Alta California

What is Alta California known for?


important development

;República Centralista (México)" in the Spanish version of Wikipedia The change, however, had little practical effect in far-off Alta California. The capital of Alta California Territory remained Monterey (Monterey, California), as it had been since the 1769 Portola expedition first established an Alta California government, and the local political structures were unchanged. The 1824 constitution was restored in 1846. A more important development was increasing


abundant quot

, and gold abundant''." Ascensión was convinced that California's potential wealth and strategic location merited colonization, and in 1620 recommended in a letter to Madrid (Madrid, Spain) that missions be established in the region, a venture that would involve military as well as religious personnel. However, it was not until 1741—the time of the Vitus Bering expedition, when the territorial ambitions of Tsarist Russia (Imperial Russia) towards North America became known—that King Philip V (Philip V of Spain) felt such installations were necessary in Upper California. Morrison, p. 214: During his voyage of exploration along the Pacific Coast of North America in 1579, Sir Francis Drake (Francis Drake) claimed the region (which he dubbed ''Nova Albion'', Latin for "New Britain") in the name of England, a full generation before the first landing in Jamestown, Virginia. To preserve an uneasy peace with Spain, and to avoid having Spain threaten England's claims in the New World, both the discovery of and claim on New Albion was ordered by Queen Elizabeth I (Elizabeth I of England) to be treated as a state secret. Chapman, p. 216: "''It is usually stated that the Spanish court at Madrid received reports about Russian aggressions in the Pacific northwest, and sent orders to meet them by the occupation of Alta California, wherefore the expeditions of 1769 were made. This view contains only a smattering of the truth. It is evident from José de Gálvez José de Gálvez's correspondence of 1768 that he and Carlos Francisco de Croix, marqués de Croix Carlos Francisco de Croix had discussed the advisability of an immediate expedition to Monterey, long before any word came from Spain about the Russian activities''." Bennett 1897a, pp. 11-12: California had been visited a number of times since Cabrillo's (Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo) discovery in 1542, which initially included notable expeditions led by Englishmen Francis Drake in 1579 and Thomas Cavendish 1587, and later on by Woodes Rogers (1710), George Shelvocke (1719), James Cook (1778), and finally George Vancouver in 1792. Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno made landfall in San Diego Bay in 1602, and the famed ''conquistador'' Hernán Cortés explored the California Gulf Coast (Gulf of California) in 1735. '''Mission San Antonio de Padua''' is a Spanish mission (Spanish missions in California) established by the Franciscan order in present-day Monterey County (Monterey County, California), California, near the present-day town of Jolon (Jolon, California). It was founded on July 14, 1771 and was the third mission founded in Alta California by Father Presidente Junípero Serra. The mission was also the site of the first Christian marriage and the first use of fired-tile roofing in Upper California. Ruscin, p. 196 Today the mission is a parish church of the Diocese of Monterey (Roman Catholic Diocese of Monterey). In 1845, Mexican (Mexico) Governor Pío Pico declared all mission buildings in Alta California for sale, but no one bid for Mission San Antonio. After nearly 30 years, the Mission was returned to the Catholic Church. In 1894, roof tiles were salvaged from the property and installed on the Southern Pacific Railroad depot located in Burlingame, California, one of the first permanent structures constructed in the Mission Revival Style (Mission Revival Style architecture). Spanish 18th Alta (Alta California) and Baja California - '''Mission San Francisco de Asís''', or '''Mission Dolores''', is the oldest surviving structure in San Francisco and the sixth religious settlement established as part of the California chain of missions (Spanish missions in California). The Mission (Mission (Christian)) was founded on June 29, 1776, by Lieutenant José Joaquin Moraga and Father Francisco Palóu (Francisco Palóu) (a companion of Father Junipero Serra (Junípero Serra)), both members of the de Anza Expedition, which had been charged with bringing Spanish (Spanish people) settlers to Alta (upper) California (Alta California), and evangelizing (evangelism) the local Natives (Indigenous peoples of the Americas), the Ohlone. '''Mission San Juan Capistrano''' was a Spanish mission (Spanish missions in California) in Southern California, located in present-day San Juan Capistrano (San Juan Capistrano, California). It was founded on All Saints Day (All Saints) November 1, 1776, by Spanish (Spain) Catholics (Roman Catholic) of the Franciscan Order. Named for Giovanni da Capistrano, a 15th century theologian (Theology) and "warrior priest" who resided in the Abruzzo region of Italy, San Juan Capistrano has the distinction of being home to the oldest building in California still in use, a chapel built in 1782; known alternately as "Serra's Chapel" and "Father Serra's Church," it is the only extant structure where it has been documented that the ''padre'' Junipero Serra celebrated mass. One of the best known of the Alta California missions (and one of the few missions to have actually been founded twice—others being Mission San Gabriel Arcángel and Mission La Purísima Concepción)—the site was originally consecrated on October 30, 1775, by Father Fermín Lasuén, but was quickly abandoned due to unrest among the indigenous population in San Diego. At the proposed site, located approximately 26 ''leguas'' (Spanish