Alta California

What is Alta California known for?


beebe

would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents. The Franciscans, however, prolonged their control over the missions and ran them for more than sixty years. The transfer of property never occurred. Beebe, 2001, page 71 Fink, 1972, pages 63–64. File:Dobson'sMap.jpeg thumb 400px Map of N. America showing California when it was part of New Spain

Camino Real * Presidio of Monterey, California * Presidio of San Francisco References *Beebe, Rose Marie (2001). ''Lands of Promise and Despair: Chronicles of Early California, 1535–1846''. Berkeley: Heyday Books. ISBN 1-890771-48-1


gold film

Junipero Serra, who, between 1749 and his death in 1784, founded missions (Spanish missions in California) in Alta California. The film was September 1955's ''Seven Cities of Gold (Seven Cities of Gold (film))'', with Richard Egan (Richard Egan (actor)), who had been ninth-billed as a vicious fighting machine and rapist of ingenue Debra Paget in the previous year's ''Demetrius and the Gladiators'' and was now receiving star build-up and first billing; Anthony Quinn was billed


successful book

California '' (or ''The Alta Californian''). Mark Twain's first widely successful book, ''The Innocents Abroad'', was an edited collection of letters written for this publication. * In the 1998 film, ''The Mask of Zorro'', fictional former Governor Don Rafael Montero plans to purchase the area from Mexico to set up an independent republic, roughly corresponding to historical Alta California. * The Carl Barks comic book ''Donald Duck in Old California!'' provided a glimpse


quot dark

and Colorado Rivers as the locale for forts or presidios preventing the French or the English from "occupying Monterey (Monterey, California) and invading the neighboring coasts of California which are at the mouth of the Carmel River." Plans for the Occupation of Upper California: A New Look at the "Dark Age" from 1602 to 1769, ''The Journal of San Diego History'', San Diego Historical Society Quarterly

Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 ref>

Marquis of Montesclaros , turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 As viceroy of New Spain He made his formal entry into Mexico City on October 26, 1603, accompanied by his wife Ana de Mendoza, and assumed


holding high

claim near Willamette Falls and surveying Oregon City, Oregon (which would become the first incorporated city west of the Rocky Mountains). He left in the spring of 1843 for Alta California, a sparsely populated province of Mexico. By the time he returned to the United States in 1844, he had decided to help to wrest California from Mexico and establish an independent Republic of California, with himself holding high office. Life Born in Connecticut, Belden


large agricultural

for the rebuilding of the small Mission chapel. There were always soldiers and settlers in the town of Sonoma during the Mexican period. The Franciscan Fathers grew grapes and produced sacramental wine from the first vineyard in the Sonoma Valley, which was first planted in 1825. By 1834, Vallejo had the Rancho Petaluma Adobe built a few miles to the west, which became a large agricultural operation to support the Spanish military here. '''Thomas Oliver Larkin''' (September 16, 1802 - October 27, 1858) was an early American emigrant to Alta California and a signer of the original California Constitution. He was the United States' first and only consul to the California Republic. Washington (Washington, D.C.), and in 1843 President Tyler (John Tyler) appointed Larkin as the first (and last) American consul to Alta California. The following year, he thwarted a British attempt to acquire California while he was assisting the Mexican (Mexico) government in building a smallpox hospital in Monterey. The peak year for television westerns was 1959, with 26 such shows airing during prime-time. In one week in March 1959, eight of the top ten shows were westerns. Increasing costs of production (a horse cost up to $100 a day) led to most action half hour series vanishing in the early 1960s to be replaced by hour long television shows, increasingly in color. Kisseloff, J. (editor) ''The Box An Oral History of Television'' Two unusual westerns series of this era are ''Zorro (Zorro (1957 TV series))'', set in early California (Alta California) under Spanish rule, and the British Australian western ''Whiplash (Whiplash (TV series))'' set in 1850 60's Australia with four scripts by Gene Roddenberry. Plot synopsis The story follows the story of Californio Don Diego Vega—Zorro in the company of his deaf and mute servant Bernardo and his lover Lolita Pulido, as they rival the antagonists Captain Ramon and Sgt. Gonzales in Alta California, the Mexican era (1823–1846) pre-U.S. state of California. It is set amongst the historic Missions (Spanish Missions in California), pueblos (towns) such as San Juan Capistrano (San Juan Capistrano, California), Spanish ranchos (Ranchos of California), and the rural California countryside. A later expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships. This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island (Santa Catalina Island, California) was named. The explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 A later expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships. This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island (Santa Catalina Island, California) was named. The explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 As viceroy of New Spain He made his formal entry into Mexico City on October 26, 1603, accompanied by his wife Ana de Mendoza, and assumed the reins of government. He immediately accused his predecessor, Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo, Count of Monterrey of excessive spending and of exceeding his authority. Plans to colonize Alta California in the wake of Sebastián Vizcaíno's exploration were cancelled. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 ; ''Asia Minor'' : The name ''Asia'' was first applied to the mainland east of the Aegean islands, and later extended to the greater landmass (Asia) of which that is a peninsula. ; ''Baja California'' : The name ''California'' was first applied to the peninsula (Baja California peninsula) (thought to be an island) now known as Baja ("Lower"), and later extended – and then restricted – to Alta ("Upper") California (Alta California), and finally to the current U.S. state (California). ; ''East Indies'' : After Columbus (Christopher Columbus) landed in the West Indies.


