Archduchy of Austria

What is Archduchy of Austria known for?

remarkable position

. Further, German archbishops had shown independence at the 1786 Congress of Ems, but were soon brought into line. With the loss of the Vatican and the pope's other temporal power, the cardinals were left in a remarkable position. They were forced to hold the conclave in Venice, making the conclave the last to be held outside Rome. This followed an ordinance (Ecclesiastical ordinances) issued by Pius VI in 1798, in which was stated that the conclave, in such a situation, would

red blue

distinction from Austro-Hungary, and the colours were changed to traditional Red-Blue-White. However the Montenegrin navy was entirely constituted by old vessels from Ulcinj, most of the crew being Muslims who were discontent with the use of a Christian symbol on their flag. So, in 1881 the final version was adopted. The Cross was removed and Nicholas' initials added in the center, with an Islamic-style crown on top of them to satisfy the crew. File:Flag of Montenegro (1941-1944).svg


Autobiographical sketch (Autobiographical sketch (Haydn)). however, Mathias was an enthusiastic folk musician, who during the journeyman period of his career had taught himself to play the harp. According to Haydn's later reminiscences, his childhood family was extremely musical, and frequently sang together and with their neighbors. The Holy Roman Empire was a fragmented collection of largely independent states

century life

century). Life in the country was significantly affected by the Hussite wars, during which it faced economic embargo and crusades from all over Europe. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg monarchy as one of its three principal parts alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary. The Bohemian Revolt (1618–20) led to the further centralization of the monarchy including forced recatholization and Germanization. During radical reforms in the 18th century the Bohemian Crown was even ''de facto'' abolished (1749). In the 19th century the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia which was formed in 1918, following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire after World War I. Bohemia thumb upright Ottokar II of Bohemia Přemysl Ottokar II (File:Premysl2Gelnhausen.jpg), (c. 1233–1278), King of Bohemia and ruler of Austria (Archduchy of Austria), Styria, Carinthia (Carinthia (state)) and Carniola '''Frederick the Peaceful''' KG (Order of the Garter) (September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493) was Duke of Austria (Archduchy of Austria) as '''Frederick V''' from 1424, the successor of Albert II (Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor) as German King (King of the Romans) as '''Frederick IV''' from 1440, and Holy Roman Emperor as '''Frederick III''' from 1452. In 1493, he was succeeded by his son Maximilian I (Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor) after ten years of joint rule. Politics Frederick's political initiatives were hardly bold, but they were still successful. His first major opponent was his brother Albert VI (Albert VI of Austria), who challenged his rule. He did not manage to win a single conflict on the battlefield against him, and thus resorted to more subtle means. He held his second cousin once removed (Consanguinity) Ladislaus the Posthumous, the ruler of the Archduchy of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia, (born in 1440) as a prisoner and attempted to extend his guardianship over him in perpetuity to maintain his control over Lower Austria. Ladislaus was freed in 1452 by the Lower Austrian estates. He acted similarly towards his nephew Sigismund (Sigismund of Austria) of the Tyrolian line of the Habsburg family. Despite those efforts, he failed to gain control over Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary) and Bohemia, and was even defeated by the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus in 1485, who managed to maintain residence in Vienna until his death five years later. Ultimately, Frederick prevailed in all those conflicts by outliving his opponents and sometimes inheriting their lands, as was the case with his nephew Ladislaus, from whom he gained Lower Austria in 1457, and with his brother Albert VI, whom he succeeded in Upper Austria. These conflicts forced him into an anachronistic itinerant existence, as he had to move his court between various places through the years, residing in Graz, Linz and Wiener Neustadt. Wiener Neustadt owes him its castle and the "New Monastery". of the Leitha river. The Lordship of Tarasp Castle was established in the 11th century and for centuries claimed by the Bishopric of Chur and the Counts of Tyrol (County of Tyrol). After the Lords of Tarasp had become extinct, their estates were a Tyrolean fief from 1239 on. Under the rule of the Habsburg (House of Habsburg) archdukes of Austria (Archduchy of Austria), also Counts of Tyrol since 1363, Tarasp from 1464 on was an Austrian exclave (Enclave and exclave) inside the Free State of the Three Leagues (Three Leagues), an associate (Old Swiss Confederacy#Associates) of the Old Swiss Confederacy. In 1687 Emperor Leopold I of Habsburg (Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor) granted the Lordship of Tarasp to the Princes of Dietrichstein as an immediate (Imperial immediacy) territory of the Holy Roman Empire. Nothing is known of John's early life. In 1307 he became abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Viktring (Viktring Abbey), near Klagenfurt in the Duchy of Carinthia. He was later both chaplain and confidential secretary to the Carinthian duke Henry of Gorizia-Tyrol (Henry of Bohemia). Upon the duke's death in 1335, John journeyed to the city of Linz at the request of the Henry's daughter, Margarete Maultasch (Margaret, Countess of Tyrol), to defend her claims to her father's estates before the Emperor Louis IV of Wittelsbach (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor). Nevertheless the two Austrian (Archduchy of Austria) dukes, Albert II of Habsburg (Albert II, Duke of Austria) and his brother Otto the Merry (Otto, Duke of Austria), took possession of the contested Carinthian lands in her stead, and thereby became the lords of Viktring Abbey. They too learned to value the abbot's abilities and consulted him in all important government matters. He frequently stayed at their residence in Vienna as a confidential secretary until 1341, when he withdrew to the quiet of his monastery to write a history of his own time. The accord dictated that the Archduchy of Austria (Principality of Austria above the Enns (Upper Austria)) would receive the Bavarian (History of Bavaria) lands east of the Inn (Inn (river)) river in compensation, a region then called "Innviertel", stretching from the Bishopric of Passau (Roman Catholic Diocese of Passau) to the northern border of the Archbishopric of Salzburg. However, one of the requirements was that Austria would recognize the Prussian claims to the Franconian (Franconian Circle) margraviates of Ansbach (Principality of Ansbach) and Bayreuth (Principality of Bayreuth), ruled in personal union by Margrave Christian Alexander (Christian Frederick Charles Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach) from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia finally purchased both margraviates in 1791. The Electorate of Saxony received a sum of six million guilders (florins) from Bavaria in exchange of its inheritance claims. With the accession of Elector Charles Theodore, the electorates of Bavaria and the County Palatine of the Rhine (Electoral Palatinate) (i.e. the territories in the Rhenish Palatinate (Palatinate (region)) and the Upper Palatinate) were under the united rule of the House of Wittelsbach. Their electoral votes were combined into one per a provision in the earlier Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, thereby reducing the number of electorates in the Holy Roman Empire to eight. The Innviertel, except for a short time during the Napoleonic Wars, remained with Upper Austria up to today.

