Archduchy of Austria

What is Archduchy of Austria known for?


red blue

distinction from Austro-Hungary, and the colours were changed to traditional Red-Blue-White. However the Montenegrin navy was entirely constituted by old vessels from Ulcinj, most of the crew being Muslims who were discontent with the use of a Christian symbol on their flag. So, in 1881 the final version was adopted. The Cross was removed and Nicholas' initials added in the center, with an Islamic-style crown on top of them to satisfy the crew. File:Flag of Montenegro (1941-1944).svg


early national

to the Archduchy of Austria, and the Kingdom of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary (1538–1867)) especially to the respective capitals of Vienna and Budapest, but also to Transylvania (Principality of Transylvania (1711–1867)), where they had an important role in the early National awakening of Romania. The city never rose back to its earlier status. However, a new school was established at the end of the 18th century whose headmaster in 1802 was Daniel Moscopolites. This school functioned the following decades, thanks to donations and bequests by baron Simon Sinas, a member of the diaspora. of the Leitha river. The Lordship of Tarasp Castle was established in the 11th century and for centuries claimed by the Bishopric of Chur and the Counts of Tyrol (County of Tyrol). After the Lords of Tarasp had become extinct, their estates were a Tyrolean fief from 1239 on. Under the rule of the Habsburg (House of Habsburg) archdukes of Austria (Archduchy of Austria), also Counts of Tyrol since 1363, Tarasp from 1464 on was an Austrian exclave (Enclave and exclave) inside the Free State of the Three Leagues (Three Leagues), an associate (Old Swiss Confederacy#Associates) of the Old Swiss Confederacy. In 1687 Emperor Leopold I of Habsburg (Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor) granted the Lordship of Tarasp to the Princes of Dietrichstein as an immediate (Imperial immediacy) territory of the Holy Roman Empire. Nothing is known of John's early life. In 1307 he became abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Viktring (Viktring Abbey), near Klagenfurt in the Duchy of Carinthia. He was later both chaplain and confidential secretary to the Carinthian duke Henry of Gorizia-Tyrol (Henry of Bohemia). Upon the duke's death in 1335, John journeyed to the city of Linz at the request of the Henry's daughter, Margarete Maultasch (Margaret, Countess of Tyrol), to defend her claims to her father's estates before the Emperor Louis IV of Wittelsbach (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor). Nevertheless the two Austrian (Archduchy of Austria) dukes, Albert II of Habsburg (Albert II, Duke of Austria) and his brother Otto the Merry (Otto, Duke of Austria), took possession of the contested Carinthian lands in her stead, and thereby became the lords of Viktring Abbey. They too learned to value the abbot's abilities and consulted him in all important government matters. He frequently stayed at their residence in Vienna as a confidential secretary until 1341, when he withdrew to the quiet of his monastery to write a history of his own time. The accord dictated that the Archduchy of Austria (Principality of Austria above the Enns (Upper Austria)) would receive the Bavarian (History of Bavaria) lands east of the Inn (Inn (river)) river in compensation, a region then called "Innviertel", stretching from the Bishopric of Passau (Roman Catholic Diocese of Passau) to the northern border of the Archbishopric of Salzburg. However, one of the requirements was that Austria would recognize the Prussian claims to the Franconian (Franconian Circle) margraviates of Ansbach (Principality of Ansbach) and Bayreuth (Principality of Bayreuth), ruled in personal union by Margrave Christian Alexander (Christian Frederick Charles Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach) from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia finally purchased both margraviates in 1791. The Electorate of Saxony received a sum of six million guilders (florins) from Bavaria in exchange of its inheritance claims. With the accession of Elector Charles Theodore, the electorates of Bavaria and the County Palatine of the Rhine (Electoral Palatinate) (i.e. the territories in the Rhenish Palatinate (Palatinate (region)) and the Upper Palatinate) were under the united rule of the House of Wittelsbach. Their electoral votes were combined into one per a provision in the earlier Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, thereby reducing the number of electorates in the Holy Roman Empire to eight. The Innviertel, except for a short time during the Napoleonic Wars, remained with Upper Austria up to today.


