Anjou

What is Anjou known for?


modern concept

and Aquitaine, the extent of Henry's power in the provinces diminished considerably, scarcely resembling the modern concept of an empire at all. Some of the traditional ties between parts of the empire such as Normandy and England were slowly dissolving over time. Barlow, p.284. It was unclear what would happen to the empire on Henry's death. Although the custom of primogeniture, under which an eldest son would inherit all his father's lands, was slowly becoming more widespread across Europe, it was less popular amongst the Norman kings of England. Barlow, p.305. Most believed that Henry would divide the empire, giving each son a substantial portion, and hoping that his children would continue to work together as allies after his death. Warren, p.27. To complicate matters, much of the Angevin empire was held by Henry only as a vassal of the King of France of the rival line of the House of Capet. Henry had often allied himself with the Holy Roman Emperor against France, making the feudal relationship even more challenging. Barlow, p.281. right thumb 160px Templar chapel from the 12th C. in Metz (File:Chapelletemplier.jpg), France. Once part of the Templar commandery of Metz, the oldest Templar institution of the Holy Roman Empire. The Templars were organized as a monastic order (monasticism) similar to Bernard's Cistercian (Cistercians) Order, which was considered the first effective international organization in Europe. Burman (#Burman), p. 28. The organizational structure had a strong chain of authority. Each country with a major Templar presence (France, England (Knights Templar in England), Aragon (Crown of Aragon), Portugal (Order of Christ (Portugal)), Poitou, Apulia, Jerusalem, Tripoli, Antioch, Anjou, Hungary, and Croatia) Barber, ''Trial'', 1978, p. 10. had a Master of the Order for the Templars in that region. All of them were subject to the Grand Master (Grand Masters of the Knights Templar), appointed for life, who oversaw both the Order's military efforts in the East and their financial holdings in the West. In 794, Charlemagne settled four former Gallo-Roman villas on Louis, in the thought that he would take in each in turn as winter residence: Doué-la-Fontaine in today's Anjou, Ebreuil in Allier, Angeac-Charente, and the disputed Cassinogilum. Charlemagne's intention was to see all his sons brought up as natives of their given territories, wearing the national costume of the region and ruling by the local customs. Thus were the children sent to their respective realms at so young an age. Each kingdom had its importance in keeping some frontier, Louis's was the Spanish March. In 797, Barcelona, the greatest city of the ''Marca'', fell to the Franks when Zeid, its governor, rebelled against Córdoba (Córdoba (Spain)) and, failing, handed it to them. The Umayyad authority recaptured it in 799. However, Louis marched the entire army of his kingdom, including Gascons with their duke Sancho I of Gascony, Provençals (Provence) under Leibulf (Leibulf of Provence), and Goths (Visigoths) under Bera (Bera, Count of Barcelona), over the Pyrenees and besieged it for two years, wintering there from 800 to 801, when it capitulated. The sons were not given independence from central authority, however, and Charlemagne ingrained in them the concepts of empire and unity by sending them on military expeditions far from their home bases. Louis campaigned in the Italian Mezzogiorno against the Beneventans (Duchy of Benevento) at least once. His younger brother Charles I of Sicily (1227–85) was created count of Anjou, thus founding the second Angevin (Capetian House of Anjou) dynasty. As the principal city of Maine (Maine (province of France)), Le Mans was the stage for struggles in the eleventh century between the counts of Anjou and the dukes of Normandy. When the Normans had control of Maine, William the Conqueror was able to invade England successfully; however in 1069 the citizens revolted and expelled the Normans, which led to Hugh (Hugh V of Maine) being proclaimed count of Maine (List of Counts and Dukes of Maine). Geoffrey V of Anjou married Mathilde in the cathedral, where Henry II Plantagenet, king of England (Henry II of England), was baptized. Queen consort of Sicily Joan was born at Château d'Angers in Anjou, and spent her youth at her mother's courts at Winchester and Poitiers. In 1176, William II of Sicily sent ambassadors to the English court to ask for Joan's hand in marriage. The betrothal was confirmed on 20 May and on 27 August Joan set sail for Sicily, escorted by John of Oxford, the bishop of Norwich and her uncle, Hamelin de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. In Saint Gilles (Saint-Gilles, Gard), her entourage was met by representatives of the Kingdom of Sicily: Alfano, Archbishop of Capua, and Richard Palmer, Bishop of Syracuse. thumb left William's Death Bed (File:Vilem2Sicilie smrt.jpg)


art de

below. Works The ''Art de vérifier les dates'' contains a history of Anjou which is very much out of date, but has not been treated elsewhere as a whole. The 11th century only has been treated in detail by Louis Halphen, in ''Le Comté d'Anjou au XI e siècle'' (Paris, 1906), which has a preface with bibliography and an introduction dealing with the history of Anjou in the 10th century. For the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, a good summary will be found in Kate