gold discovery

of Los Angeles, California. The mission was founded on September 8, 1797 near the site of the first gold discovery in Alta California, Ruscin, p. 196 and was the seventeenth of the Spanish missions established in present-day California. Named for Saint Ferdinand (Ferdinand III of Castile), the mission is the namesake of the nearby city of San Fernando (San Fernando, California) and the San Fernando Valley. The first Peruvian Pepper


strong+critical

. Buoyed by the strong critical reception and profitability of the film, Fox assigned much of the credit to the central performance by Michael Rennie. Convinced that it had a potential leading man under contract, the studio decided to produce a version of ''Les Miserables'' as a vehicle for him. The film, released on 14 August 1952, was directed by ''All Quiet on the Western Front (All Quiet on the Western Front (1930 film))'s'' Lewis Milestone, and Rennie's performance was respectfully, but not enthusiastically, received by the critics. Ultimately, ''Les Misérables'' turned in an extremely modest profit and put an end to any further attempts to promote the 43-year-old Rennie as a future star. He was, however, launched on a thriving career as a top supporting actor, as in ''Sailor of the King''. Based on the positive reaction to his two turns as the Apostle Peter, Fox assigned him another third-billed, top-tier role as a stalwart man of God, Franciscan friar Junipero Serra, who, between 1749 and his death in 1784, founded missions (Spanish missions in California) in Alta California. The film was September 1955's ''Seven Cities of Gold (Seven Cities of Gold (film))'', with Richard Egan (Richard Egan (actor)), who had been ninth-billed as a vicious fighting machine and rapist of ingenue Debra Paget in the previous year's ''Demetrius and the Gladiators'' and was now receiving star build-up and first billing; Anthony Quinn was billed second. Both actors played Spanish (Spanish Empire) expedition leaders on a quest that resulted in the 1769 founding of San Diego, California. left thumb The monument commemorating John D. Sloat. (Image:9500 Pics 181.jpg) In 1844 Sloat was appointed to command the Pacific Squadron, and in 1845, as tensions with Mexico grew, he was instructed to land in Alta California and claim it for the United States if war broke out. Receiving a report of fighting on the Texas border while off Mazatlán, he raced north (the British were reportedly interested in California too), engaged in a skirmish called the Battle of Monterey, raised the flag over the Customs House at Monterey (Monterey, California) on July 7, 1846, and issued a proclamation announcing that California was now part of the United States. He was a Military Governor of California for only seven days, before handing over the office to Robert F. Stockton. Settlement European settlement began in 1769 as part of an effort to populate California, although trade restrictions encouraged more smuggling than regular business. '''Rancho San Pedro''' is the site of the first Spanish (Spanish Empire) land grant in Alta California, New Spain. The land was granted in 1784 by King Carlos III to Juan Jose Dominguez, a retired Spanish soldier who came to California with the Gaspar de Portolà expedition. When New Spain won its independence from the Spanish Empire and Alta California became part of Mexico, the trade restrictions were lifted, and the town flourished. When Donald Duck and his three nephews regain consciousness, they find they are visitors of a local tribe of Native Americans (Native Americans in the United States). The tribe kindly offer to help the columbine foursome recover. The exhausted Ducks are offered a drink, and they fall sleep. When they wake again, they find themselves in Alta California, 1848. They quickly manage to befriend a local Spanish-speaking family of Californios, owners of a cattle ranch, together with the ranch workers. As visitors, Donald Duck and his nephews are privileged to observe the family's life and moreover, they attempt to help with the family problems. They visit San Francisco and acquire land cheaply, but soon are swindled out of them by American settlers. Afterwards, the Ducks become involved in the Gold Rush and as goldminers partner with a friend from the ranch. The Ducks do the digging, and their partner's fists and guns make sure that nobody swindles them out of their gold. The Spanish and later Mexican Alta California Ranchos (Ranchos of California) and early American pioneers used the readily available clay to make adobe bricks, and distant forests' tree trunks for beams sparingly. Locally made roof tiles were produced by the Mission Indians. As milled wood became more available in the mid-19th century the Monterey Colonial architecture style first developed in Monterey (Monterey, California) and then spread. The Leonis Adobe, Larkin House, and Rancho Petaluma Adobe are original examples. *1804: The Spanish colony of California was divided into Alta ("Upper") (Alta California) and Baja ("Lower") California (Baja California peninsula) at the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican (Dominican Order) missions in the south. :The colonial governors were: Californios were Spanish speaking residents of modern day California who were the original Hispanics (Mexicans (regardless of race) and local Hispanicized Indians) in the region (Alta California) before the United States acquired it as a territory. Relations between Californios and Anglo settlers were relatively good until military officer John C. Fremont arrived in Alta California with a force of 60 men on an exploratory expedition in 1846. Fremont made an agreement with Comandante Castro that he would only stay in the San Joaquin Valley for the winter, then move north to Oregon. However, Fremont remained in the Santa Clara Valley then headed towards Monterey. When Castro demanded that Fremont leave Alta California, Fremont rode to Gavilan Peak, raised a US flag and vowed to fight to the last man to defend it. After three days of tension, Fremont retreated to Oregon without a shot being fired. With relations between Californios and Anglos quickly souring, Fremont rode back into Alta California and encouraged a group of American settlers to seize a group of Castro's soldiers and their horses. Another group, seized the Presidio of Sonoma and captured Mariano Vallejo. William B. Ide was chosen Commander in Chief and on July 5, he proclaimed the creation of the Bear Flag Republic. On July 9, US forces reached Sonoma and lowered the Bear Flag Republic's flag then replaced it with a US flag. Californios organized an army to defend themselves from invading American forces after the Mexican army retreated from Alta California to defend other parts of the country. The Californios defeated an American force in Los Angeles on September 30, 1846, but were defeated after the Americans reinforced their forces in what is now southern California. The arrival of tens of thousands of people during the California Gold Rush meant the end of the Californio's ranching lifestyle. Many Anglo 49ers turned to farming and moved, often illegally, onto the land granted to Californios by the old Mexican government. American Experience The Gold Rush People & Events PBS thumb 300px right An 1833 map of the United States in the shape of an eagle (File:1833 Eagle Map of the U.S..JPG) The treaty was ratified by Spain in 1820, and by the United States in 1821 (during the time that Spain and Mexico were engaged in the prolonged Mexican War of Independence). Spain finally recognized the independence of Mexico with the Treaty of Córdoba signed on August 24, 1821. While Mexico was not initially a party to the treaty, in 1831 Mexico ratified the treaty. The Border: Adams-Onís Treaty, PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) However, by the mid-1830s, a controversy developed regarding the border with Texas, during which the United States demonstrated that the Sabine and Neches (Neches River) rivers had been switched on maps, moving the frontier in favor of Mexico. As a consequence, the eastern boundary of Texas was not firmly established until the independence of the Republic of Texas in 1836, and not agreed upon until the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 which concluded the Mexican-American War. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo also formalized the cession by Mexico of Alta California and today's American Southwest except for the territory of the Gadsden Purchase. Brooks (1939) ch 6 Slavery of Native Americans was organized in colonial (Las Californias) and Mexican California (Alta California) through Franciscan missions, theoretically entitled to ten years of Native labor, but in practice maintaining them in perpetual servitude, until their charge was revoked in the mid-1830s. Following the 1847–1848 invasion by U.S. troops (Mexican-American War), Native Californians were enslaved in the new state from statehood in 1850 to 1867. Castillo, E.D. 1998. ''"Short Overview of California Indian History", ''California Native American Heritage Commission'', 1998. Retrieved October 24, 2007. Slavery required the posting of a bond by the slave holder and enslavement occurred through raids and a four-month servitude imposed as a punishment for Indian "vagrancy (vagrancy (people))". Beasley, Delilah L. (Delilah L. Beasley) (1918). "Slavery in California," ''The Journal of Negro History'', Vol. 3, No. 1. (Jan.), pp. 33–44. Preliminaries Prior to the Mexican-American War the Californio forces had already driven the Mexican appointed Governor Manuel Micheltorena and most