powerful great

Prague, at that time under dominance of the powerful Great Moravian Empire (which reached its greatest territorial extent during the reign of Svatopluk I from the House of Mojmír). After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power was transferred from Moravia to Bohemia, under the Přemyslids (House of Přemysl). During the rule of Přemyslid dukes kings and their successors, the Luxembourgs (House of Luxembourg), the country reached its greatest territorial extent (13th–14th

bright quot

. Maier, Bernhard. ''Dictionary of Celtic Religion and Culture'', p. 272. Boydell & Brewer, 1997. An alternate etymology takes it from a proposed Proto-Indo-European (PIE) root meaning "dazzling" or "bright" Pokorny, Julius. ''Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch'', p. 118. 1959. ISBN 3-7720-0947-6. The unification of the various territories of Austria outside of the March of Austria proper (i.e

white red

Rudolph of Habsburg and the 1283 Treaty of Rheinfelden, the combination of red-white-red was widely considered to be the Austrian (Archduchy of Austria) (later also Inner Austrian) colours used by the ruling Habsburg dynasty. However, the ''national flag'' (in a modern sense) of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy, like the later Austrian Empire and the Cisleithanian part of Austria-Hungary until 1918, was black-yellow. These were the family colours of the Imperial House

Ferdinand II after only a few months, making it the shortest (and often ignored) reign in Austrian history. In 1879, with Montenegro's formal recognition of independence, the Montenegrin navy was founded and a merchant flag created. It was a Red-White-Red Dalmatian tricolor, due to the fact that Montenegro was bound by the Congress of Berlin to obey Austria (Archduchy of Austria)n laws, but with the Cross in the upper left angle. It was subsequently redesigned in 1880 to signify

made international

) mistress , Baroness Mary Vetsera, at his Mayerling (The Mayerling Incident) hunting lodge in 1889 made international headlines, fueled international conspiracy (Conspiracy theory) rumours and ultimately may have sealed the long-term fate of the Habsburg monarchy. * '''Austria''' ** Archduchy of Austria: Francis II (Francis I of Austria) (1792–1835) ** Austrian Empire: Francis I (Francis I of Austria) (1804–1835) At Napoléon's

founder quot

of the Occident. It had been on display above his grave in the Stephansdom of Vienna for several decades after his death, but can now be seen in the Museum of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna. Apart from the (invented) archdukal crown, the foreshortening of which the artist did not completely master, the portrait is completely realistic. Even the duke's incipient facioplegia (Facial nerve paralysis) is shown. '''Rudolf IV''' ''der Stifter'' ("the Founder") (November

population made

was ''Landvogt'' of the Habsburg dukes at Grüningen Castle in Zürich (Canton of Zürich). His stern measures against the peasant population made the name ''Gessler'' an epitome of tyranny. death_date death_place Fahrafeld, Vienna, Archduchy of Austria, Austria-Hungary resting_place Mirogoj, Zagreb, Croatia File:Wappen Kreis Herzogtum Lauenburg.svg thumb right Saxe-Lauenburg's coat of arms after

Archduchy of Austria

The '''Archduchy of Austria''' ( ), one of the most important states within the Holy Roman Empire, was the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy and the predecessor of the Austrian Empire. Over nearly 700 years, it evolved from a margravate (margrave) to the centre of an empire (Austrian Empire).

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