quot making

of 1356 , when Emperor Charles IV (Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor), a member of the rivaling Luxembourg dynasty (House of Luxembourg), determined the seven Prince-electors to vote for the German king. In 1358 59, deprived Duke Rudolf IV of Austria (Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria) therefore forged (forgery) the ''Privilegium Maius'' to elevate the status of his duchy to that of an "archduchy", making it equal-ranking with an electorate including the right of primogeniture


modern sense

Rudolph of Habsburg and the 1283 Treaty of Rheinfelden, the combination of red-white-red was widely considered to be the Austrian (Archduchy of Austria) (later also Inner Austrian) colours used by the ruling Habsburg dynasty. However, the ''national flag'' (in a modern sense) of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy, like the later Austrian Empire and the Cisleithanian part of Austria-Hungary until 1918, was black-yellow. These were the family colours of the Imperial House of Habsburg, and were themselves in part derived from the banner of the Holy Roman Empire. of the Leitha river. The Lordship of Tarasp Castle was established in the 11th century and for centuries claimed by the Bishopric of Chur and the Counts of Tyrol (County of Tyrol). After the Lords of Tarasp had become extinct, their estates were a Tyrolean fief from 1239 on. Under the rule of the Habsburg (House of Habsburg) archdukes of Austria (Archduchy of Austria), also Counts of Tyrol since 1363, Tarasp from 1464 on was an Austrian exclave (Enclave and exclave) inside the Free State of the Three Leagues (Three Leagues), an associate (Old Swiss Confederacy#Associates) of the Old Swiss Confederacy. In 1687 Emperor Leopold I of Habsburg (Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor) granted the Lordship of Tarasp to the Princes of Dietrichstein as an immediate (Imperial immediacy) territory of the Holy Roman Empire. Nothing is known of John's early life. In 1307 he became abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Viktring (Viktring Abbey), near Klagenfurt in the Duchy of Carinthia. He was later both chaplain and confidential secretary to the Carinthian duke Henry of Gorizia-Tyrol (Henry of Bohemia). Upon the duke's death in 1335, John journeyed to the city of Linz at the request of the Henry's daughter, Margarete Maultasch (Margaret, Countess of Tyrol), to defend her claims to her father's estates before the Emperor Louis IV of Wittelsbach (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor). Nevertheless the two Austrian (Archduchy of Austria) dukes, Albert II of Habsburg (Albert II, Duke of Austria) and his brother Otto the Merry (Otto, Duke of Austria), took possession of the contested Carinthian lands in her stead, and thereby became the lords of Viktring Abbey. They too learned to value the abbot's abilities and consulted him in all important government matters. He frequently stayed at their residence in Vienna as a confidential secretary until 1341, when he withdrew to the quiet of his monastery to write a history of his own time. The accord dictated that the Archduchy of Austria (Principality of Austria above the Enns (Upper Austria)) would receive the Bavarian (History of Bavaria) lands east of the Inn (Inn (river)) river in compensation, a region then called "Innviertel", stretching from the Bishopric of Passau (Roman Catholic Diocese of Passau) to the northern border of the Archbishopric of Salzburg. However, one of the requirements was that Austria would recognize the Prussian claims to the Franconian (Franconian Circle) margraviates of Ansbach (Principality of Ansbach) and Bayreuth (Principality of Bayreuth), ruled in personal union by Margrave Christian Alexander (Christian Frederick Charles Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach) from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia finally purchased both margraviates in 1791. The Electorate of Saxony received a sum of six million guilders (florins) from Bavaria in exchange of its inheritance claims. With the accession of Elector Charles Theodore, the electorates of Bavaria and the County Palatine of the Rhine (Electoral Palatinate) (i.e. the territories in the Rhenish Palatinate (Palatinate (region)) and the Upper Palatinate) were under the united rule of the House of Wittelsbach. Their electoral votes were combined into one per a provision in the earlier Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, thereby reducing the number of electorates in the Holy Roman Empire to eight. The Innviertel, except for a short time during the Napoleonic Wars, remained with Upper Austria up to today.


