Rhine Province, making Kreuznach a border town, with the Grand Duchy of Hesse to the east and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate to the south. placeofburial birth_place Umetić, Croatian Military Frontier, Austrian Empire (today's Croatia) death_place Klagenfurt, First Austrian Republic (today's Austria) Private life Boroević was born on 13 December 1856 in the village of Umetić, Military Frontier (Croatian Military Frontier), Kingdom of Croatia (Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg)), Austrian Empire (present-day Croatia). The accounts of his ethnic and national origin differ because even though he was baptized in the local Orthodox Church (Eastern Orthodoxy),
written by Ferenc Kölcsey, a nationally renowned poet in 1823, and its currently official musical setting was composed by the romantic composer Ferenc Erkel, although other less-known musical versions exist. The poem bore the subtitle ''"A magyar nép zivataros századaiból"'' ("From the stormy centuries of the Hungarian people"); it is often argued that this subtitle – by emphasizing past rather than contemporary national troubles – was added expressly to enable the poem to pass Habsburg (Austrian Empire) censorship. The full meaning of the poem's text is evident only to those well acquainted with Hungarian history. A soldier attempted to assassinate Ferdinand in 1856 and many believe that the infection he received from the soldier's bayonet led to his ultimate demise. He died on 22 May 1859, shortly after the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia had declared war against the Austrian Empire. This would later lead to the invasion of his Kingdom by Giuseppe Garibaldi and Italian unification in 1861. During the uprising, the Sejm realized the need for unified national insignia that could be used by the Polish military. On February 7, 1831 it adopted white and red, the tinctures (Tincture (heraldry)) (colors) of the Polish and Lithuanian coats of arms, as the national cockade of Poland. The white-and-red cockade was henceforth worn by Polish soldiers in the November Uprising, as well as by participants of the Kraków Uprising of 1846, Polish freedom fighters in the Grand Duchy of Posen and the Austrian Empire during the Spring of Nations (Revolutions of 1848) of 1848, and Polish insurgents during the January Uprising of 1863–1864. White and red colors were also used by civilians to show their protest against the Russian rule, as well as by people in France, Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), Germany (German Confederation), Belgium and other countries as a sign of their sympathy with the Polish cause. The Sejm's decision was not, however, immediately accepted by all. Left-wing politicians of the time, such as Joachim Lelewel, continued to regard the revolutionary blue, white and red as true national colors. Tricolor standards were used by some Polish guerrilla units during the January Uprising. Brune was recalled to active service in 1815, during the Hundred Days, and as commander of the army of the Var, he defended the south of France against the forces of the Austrian Empire. He was murdered by royalists (House of Bourbon) during the White Terror (The White Terror (France)) at Avignon, during the opening stage of the Bourbon Restoration. His body was thrown in the river Rhône (Rhône (river)), but was later recovered and buried in a pyramid-shaped tomb in the cemetery of Saint-Just-Sauvage. In 1793, Joubert distinguished himself by the defence of a redoubt at the Col de Tende in northwest Italy, with only thirty men against a battalion of the enemy. Wounded and made prisoner in the battle, he was released on parole by the Austrian (Austrian Empire) commander-in-chief, De Vins, soon afterwards. In 1794 he was again actively engaged, and in 1795 promoted to brigadier general (brigadier general (France)). In English, the term ''the Kaiser'' is usually reserved for the Emperors of the German Empire, the emperors of the Austrian Empire and those of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the First World War, the term ''the Kaiser'' — especially as applied to Wilhelm II of Germany — gained considerable pejorative connotations in English-speaking countries. From 1842–1849, King Ludwig I of Bavaria built a country house to the west of town. It was named ''Pompejanum'' after its model, the house of Castor and Pollux (Castor and Polydeuces) at Pompeii. In 1866 the Prussian Army inflicted a severe defeat on the Austrians (Austrian Empire) in the neighbourhood during the Austro-Prussian War. Early stages Steinitz was born on May 17, 1836 in the Jewish ghetto of Prague (now capital of the Czech Republic; then in Bohemia, a part of the Austrian Empire). The last of a hardware retailer's thirteen sons, he learned to play chess at age 12.
century, Croatia was divided among three states – northern Croatia was part of the Austrian Empire, Dalmatia (with the exception of Dubrovnik) was under the rule of the Venetian Republic and Slavonia was under Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) occupation. Dalmatia was on the periphery of several influences: religious and public architecture clearly influenced by the Italian renaissance flourished. Three works of that period are of European importance, and contributed to the further development
of Dubrovnik), and Slavonia was under Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) occupation. Dalmatia was on the periphery of several influences so religious and public architecture clearly influenced by the Italian renaissance flourished. Three works from of that period are of European importance, and would contribute to the further development of Renaissance architecture: the Cathedral of St. James (Cathedral of St. James, Šibenik) in Šibenik, in 1441 by Giorgio da Sebenico; the ''Chapel
The '''Austrian Empire''' ( '') was created out of the realms of the Habsburgs (Habsburg Monarchy) by proclamation in 1804. It was a multinational empire and one of the world's great powers. Geographically it was the second largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire (621,538 square kilometres 239,977 sq mi ). It was also the third most populous after Russia and France, as well as the largest and strongest country in the German Confederation. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806. The ''Ausgleich'' of 1867 elevated Hungary's status within the Austrian Empire, creating a new dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.