of his soldiers from Alta California. The Californio Governor, Pio Pico, with about 100 poorly armed and poorly equipped soldiers, was nominally in charge in Alta California and had consolidated his forces in Pueblo de Los Angeles—the largest city then in California with about 3,500 residents. Fatefully, the worsening vision inspired him to take a sea voyage. But rather than going on a fashionable Grand Tour of Europe, he decided to enlist as a merchant seaman (Merchant shipping), despite his high-class birth. On August 14, 1834 he departed Boston aboard the brig ''Pilgrim (Pilgrim (brig))'' bound for Alta California, at that time still a part of Mexico. Sullivan, 1972, pages 102 This voyage would bring Dana to a number of settlements in California (including Monterey (Monterey, California), San Pedro (San Pedro, Los Angeles, California), San Juan Capistrano, San Diego (San Diego, California), Santa Barbara (Santa Barbara, California), Santa Clara (Santa Clara, California), and San Francisco (San Francisco, California)). After witnessing a flogging on board the ship, he vowed that he would try to help improve the lot of the common seaman. The ''Pilgrim'' collected hides for shipment to Boston, and Dana spent much of his time in California curing hides and loading them onto the ship. To return home sooner, he was reassigned by the ship's owners to a different ship, the ''Alert'', and on September 22, 1836, Dana arrived back in Massachusetts. Sullivan, 1972, pages 104-105 '''Thomas Oliver Larkin''' (September 16, 1802 - October 27, 1858) was an early American emigrant to Alta California and a signer of the original California Constitution. He was the United States' first and only consul to the California Republic. Washington (Washington, D.C.), and in 1843 President Tyler (John Tyler) appointed Larkin as the first (and last) American consul to Alta California. The following year, he thwarted a British attempt to acquire California while he was assisting the Mexican (Mexico) government in building a smallpox hospital in Monterey. The peak year for television westerns was 1959, with 26 such shows airing during prime-time. In one week in March 1959, eight of the top ten shows were westerns. Increasing costs of production (a horse cost up to $100 a day) led to most action half hour series vanishing in the early 1960s to be replaced by hour long television shows, increasingly in color. Kisseloff, J. (editor) ''The Box An Oral History of Television'' Two unusual westerns series of this era are ''Zorro (Zorro (1957 TV series))'', set in early California (Alta California) under Spanish rule, and the British Australian western ''Whiplash (Whiplash (TV series))'' set in 1850 60's Australia with four scripts by Gene Roddenberry. Plot synopsis The story follows the story of Californio Don Diego Vega—Zorro in the company of his deaf and mute servant Bernardo and his lover Lolita Pulido, as they rival the antagonists Captain Ramon and Sgt. Gonzales in Alta California, the Mexican era (1823–1846) pre-U.S. state of California. It is set amongst the historic Missions (Spanish Missions in California), pueblos (towns) such as San Juan Capistrano (San Juan Capistrano, California), Spanish ranchos (Ranchos of California), and the rural California countryside. A later expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships. This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island (Santa Catalina Island, California) was named. The explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 A later expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships. This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island (Santa Catalina Island, California) was named. The explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 As viceroy of New Spain He made his formal entry into Mexico City on October 26, 1603, accompanied by his wife Ana de Mendoza, and assumed the reins of government. He immediately accused his predecessor, Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo, Count of Monterrey of excessive spending and of exceeding his authority. Plans to colonize Alta California in the wake of Sebastián Vizcaíno's exploration were cancelled. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 ; ''Asia Minor'' : The name ''Asia'' was first applied to the mainland east of the Aegean islands, and later extended to the greater landmass (Asia) of which that is a peninsula. ; ''Baja California'' : The name ''California'' was first applied to the peninsula (Baja California peninsula) (thought to be an island) now known as Baja ("Lower"), and later extended – and then restricted – to Alta ("Upper") California (Alta California), and finally to the current U.S. state (California). ; ''East Indies'' : After Columbus (Christopher Columbus) landed in the West Indies.