vast number

of Brandenburg , the Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate), Hesse (Gravitate of Hesse), the Archbishopric of Trier and Nuremberg (containing from 500,000 to one million inhabitants). A vast number of minor independent duchies, free cities (City-state), abbeys, prince-bishoprics, and petty lordships (whose authority sometimes extended to no more than a single village) rounded out the Empire. Apart from Austria and perhaps Bavaria, none of those entities was capable of national-level politics


remarkable position

. Further, German archbishops had shown independence at the 1786 Congress of Ems, but were soon brought into line. With the loss of the Vatican and the pope's other temporal power, the cardinals were left in a remarkable position. They were forced to hold the conclave in Venice, making the conclave the last to be held outside Rome. This followed an ordinance (Ecclesiastical ordinances) issued by Pius VI in 1798, in which was stated that the conclave, in such a situation, would


extremely musical

Autobiographical sketch (Autobiographical sketch (Haydn)). however, Mathias was an enthusiastic folk musician, who during the journeyman period of his career had taught himself to play the harp. According to Haydn's later reminiscences, his childhood family was extremely musical, and frequently sang together and with their neighbors. The Holy Roman Empire was a fragmented collection of largely independent states


important roles

, Altötting Burghausen , the lands beyond the Inn river for centuries had two important roles: strategically as an eastern defence line against the rising Archduchy of Austria, and economically as arable land for crop farming. In the course of the Bavarian People's Uprising against the occupation by the Habsburg (House of Habsburg) Emperor Joseph I (Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor), the short-lived Braunau Parliament convened in 1705, an early occurrence of a parliamentary system in the Holy Roman Empire. Upon the death of King Ottokar II (Ottokar II of Bohemia) in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld, his widow Kunigunda (Kunigunda of Slavonia) had called in the Brandenburgian troops to lend aid against the army of victorious Rudolph of Habsburg (Rudolph I of Germany). Rudolph retired to Austria (Archduchy of Austria), nevertheless the Brandenburgers soon acted like occupants: they arrested Kunigunda and her seven-year-old son Wenceslaus (Wenceslaus II of Bohemia) at Bezděz Castle and agreed with Rudolph that they would retain the Bohemian rule for the next five years. '''Ulrich von Liechtenstein''' (1200–1275) was a medieval ministerialis and minnesinger (minnesang), author of noted works about how knights and nobles may lead more virtuous lives, and a powerful leader in the 13th century Eastern Alps. He was born in 1200 at Murau in the Duchy of Styria, located in the present-day State of Austria (Austria). His family, a cadet branch of the Bavarian Aribonids named after Liechtenstein Castle near Judenburg, was not affiliated with the Austrian (Archduchy of Austria) House of Liechtenstein (Princely Family of Liechtenstein). thumb left 120px Coat of arms of the Gessler family (File:Blason Henri Gessler, Kammermeister.svg) Indeed, a Gessler family of ministeriales (Ministerialis) is documented from the 13th century onwards; however at Wiggwil (Beinwil (Freiamt)) in the Aargau region, the original homeland of the Habsburgs and the basis for their rise after the extinction of the Swabian House of Hohenstaufen. The Gesslers profited from the election of Count Rudolph of Habsburg (Rudolph I of Germany) as King of the Romans in 1273 and his acquisition of the Austria (Archduchy of Austria)n and Styria (Duchy of Styria)n duchies after the victory over King Ottokar II of Bohemia at the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld. In the late 14th century one Hermann Gessler was ''Landvogt'' of the Habsburg dukes at Grüningen Castle in Zürich (Canton of Zürich). His stern measures against the peasant population made the name ''Gessler'' an epitome of tyranny. death_date of the Leitha river. The Lordship of Tarasp Castle was established in the 11th century and for centuries claimed by the Bishopric of Chur and the Counts of Tyrol (County of Tyrol). After the Lords of Tarasp had become extinct, their estates were a Tyrolean fief from 1239 on. Under the rule of the Habsburg (House of Habsburg) archdukes of Austria (Archduchy of Austria), also Counts of Tyrol since 1363, Tarasp from 1464 on was an