Leagues (League (unit)#Spain)) north of San Diego, 18 leagues south of San Gabriel (San Gabriel, California), and half a league from the Pacific Ocean, an ''enramada'' (arbor (Pergola)) was constructed, two bronze bells were hung from the branch of a nearby tree, and a wooden cross (Christian cross) was erected. The grounds were consecrated by Father Fermín Lasuén of Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo on October 30, 1775 (the last day of the octave after the feast of San Juan Capistrano), near an Indian (Native Americans in the United States) settlement named ''Sajavit''; thus, '''''La Misión de San Juan Capistrano de Sajavit''''' was founded. Assisting clergy Father Gregório Amúrrio of Mission San Luis Obispo (Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa) arrived from San Gabriel eight days later with a supply of goods and cattle. Unfortunately, word arrived from San Diego at the same time that a group of natives attacked the mission and brutally murdered one of the missionaries (Father Luís Jayme). Wright, p. 37; Yenne, p. 72 Since it was feared at the time that any hostile action by the natives against the few burgeoning outposts might break Spain's tenuous hold on Alta California, the fathers quickly buried the San Juan Capistrano Mission bells. Lieutenant José Francisco Ortega, military leader of the expedition, led all but a small contingent of Spanish soldiers back to El Presidio de San Diego (Presidio of San Diego) to help quell the uprising; the priests, along with the few remaining soldiers as an escort, gathered up their belongings and fled to the safety of the Presido, where they were given further details of the disaster. Engelhardt 1901, p. 6 In 1840, Alta California and Baja California were removed from the Diocese of Sonora (Roman Catholic Diocese of Sonora) to form the Diocese of Both Californias (Roman Catholic Diocese of Both Californias). Bishop Francisco Garcia Diego y Moreno, OFM, established his cathedra at Mission Santa Barbara, making the chapel the pro-cathedral of the diocese until 1849. Under Bishop Thaddeus Amat y Brusi, C.M., the chapel again served as a pro-cathedral, for the Diocese of Monterey (Roman Catholic Diocese of Monterey in California) and then the Diocese of Monterey-Los Angeles (Roman Catholic Diocese of Monterey-Los Angeles), from 1853 to 1876. It is for this reason that of all the California missions, only the chapel at Mission Santa Barbara has two matching bell towers. At that time, that particular architectural feature was restricted to a cathedral church. '''Thomas Oliver Larkin''' (September 16, 1802 - October 27, 1858) was an early American emigrant to Alta California and a signer of the original California Constitution. He was the United States' first and only consul to the California Republic. Washington (Washington, D.C.), and in 1843 President Tyler (John Tyler) appointed Larkin as the first (and last) American consul to Alta California. The following year, he thwarted a British attempt to acquire California while he was assisting the Mexican (Mexico) government in building a smallpox hospital in Monterey. The peak year for television westerns was 1959, with 26 such shows airing during prime-time. In one week in March 1959, eight of the top ten shows were westerns. Increasing costs of production (a horse cost up to $100 a day) led to most action half hour series vanishing in the early 1960s to be replaced by hour long television shows, increasingly in color. Kisseloff, J. (editor) ''The Box An Oral History of Television'' Two unusual westerns series of this era are ''Zorro (Zorro (1957 TV series))'', set in early California (Alta California) under Spanish rule, and the British Australian western ''Whiplash (Whiplash (TV series))'' set in 1850 60's Australia with four scripts by Gene Roddenberry. Plot synopsis The story follows the story of Californio Don Diego Vega—Zorro in the company of his deaf and mute servant Bernardo and his lover Lolita Pulido, as they rival the antagonists Captain Ramon and Sgt. Gonzales in Alta California, the Mexican era (1823–1846) pre-U.S. state of California. It is set amongst the historic Missions (Spanish Missions in California), pueblos (towns) such as San Juan Capistrano (San Juan Capistrano, California), Spanish ranchos (Ranchos of California), and the rural California countryside. A later expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships. This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island (Santa Catalina Island, California) was named. The explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 A later expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships. This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island (Santa Catalina Island, California) was named. The explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 As viceroy of New Spain He made his formal entry into Mexico City on October 26, 1603, accompanied by his wife Ana de Mendoza, and assumed the reins of government. He immediately accused his predecessor, Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo, Count of Monterrey of excessive spending and of exceeding his authority. Plans to colonize Alta California in the wake of Sebastián Vizcaíno's exploration were cancelled. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 ; ''Asia Minor'' : The name ''Asia'' was first applied to the mainland east of the Aegean islands, and later extended to the greater landmass (Asia) of which that is a peninsula. ; ''Baja California'' : The name ''California'' was first applied to the peninsula (Baja California peninsula) (thought to be an island) now known as Baja ("Lower"), and later extended – and then restricted – to Alta ("Upper") California (Alta California), and finally to the current U.S. state (California). ; ''East Indies'' : After Columbus (Christopher Columbus) landed in the West Indies.