historic location

Vallejo , the last secretary to the Governor of California before its annexation to the United States, kept his home in Sonoma; his ranch, now a National Historic Location, was located in nearby Petaluma (Petaluma, California). In Alta California, present day California, the style developed differently, being too far for imported building materials and without skilled builders, into a strong simple version for building the missions (Architecture of the California missions) between


independent military

. After Portolà left California in 1770, Pedro Fages served as the somewhat independent military governor of ''California Nueva'' (New California), which was later to become Alta California, headquartered in Monterey (Monterey, California). During this time, Fages explored by land San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, the Carquinez Strait, the San Joaquin River, and surrounding areas; and earned his nickname ''l'ós'' while hunting bears near San Luis Obispo (San Luis Obispo, California). Fages quarreled with Father Junípero Serra, president of the Alta California missions (Spanish Missions of California), and was replaced in 1774 by Fernando Rivera y Moncada. In early June 1846, Montgomery and the ship he commanded, the ''USS Portsmouth'', arrived in San Francisco Bay, then part of the Mexican province of Alta California. As a result Montgomery was involved, albeit as a witness only, in the events of the Bear Flag Revolt in which foreign residents, mostly American revolted against the Mexican authorities. As a naval representative of the U.S. Government, he was approached by representatives of the Revolt, by representatives of the Mexican provincial government and by other representatives of the U.S. On June 16, 1846, Montgomery sent a mission to Sonoma to investigate the conditions there, following the Revolt. left thumb ''USS Savannah'' (File:USS Savannah (1842).jpg) The Pacific Squadron was instrumental in the capture of Alta California in the Mexican–American War of 1846 to 1848. After war was declared on 24 April 1846. The American navy with its force of 350-400 marines and bluejacket sailors on board several ships near California were essentially the only significant United States military force on the Pacific coast in the early months of the Mexican–American War. Marines were stationed aboard each warship to assist in close in ship to ship combat and could be detached for use on land. In addition there were some sailors on each ship that could be detached from each vessel for shore duty and still leave the ship functional though short handed. The Pacific Squadron had orders, in the event of war with Mexico, to seize the ports in Mexican California and elsewhere along the Pacific Coast (West Coast of the United States). The only other United States military force in California was a small exploratory force of Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont's thirty topographical, surveying, etc. army troops and about twenty-five men hired as guides and hunters. His exploratory expedition was part of the Corps of Topographical Engineers. Under John D. Sloat, Commodore of the Pacific Squadron, the USS ''Savannah'' (USS Savannah (1842)) with USS ''Cyane'' (USS Cyane (1837)) and USS ''Levant'' (USS Levant (1837)) captured (Battle of Monterey) the Alta California capital city of Monterey, California on 7 July 1846. Two days later on 9 July, USS ''Portsmouth'' (USS Portsmouth (1843)), under Captain (captain (naval)) John S. Montgomery, landed seventy marines and bluejacket sailors at Clark's Point in San Francisco Bay and captured Yerba Buena, which is today's San Francisco (History of San Francisco), without firing a shot. There he met John C. Fremont and gave him some lead and powder to support the Bear Flag Revolt. On July 11 the British Royal Navy sloop HMS ''Juno'' (HMS Juno (1844)) entered San Francisco Bay causing Montgomery to man his defenses. The large British ship, the 2,600 ton man-of-war HMS ''Collingwood'' (HMS Collingwood (1841)), flagship under Sir George S. Seymour, also showed up about this time outside Monterey Harbor. Both British ships observed, but did not enter the conflict. Marley, David; "Wars of the Americas: a chronology of armed conflict in the New World, 1492 to Present" 1998); p. 504 left thumb ''USS Savannah'' (File:USS Savannah (1842).jpg) The Pacific Squadron was instrumental in the capture of Alta California in the Mexican–American War of 1846 to 1848. After war was declared on 24 April 1846. The American navy with its force of 350-400 marines and bluejacket sailors on board several ships near California were essentially the only significant United States military force on the Pacific coast in the early months of the Mexican–American War. Marines were stationed aboard each warship to assist in close in ship to ship combat and could be detached for use on land. In addition there were some sailors on each ship that could be detached from each vessel for shore duty and still leave the ship functional