Austrian exclave (Enclave and exclave) inside the Free State of the Three Leagues (Three Leagues), an associate (Old Swiss Confederacy#Associates) of the Old Swiss Confederacy. In 1687 Emperor Leopold I of Habsburg (Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor) granted the Lordship of Tarasp to the Princes of Dietrichstein as an immediate (Imperial immediacy) territory of the Holy Roman Empire. Nothing is known of John's early life. In 1307 he became abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Viktring (Viktring Abbey), near Klagenfurt in the Duchy of Carinthia. He was later both chaplain and confidential secretary to the Carinthian duke Henry of Gorizia-Tyrol (Henry of Bohemia). Upon the duke's death in 1335, John journeyed to the city of Linz at the request of the Henry's daughter, Margarete Maultasch (Margaret, Countess of Tyrol), to defend her claims to her father's estates before the Emperor Louis IV of Wittelsbach (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor). Nevertheless the two Austrian (Archduchy of Austria) dukes, Albert II of Habsburg (Albert II, Duke of Austria) and his brother Otto the Merry (Otto, Duke of Austria), took possession of the contested Carinthian lands in her stead, and thereby became the lords of Viktring Abbey. They too learned to value the abbot's abilities and consulted him in all important government matters. He frequently stayed at their residence in Vienna as a confidential secretary until 1341, when he withdrew to the quiet of his monastery to write a history of his own time. The accord dictated that the Archduchy of Austria (Principality of Austria above the Enns (Upper Austria)) would receive the Bavarian (History of Bavaria) lands east of the Inn (Inn (river)) river in compensation, a region then called "Innviertel", stretching from the Bishopric of Passau (Roman Catholic Diocese of Passau) to the northern border of the Archbishopric of Salzburg. However, one of the requirements was that Austria would recognize the Prussian claims to the Franconian (Franconian Circle) margraviates of Ansbach (Principality of Ansbach) and Bayreuth (Principality of Bayreuth), ruled in personal union by Margrave Christian Alexander (Christian Frederick Charles Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach) from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia finally purchased both margraviates in 1791. The Electorate of Saxony received a sum of six million guilders (florins) from Bavaria in exchange of its inheritance claims. With the accession of Elector Charles Theodore, the electorates of Bavaria and the County Palatine of the Rhine (Electoral Palatinate) (i.e. the territories in the Rhenish Palatinate (Palatinate (region)) and the Upper Palatinate) were under the united rule of the House of Wittelsbach. Their electoral votes were combined into one per a provision in the earlier Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, thereby reducing the number of electorates in the Holy Roman Empire to eight. The Innviertel, except for a short time during the Napoleonic Wars, remained with Upper Austria up to today.


founder quot

of the Occident. It had been on display above his grave in the Stephansdom of Vienna for several decades after his death, but can now be seen in the Museum of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna. Apart from the (invented) archdukal crown, the foreshortening of which the artist did not completely master, the portrait is completely realistic. Even the duke's incipient facioplegia (Facial nerve paralysis) is shown. '''Rudolf IV''' ''der Stifter'' ("the Founder") (November


quot making/

of 1356 , when Emperor Charles IV (Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor), a member of the rivaling Luxembourg dynasty (House of Luxembourg), determined the seven Prince-electors to vote for the German king. In 1358 59, deprived Duke Rudolf IV of Austria (Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria) therefore forged (forgery) the ''Privilegium Maius'' to elevate the status of his duchy to that of an "archduchy", making it equal-ranking with an electorate including the right of primogeniture

Archduchy of Austria

The '''Archduchy of Austria''' ( ), one of the most important states within the Holy Roman Empire, was the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy and the predecessor of the Austrian Empire. Over nearly 700 years, it evolved from a margravate (margrave) to the centre of an empire (Austrian Empire).

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