Algiers

What is Algiers known for?


political tradition

concluded that General Jacques Duchesne, the French general who had successfully led the military campaign against the Merina monarchy, would be a probable choice. Assuming that Malagasy political tradition would be preserved, Ranavalona believed she would be forced to marry whichever man was chosen for the job and worriedly asked if Duchesne was to be her next husband. Surprised, the French official reassured her that France had no intention of imposing a husband on the queen and would never again require her to marry a prime minister. The queen's Minister of Foreign Affairs, Rainitsimbazafy, was nominated to the post of Prime Minister by mutual consent. commons:(الجزائر (مدينة


career including

by the corsairs in his youth and had turned Mahometan.

including four years in the Genoese galleys. in a village near Bodrum, on the Aegean (Aegean Sea) coast of Asia Minor. After converting to Islam in his youth he served as Admiral and privateer who also served as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea); and first Bey, later Pasha, of Tripoli. Under his naval command the Ottoman Empire


speaking landscape

northeastern Morocco to just west of Algiers, and the northern Sahara, from southwestern Algeria around Bechar to Zuwara in Libya; in much of this range, they are limited to discontinuous pockets in a predominantly Arabic (Arabic language)-speaking landscape. The largest languages are Rifian (Rifian language) in NE Morocco and Shawiya (Shawiya language) in eastern Algeria, each with over a million speakers. Crowley initiated Neuburg into his magical Order


military studies

PLACE OF BIRTH Algiers, Algeria DATE OF DEATH - ALG DAAG Houari Boumediene Airport Algiers, Algeria - From 1872 to 1874, Kuropatkin studied at the Nicholas General Staff Academy (General Staff Academy (Imperial Russia)), after which he was dispatched as a military attaché to Berlin and Paris, completing his military studies, and with the French (French Army) troops in Algiers, accompanying French expedition to Sahara. Returning to Russia in late 1875, he was assigned to the Turkestan Military District. He was awarded the Order of St. George (4th class) for his role in the Russian conquest of Kokand. American merchant vessels began to fall prey to Barbary Pirates (Barbary corsairs), most notably from Algiers, in the Mediterranean during the 1790s. Congress responded with the Naval Act of 1794. Allen (1909), pp. 41–42. The Act provided funds for the construction of six frigates; however, it included a clause stating that construction of the ships would cease if the United States agreed to peace terms with Algiers. Beach (1986), p. 29. ''An Act to provide a Naval Armament''. commons:(الجزائر (مدينة


original title

commons:(الجزائر (مدينة


size location

under Bourmont (Louis-Auguste-Victor, Count de Ghaisnes de Bourmont) to depose the Algerian Regency. The fleet of the invasion of Algiers (invasion of Algiers in 1830) was 103 warships strong, with 572 freighters ferrying 35 000 soldiers, 3 800 horses and 91 heavy guns. In recognition for his role, Duperré was made pair de France on 16 July 1830. image size location Algiers, Algeria 16000 religion Islamic '''El Idrissi high school''' in (


intense training

* Nouvion Airfield, Algeria, 21 November 1942 * Maison Blanche Airport, Algiers, Algeria, 17 December 1942 * Biskra Airfield, Algeria, 22 December 1942 Algeria During the Algerian War, Bigeard, now a Colonel, was given command of the 3e RPC (Colonial Parachute Regiment) part of Jacques Massu's 10th Parachute Division. Bigeard revitalized the unit by weeding out laggards and the uncommitted and then put the remainder through an intense training regime


original stage

to the House of Representatives, Baraguey d'Hilliers remained on active duty and lead a French expeditionary force to Rome until 1851. * 1097 – Construction of the original stage of the Flower Pagoda in the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees (Temple of the Six Banyan Trees) in Guangzhou, Song China. * 1097 – Great Mosque (Great Mosque of Algiers) of Algiers built in Almoravid Algeria. * 1099 – Modena Cathedral begun. Even isolated in the interior, the village continued to be vulnerable to pirate attacks. In 1679, Algerian (Algiers) pirates (from the Barbary coast) landed in the Portinho de Agrião, sacked the coastal village of Ribeira Quente, and proceeded to the interior, where the robbed several rams from the valley before returning to the coast. A resident near Agrião petitioned the governor of São Miguel (José Pereira Sodré) for one of the canons that existed at city hall in Vila Franca in order to defend the area from future attacks, but was rejected. Marquez de Jacome Corrêa, 1924, p.7-8 Downes was promoted to master commandant in 1813, and two years later commanded the brig commons:(الجزائر (مدينة