large agricultural

for the rebuilding of the small Mission chapel. There were always soldiers and settlers in the town of Sonoma during the Mexican period. The Franciscan Fathers grew grapes and produced sacramental wine from the first vineyard in the Sonoma Valley, which was first planted in 1825. By 1834, Vallejo had the Rancho Petaluma Adobe built a few miles to the west, which became a large agricultural operation to support the Spanish military here. '''Thomas Oliver Larkin''' (September 16, 1802 - October 27, 1858) was an early American emigrant to Alta California and a signer of the original California Constitution. He was the United States' first and only consul to the California Republic. Washington (Washington, D.C.), and in 1843 President Tyler (John Tyler) appointed Larkin as the first (and last) American consul to Alta California. The following year, he thwarted a British attempt to acquire California while he was assisting the Mexican (Mexico) government in building a smallpox hospital in Monterey. The peak year for television westerns was 1959, with 26 such shows airing during prime-time. In one week in March 1959, eight of the top ten shows were westerns. Increasing costs of production (a horse cost up to $100 a day) led to most action half hour series vanishing in the early 1960s to be replaced by hour long television shows, increasingly in color. Kisseloff, J. (editor) ''The Box An Oral History of Television'' Two unusual westerns series of this era are ''Zorro (Zorro (1957 TV series))'', set in early California (Alta California) under Spanish rule, and the British Australian western ''Whiplash (Whiplash (TV series))'' set in 1850 60's Australia with four scripts by Gene Roddenberry. Plot synopsis The story follows the story of Californio Don Diego Vega—Zorro in the company of his deaf and mute servant Bernardo and his lover Lolita Pulido, as they rival the antagonists Captain Ramon and Sgt. Gonzales in Alta California, the Mexican era (1823–1846) pre-U.S. state of California. It is set amongst the historic Missions (Spanish Missions in California), pueblos (towns) such as San Juan Capistrano (San Juan Capistrano, California), Spanish ranchos (Ranchos of California), and the rural California countryside. A later expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships. This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island (Santa Catalina Island, California) was named. The explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 A later expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships. This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island (Santa Catalina Island, California) was named. The explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 As viceroy of New Spain He made his formal entry into Mexico City on October 26, 1603, accompanied by his wife Ana de Mendoza, and assumed the reins of government. He immediately accused his predecessor, Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo, Count of Monterrey of excessive spending and of exceeding his authority. Plans to colonize Alta California in the wake of Sebastián Vizcaíno's exploration were cancelled. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 ; ''Asia Minor'' : The name ''Asia'' was first applied to the mainland east of the Aegean islands, and later extended to the greater landmass (Asia) of which that is a peninsula. ; ''Baja California'' : The name ''California'' was first applied to the peninsula (Baja California peninsula) (thought to be an island) now known as Baja ("Lower"), and later extended – and then restricted – to Alta ("Upper") California (Alta California), and finally to the current U.S. state (California). ; ''East Indies'' : After Columbus (Christopher Columbus) landed in the West Indies.