century legal

, ''The Making of English Law'', pp. 4–26, especially pp. 7–8 and 17–18. Since Brunner's thesis, the origin of the English jury has been much disputed. Throughout the twentieth century, legal historians disagreed about whether the practice was English in origin, or was introduced, directly or indirectly, from either Scandinavia or Francia. Recently, the legal historians Patrick Wormald and Michael Macnair have reasserted arguments in favour


independent military

Queen consort of Sicily Joan was born at Château d'Angers in Anjou, and spent her youth at her mother's courts at Winchester and Poitiers. In 1176, William II of Sicily sent ambassadors to the English court to ask for Joan's hand in marriage. The betrothal was confirmed on 20 May and on 27 August Joan set sail for Sicily, escorted by John of Oxford, the bishop of Norwich and her uncle, Hamelin de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. In Saint Gilles (Saint-Gilles, Gard), her entourage was met by representatives of the Kingdom of Sicily: Alfano, Archbishop of Capua, and Richard Palmer, Bishop of Syracuse. thumb left William's Death Bed (File:Vilem2Sicilie smrt.jpg)


life time

Queen consort of Sicily Joan was born at Château d'Angers in Anjou, and spent her youth at her mother's courts at Winchester and Poitiers. In 1176, William II of Sicily sent ambassadors to the English court to ask for Joan's hand in marriage. The betrothal was confirmed on 20 May and on 27 August Joan set sail for Sicily, escorted by John of Oxford, the bishop of Norwich and her uncle, Hamelin de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. In Saint Gilles (Saint-Gilles, Gard), her entourage was met by representatives of the Kingdom of Sicily: Alfano, Archbishop of Capua, and Richard Palmer, Bishop of Syracuse. thumb left William's Death Bed (File:Vilem2Sicilie smrt.jpg)


singing+dance

mother for the next thirteen years until he was released from imprisonment. The West of France comprises the Pays de Nantes, the provinces of Vendée, Anjou and Maine, and the Poitou-Charentes region. Traditions of ballad-singing, dance-songs and fiddle-playing have survived, predominantly in Poitou and the Vendée. Jérôme Bujeaud collected extensively in the area, and his 2-volume work "Chants et chansons populaires des provinces de l'ouest: Poitou, Saintonge, Aunis et Angoumois" (Niort, 1866) remains the principal scholarly collection of music and songs. In recent decades John Wright and Claude Ribouillault (amongst others) have done much to collect, analyse and promote the surviving traditions. On his side, the King of England gave up the duchy of Touraine, the countships of Anjou and Maine (Maine (province of France)), and the suzerainty of Brittany and of Flanders. He also renounced all claims to the French throne. The terms of Brétigny were meant to disentangle the feudal responsibilities that had caused so much conflict, and as far as the English were concerned, would concentrate English territories in an expanded version of Aquitaine. While very little is known about the beginnings of the Robertian family, historians have been able to adduce that the family of nobles had its origins in Hesbaye or perhaps from the family of Chrodegang of Metz. During the reign of Louis the German, the Robertian family moved from East Francia to West Francia. After his arrival in West Francia, Charles the Bald showed his favour of the family defecting from his enemy Louis by assigning Robert to the lay abbacy of Marmoutier in 852. In 853 the position of ''missus dominicus'' in the provinces of Maine, Anjou, and Touraine was given him and he had ''de facto'' control of the ancient ''ducatus Cenomannicus'', a vast duchy centred on Le Mans and corresponding to the ''regnum Neustriae (Neustria)''. Robert's rise came at the expense of the established family of the Rorigonids and was designed to curb their regional power and to defend Neustria from Viking and Breton (Breton people) raids. During his long reign Henry I of England would face several eruptions of hostilities due to the alliances of rival regions with some of his neighbours. In order to secure the loyalty of Anjou, a long-time rival of Normandy, Henry betrothed William to Matilda of Anjou, eldest daughter of Count Fulk V of Anjou (Fulk of Jerusalem) in February 1113 near Alençon. The marriage finally took place June 1119 in Lisieux. When Richard I died in 1199, Phillip II agreed to recognize Arthur as count of Anjou, Maine (Maine (province of France)), and Poitou, in exchange for Arthur swearing fealty to Phillip II, becoming a direct vassal of France. However 13-year-old Arthur was captured by the English while besieging Mirebeau. By 1202 the imprisoned Arthur of Brittany was transferred to Rouen, under the charge of William de Braose (William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber), and then vanished mysteriously in April 1203. Scandal surrounding Arthur's disappearance led many to believe that he was murdered on John of England's orders. 125px left thumb Coat of Arms of Peter I, Duke of Brittany and his successors. (Image:Blason Pierre Ier de Bretagne.svg)However, in 1212 King Philip II of France needed to find a weak and faithful ruler for Brittany. The duchy lay athwart the sea lanes between England and the English territories in Gascony. Furthermore it bordered on Anjou and Normandy, which the English had lost ten or twelve years before and were eager to recover. It was being ruled with less than a strong hand by Guy of Thouars, as regent for his young daughter Alix (Alix of Thouars). Also worrisome was that Alix's older half-sister Eleanor, Fair Maid of Brittany was in an English prison. Location Bordering the county of Anjou in the south and the Duchy of Normandy in the north, Maine was a small matter of contention between the rulers of these more powerful principalities. Queen consort of Sicily Joan was born at Château d'Angers in Anjou, and spent her youth at her mother's courts at Winchester and Poitiers. In 1176, William II of Sicily sent ambassadors to the English court to ask for Joan's hand in marriage. The betrothal was confirmed on 20 May and on 27 August Joan set sail for Sicily, escorted by John of Oxford, the bishop of Norwich and her uncle, Hamelin de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. In Saint Gilles (Saint-Gilles, Gard), her entourage was met by representatives of the Kingdom of Sicily: Alfano, Archbishop of Capua, and Richard Palmer, Bishop of Syracuse. thumb left William's Death Bed (File:Vilem2Sicilie smrt.jpg)