though short handed. The Pacific Squadron had orders, in the event of war with Mexico, to seize the ports in Mexican California and elsewhere along the Pacific Coast (West Coast of the United States). The only other United States military force in California was a small exploratory force of Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont's thirty topographical, surveying, etc. army troops and about twenty-five men hired as guides and hunters. His exploratory expedition was part of the Corps of Topographical Engineers. Under John D. Sloat, Commodore of the Pacific Squadron, the USS ''Savannah'' (USS Savannah (1842)) with USS ''Cyane'' (USS Cyane (1837)) and USS ''Levant'' (USS Levant (1837)) captured (Battle of Monterey) the Alta California capital city of Monterey, California on 7 July 1846. Two days later on 9 July, USS ''Portsmouth'' (USS Portsmouth (1843)), under Captain (captain (naval)) John S. Montgomery, landed seventy marines and bluejacket sailors at Clark's Point in San Francisco Bay and captured Yerba Buena, which is today's San Francisco (History of San Francisco), without firing a shot. There he met John C. Fremont and gave him some lead and powder to support the Bear Flag Revolt. On July 11 the British Royal Navy sloop HMS ''Juno'' (HMS Juno (1844)) entered San Francisco Bay causing Montgomery to man his defenses. The large British ship, the 2,600 ton man-of-war HMS ''Collingwood'' (HMS Collingwood (1841)), flagship under Sir George S. Seymour, also showed up about this time outside Monterey Harbor. Both British ships observed, but did not enter the conflict. Marley, David; "Wars of the Americas: a chronology of armed conflict in the New World, 1492 to Present" 1998); p. 504 '''Thomas Oliver Larkin''' (September 16, 1802 - October 27, 1858) was an early American emigrant to Alta California and a signer of the original California Constitution. He was the United States' first and only consul to the California Republic. Washington (Washington, D.C.), and in 1843 President Tyler (John Tyler) appointed Larkin as the first (and last) American consul to Alta California. The following year, he thwarted a British attempt to acquire California while he was assisting the Mexican (Mexico) government in building a smallpox hospital in Monterey. The peak year for television westerns was 1959, with 26 such shows airing during prime-time. In one week in March 1959, eight of the top ten shows were westerns. Increasing costs of production (a horse cost up to $100 a day) led to most action half hour series vanishing in the early 1960s to be replaced by hour long television shows, increasingly in color. Kisseloff, J. (editor) ''The Box An Oral History of Television'' Two unusual westerns series of this era are ''Zorro (Zorro (1957 TV series))'', set in early California (Alta California) under Spanish rule, and the British Australian western ''Whiplash (Whiplash (TV series))'' set in 1850 60's Australia with four scripts by Gene Roddenberry. Plot synopsis The story follows the story of Californio Don Diego Vega—Zorro in the company of his deaf and mute servant Bernardo and his lover Lolita Pulido, as they rival the antagonists Captain Ramon and Sgt. Gonzales in Alta California, the Mexican era (1823–1846) pre-U.S. state of California. It is set amongst the historic Missions (Spanish Missions in California), pueblos (towns) such as San Juan Capistrano (San Juan Capistrano, California), Spanish ranchos (Ranchos of California), and the rural California countryside. A later expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships. This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island (Santa Catalina Island, California) was named. The explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 A later expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships. This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island (Santa Catalina Island, California) was named. The explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 As viceroy of New Spain He made his formal entry into Mexico City on October 26, 1603, accompanied by his wife Ana de Mendoza, and assumed the reins of government. He immediately accused his predecessor, Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo, Count of Monterrey of excessive spending and of exceeding his authority. Plans to colonize Alta California in the wake of Sebastián Vizcaíno's exploration were cancelled. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1 ; ''Asia Minor'' : The name ''Asia'' was first applied to the mainland east of the Aegean islands, and later extended to the greater landmass (Asia) of which that is a peninsula. ; ''Baja California'' : The name ''California'' was first applied to the peninsula (Baja California peninsula) (thought to be an island) now known as Baja ("Lower"), and later extended – and then restricted – to Alta ("Upper") California (Alta California), and finally to the current U.S. state (California). ; ''East Indies'' : After Columbus (Christopher Columbus) landed in the West Indies.