beebe

would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents. The Franciscans, however, prolonged their control over the missions and ran them for more than sixty years. The transfer of property never occurred. Beebe, 2001, page 71 Fink, 1972, pages 63–64. File:Dobson'sMap.jpeg thumb 400px Map of N. America showing California when it was part of New Spain

Camino Real * Presidio of Monterey, California * Presidio of San Francisco References *Beebe, Rose Marie (2001). ''Lands of Promise and Despair: Chronicles of Early California, 1535–1846''. Berkeley: Heyday Books. ISBN 1-890771-48-1


style architectural

. The '''Spanish Colonial Revival Style''' was a United States architectural stylistic movement (Architectural style) that came about in the early 20th century, starting in California and Florida as a regional expression related to history, environment, and nostalgia. The Spanish Colonial Revival Style was also influenced by the opening of the Panama Canal and the overwhelming success of the novel ''Ramona'' set in Alta California. Based on the Spanish Colonial


quot causing

which stated that the Mission Indians owned both the land and cattle and represented the Ohlone (Ohlone people) against the Spanish settlers in nearby San José. Milliken, 1995, page 72–73 The priests reported that Indians' crops were being damaged by the pueblo settlers' livestock and that the settlers' livestock was also "getting mixed up with the livestock belonging to the Indians from the mission" causing losses. They advocated that the Natives owned property and had the right to defend it. Milliken, 1995, page 73, quoting Murguia and Pena 1782 1955:400. Due to the growth of the Hispanic population in the Alta California by 1804, the Province of Las Californias (The Californias), then a part of the Commandancy General of the Internal Provinces (Provincias Internas), was divided into two separate territorial administrations following Palóu's division between the Dominican and Franciscan missions. Governor Diego de Borica is credited with defining Alta California and Baja California (Baja California#History)'s official borders. '''Thomas Oliver Larkin''' (September 16, 1802 - October 27, 1858) was an early American emigrant to Alta California and a signer of the original California Constitution. He was the United States' first and only consul to the California Republic. Washington (Washington, D.C.), and in 1843 President Tyler (John Tyler) appointed Larkin as the first (and last) American consul to Alta California. The following year, he thwarted a British attempt to acquire California while he was assisting the Mexican (Mexico) government in building a smallpox hospital in Monterey. The peak year for television westerns was 1959, with 26 such shows airing during prime-time. In one week in March 1959, eight of the top ten shows were westerns. Increasing costs of production (a horse cost up to $100 a day) led to most action half hour series vanishing in the early 1960s to be replaced by hour long television shows, increasingly in color. Kisseloff, J. (editor) ''The Box An Oral History of Television'' Two unusual westerns series of this era are ''Zorro (Zorro (1957 TV series))'', set in early California (Alta California) under Spanish rule, and the British Australian western ''Whiplash (Whiplash (TV series))'' set in 1850 60's Australia with four scripts by Gene Roddenberry. Plot synopsis The story follows the story of Californio Don Diego Vega—Zorro in the company of his deaf and mute servant Bernardo and his lover Lolita Pulido, as they rival the antagonists Captain Ramon and Sgt. Gonzales in Alta California, the Mexican era (1823–1846) pre-U.S. state of California. It is set amongst the historic Missions (Spanish Missions in California), pueblos (towns) such as San Juan Capistrano (San Juan Capistrano, California), Spanish ranchos (Ranchos of California), and the rural California countryside. A later expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships. This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island (Santa Catalina Island, California) was named. The explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 A later expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships. This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island (Santa Catalina Island, California) was named. The explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 As viceroy of New Spain He made his formal entry into Mexico City on October 26, 1603, accompanied by his wife Ana de Mendoza, and assumed the reins of government. He immediately accused his predecessor, Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo, Count of Monterrey of excessive spending and of exceeding his authority. Plans to colonize Alta California in the wake of Sebastián Vizcaíno's exploration were cancelled. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 ; ''Asia Minor'' : The name ''Asia'' was first applied to the mainland east of the Aegean islands, and later extended to the greater landmass (Asia) of which that is a peninsula. ; ''Baja California'' : The name ''California'' was first applied to the peninsula (Baja California peninsula) (thought to be an island) now known as Baja ("Lower"), and later extended – and then restricted – to Alta ("Upper") California (Alta California), and finally to the current U.S. state (California). ; ''East Indies'' : After Columbus (Christopher Columbus) landed in the West Indies.