historical influence

taken to suggest that the clade may have a very long history in that island. It is notable, however, that the distributions of Haplogroup I-M253 and Haplogroup I-M436 seem to correlate fairly well with the extent of historical influence of Germanic peoples, although the punctual presence of both haplogroups at a low frequency in the area of the historical regions of Bithynia and Galatia in Turkey rather suggests a connection with the ancient Gauls of Thrace, several


good education

Queen consort of Sicily Joan was born at Château d'Angers in Anjou, and spent her youth at her mother's courts at Winchester and Poitiers. In 1176, William II of Sicily sent ambassadors to the English court to ask for Joan's hand in marriage. The betrothal was confirmed on 20 May and on 27 August Joan set sail for Sicily, escorted by John of Oxford, the bishop of Norwich and her uncle, Hamelin de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. In Saint Gilles (Saint-Gilles, Gard), her entourage was met by representatives of the Kingdom of Sicily: Alfano, Archbishop of Capua, and Richard Palmer, Bishop of Syracuse. thumb left William's Death Bed (File:Vilem2Sicilie smrt.jpg)


life book

- Limoges (1200-1210). 250px Background and early life Book I opens with the death of King Gandin, Parzival's grandfather. His oldest son, Galoes, receives the kingdom but offers his brother Gahmuret the land of Anjou in fief. However, Gahmuret departs to gain renown. He travels to the African kingdom of Zazamanc, whose capital is besieged by two different armies. Gahmuret offers his services to the city, and his offer is accepted by Queen Belacane. He conquers


century showing

, the Low Countries and Denmark in the 12th and 13th centuries. By the end of the 13th century, the design was largely superseded by alternative forms of fortification, but the earthworks remain a prominent feature in many countries. thumb 400px A reconstruction of the English city of York (File:RidsdalePanorma.jpg) in the 15th century, showing the motte and bailey fortifications of Old Baile (Baile Hill, York) (left) and York Castle (right) File:France.1223.png thumb left France

of Aquitaine but only as a vassal to Louis. thumb 325px A reconstruction of York Castle (File:York Castle diorama.JPG) in the 14th century, showing the castle's stone keep (top) overlooking the castle bailey (motte and bailey) (below) A '''keep''' (from the Middle English ''kype'') is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars have debated the scope of the word ''keep'', but usually consider it to refer to large

Anjou

'''Anjou''' ( ) is a former county (in the sense of being ruled by a count, from c. 880), duchy (1360) and province (Provinces of France) centred on the city of Angers in the lower Loire Valley of western France. Its traditional Latin name was ''Andegavia''.

Count Henry "Curtmantle" of Anjou, inherited the kingdom of England on October 25, 1154, becoming in addition king Henry II of England (Henry II of England). The resulting Angevin Empire would, at its peak, spread from Ulster to the Pyrenees. Henry's son, Richard (Richard I of England), had no legitimate issue upon his death, so in 1199 Anjou passed to his nephew, Arthur of Brittany (the posthumous son of Henry II’s fourth son, Geoffrey), while the Crown of England passed to Henry II’s fifth son and Richard’s youngest brother, John (King John of England). Count Arthur was taken prisoner by his uncle John in 1203, and disappeared under suspicious circumstances. In 1205, the county was seized by king Philip II Augustus of France (Philip_II_of_France). Its status was elevated to that of a duchy for Prince Louis, the second son of John II of France, and remained as such until the Revolution. Today, Anjou corresponds largely to the present-day ''département'' of Maine-et-Loire.

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