Alta California

'''Alta California''' ( ) was a province and territory (territory (country subdivision)) in the Viceroyalty of New Spain (New Spain) and later a territory and department (department (country subdivision)) in independent Mexico. The territory, created in 1804 out of the northern part of the former province of Las Californias (The Californias), an area now comprising the modern state of California and other states to the east. Neither Spain nor Mexico ever colonized much beyond the southern and central coastal area, so effective control never extended much beyond Sonoma (Sonoma, California) in the north or the California Coast Ranges in the west. Most of interior areas such as the Central Valley (Central Valley (California)) and the deserts of California remained in de facto possession of indigenous peoples (Indigenous peoples of California) until later in the Mexican era when more inland land grants (List of Ranchos of California) were made, and especially after 1841 when overland immigrants from the United States began to settle inland areas.

Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and San Gabriel mountains were claimed to be part of Alta California, but were never colonized. To the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona (Arizona#History). José Bandini, in a note to Governor Echeandía (José María de Echeandía) or to his son, Juan Bandini, a member of the Territorial Deputation (legislature), noted that Alta California was bounded "on the east, where the Government has not yet established the exact border line, by either the Colorado River or the great Sierra (Sierra Nevada (U.S.)) (''Sierra Nevada'')." ''A Description of California in 1828 by José Bandini'' (Berkeley, Friends of the Bancroft Library, 1951), 3. Reprinted in ''Mexican California'' (New York, Arno Press, 1976). ISBN 0-405-09538-4 Chapman explains that the term "Arizona" not used in period. Arizona south of the Gila River was referred to as the Pimería Alta. North of the Gila were the "Moqui (Hopi)," whose territory was considered separate from New Mexico. The term "the Californias," therefore, refers specifically to the Spanish-held coastal region from Baja California to an undefined north.

Alta California ceased to exist as an administrative division separate from Baja California in 1836, when the ''Siete Leyes'' constitutional reforms in Mexico re-established Las Californias as a unified department. The areas formerly comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848. Two years later, California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the later U.S. states of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado and Wyoming.

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