classic book

for their hides, tallow and horns. The cattle and horses that provided the hides, tallow and horns essentially grew wild. The Californios' hides, tallow and horns provided the necessary trade articles for a mutually beneficial trade. The first United States, English and Russian trading ships began showing up in California before 1816. The classic book ''Two Years Before the Mast'' by Richard Henry Dana, Jr. written about 1832 provides a good first hand account of this trade., ref name "


long television

(a horse cost up to $100 a day) led to most action half hour series vanishing in the early 1960s to be replaced by hour long television shows, increasingly in color. Kisseloff, J. (editor) ''The Box An Oral History of Television'' Two unusual westerns series of this era are ''Zorro (Zorro (1957 TV series))'', set in early California (Alta California) under Spanish rule, and the British Australian western '' Whiplash (TV series


featured paintings

and village for the Native American residents. Father Peyrí oversaw the addition of a chapel and housing to the granary complex that was constructed at the spot in 1810. Carillo, p. 7 The chapel has interior wall surfaces featured paintings by native artists, originally measured 144 by 27 feet. Workers went into the Palomar Mountains (Palomar Mountain Range) and cut down cedar (Incense Cedar) trees for use as roof beams. Carillo, p. 8


small gold

the famous Juan Bautista de Anza Las Californias Expediton from "mainland New Spain to the "new to them" Alta California. They passed through the range en-route to the Needles area and onwards inland, traveling in peace with the local indigenous people west of the river. In the early 1900s Wyatt Earp spent his last winters here working small gold and copper mining claims, starting around 1906. The nearby townsite of Earp, California on and near those claims

Alta California

'''Alta California''' ( ) was a province and territory (territory (country subdivision)) in the Viceroyalty of New Spain (New Spain) and later a territory and department (department (country subdivision)) in independent Mexico. The territory, created in 1804 out of the northern part of the former province of Las Californias (The Californias), an area now comprising the modern state of California and other states to the east. Neither Spain nor Mexico ever colonized much beyond the southern and central coastal area, so effective control never extended much beyond Sonoma (Sonoma, California) in the north or the California Coast Ranges in the west. Most of interior areas such as the Central Valley (Central Valley (California)) and the deserts of California remained in de facto possession of indigenous peoples (Indigenous peoples of California) until later in the Mexican era when more inland land grants (List of Ranchos of California) were made, and especially after 1841 when overland immigrants from the United States began to settle inland areas.

Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and San Gabriel mountains were claimed to be part of Alta California, but were never colonized. To the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona (Arizona#History). José Bandini, in a note to Governor Echeandía (José María de Echeandía) or to his son, Juan Bandini, a member of the Territorial Deputation (legislature), noted that Alta California was bounded "on the east, where the Government has not yet established the exact border line, by either the Colorado River or the great Sierra (Sierra Nevada (U.S.)) (''Sierra Nevada'')." ''A Description of California in 1828 by José Bandini'' (Berkeley, Friends of the Bancroft Library, 1951), 3. Reprinted in ''Mexican California'' (New York, Arno Press, 1976). ISBN 0-405-09538-4 Chapman explains that the term "Arizona" not used in period. Arizona south of the Gila River was referred to as the Pimería Alta. North of the Gila were the "Moqui (Hopi)," whose territory was considered separate from New Mexico. The term "the Californias," therefore, refers specifically to the Spanish-held coastal region from Baja California to an undefined north.

Alta California ceased to exist as an administrative division separate from Baja California in 1836, when the ''Siete Leyes'' constitutional reforms in Mexico re-established Las Californias as a unified department. The areas formerly comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848. Two years later, California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the later U.S. states of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado and Wyoming.

Search by keywords:


Copyright (C) 2015-2017 PlacesKnownFor.com
Last modified: Tue Oct 10 05:56:30 EDT 2017