biography personal

, and producer (film producer). Biography Personal Gatlif was born in Algiers to a Kabyle (Kabyle people) father and a Romani (Romani people) mother. Tony Gatlif en terre d'asile After his childhood there, Gatlif arrived in France in 1960 following the Algerian War of Independence. 1990, he directed Gaspard and Robinson. The plot of this film is based on the wandering of a truck driver and an old woman abandoned. A social comedy based on a story of friendship against a backdrop of unemployment. DATE OF BIRTH September 10, 1948 PLACE OF BIRTH Algiers, Algeria DATE OF DEATH Hassi R'Mel is a hub for natural gas and oil pipelines running to coastal cities of Arzew, Algiers, and Skikda. The National Centre For Despatching Gas is also starting point for the Maghreb-Europe (Maghreb-Europe Gas Pipeline), Trans-Mediterranean (Trans-Mediterranean Pipeline), Medgaz and Galsi gas export pipelines supplying Southern Europe. It is the planned final destination of the Trans-Saharan gas pipeline. During the 16th century Valencia lost its status as a preeminent commercial center of Europe to the rapidly developing cities of Northern and Central Europe. Within Spain, the Atlantic trade favored the cities of Andalusia such as Cádiz. This was largely due to diminishing profits from the Mediterranean trade. The Spanish Empire was in frequent conflict with the Ottoman Empire which controlled most of the eastern Mediterranean. They prevented each other from reaching certain ports while Ottoman privateers such as Barbarossa (Barbarossa (Ottoman admiral)) preyed on trade ships. The Barbary pirates such as Dragut, operating out of Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, Salé and ports in Morocco, attacked shipping in the western Mediterranean, which included destructive raids in Christian ports along the coast. This decline in trade greatly inhibited the economy in Valencia, which had already been economically affected by the Alhambra decree which had expelled the Jews back in 1492. * North African Wing (re-designated ''North African Division'' on 1 July 1944) : Moved aircraft, supplies and cargo from West African transport hub supporting Twelfth (Twelfth Air Force) and Fifteenth Air Forces. Also part of South Atlantic Route transport extension via West Africa to Casablanca (French Morocco) and to Britain (United Kingdom). Operated the Mediterranean Air Transport Service from Casablanca (French Morocco) to Cairo (Egypt) and later from Algiers (Algeria) to Naples (Italy) in 1944. On 4 January 1944, the store ship left Norfolk, with a convoy bound for the Mediterranean Sea. She touched at Algiers, Algeria, on 24 January, and soon sailed for Naples, Italy. The ship reached that Italian port later the same month and discharged supplies. She then sailed eastward and paused at Oran, Algeria, in early February before sailing back to the United States. The ship arrived at New York City on 13 February. After the Carnation Revolution military coup in Lisbon on 25 April 1974, the new revolutionary leaders of Portugal and the PAIGC signed an accord in Algiers, Algeria in which Portugal agreed to remove all troops by the end of October and to officially recognize the Republic of Guinea-Bissau government controlled by the PAIGC, on 26 August 1974 and after a series of diplomatic meetings. Lloyd-Jones, Stewart, and Costa Pinto, António, ''The last empire: thirty years of Portuguese decolonization'', Portland, Oregon: Intellect Books, ISBN 1841501093, p. 22 Demobilized by the Portuguese authorities and abandoned to their fate, a total of 7,447 black African soldiers who had served in Portuguese native commando forces and militia were summarily executed by the PAIGC after Portuguese forces ceased hostilities. PAIGC, Jornal Nô Pintcha, 29 November 1980: In a statement in the party newspaper '' Nô Pintcha'' (''In the Vanguard''), a spokesman for the PAIGC revealed that many of the ex-Portuguese indigenous African soldiers that were executed after cessation of hostilities were buried in unmarked collective graves in the woods of Cumerá, Portogole, and Mansabá. Munslow, Barry, ''The 1980 Coup in Guinea-Bissau'', Review of African Political Economy, No. 21 (May - Sep., 1981), pp. 109-113 Brahimi was born in Algiers, Algeria on 9 May 1972, and has lived most of his life in the district of Belsunce, in Marseille. At first, when IAM was formed in 1988, Brahimi worked with them as a breakdancer under the alias Abdelmalek Sultan, but he soon started rapping and appearing on the group's albums. In 1999, he published his first solo album, ''L'palais de justice''. * Tariq ibn Ziyad, One of the first Berber princes converted to Islam, he conquered Iberia in the 8th century * Buluggin ibn Ziri, 10th century prince, founder of the city of Algiers (''Ed'Zayer'' in Algerian Arabic refers to his father Ziri ibn Menad founder of the Zirid dynasty) After returning to Germany, he reverted to "good eating". The next winter, he took a trip to Algiers in northern Africa with a French bicyclist, ''"I took a bicycle trip of about 800 miles, from Algiers to Tunis, accompanied by a trained bicyclist who lived on an ordinary diet.", Prof. B. W. Child, ''Biographical Sketch of Prof. Arnold Ehret", page 15, ''The Mucusless Diet Healing System'', Arnold Ehret, New York: ELPC Inc, 1994 The Story of My Life as told to Anita Bauer, Beneficial Books, 1980, page 107 called Peter Professor Arnold Ehret's ''The Story Of My Life as told to Anita Bauer'', Beneficial Books, 1980 where he experimented with fasting and a fruit diet. In a desperate attempt to end his health problems, Ehret decided to stop eating, and was surprised to find that he did not starve, but gained in strength and vitality. Professor B. W. Child's Biographical Sketch of Ehret in ''Rational Fasting'', ELPC, 1994 Due to his new lifestyle, Ehret claimed to have cured himself of his diseases and to be able to perform feats of physiological strength, including a 1000 mile bicycle trip from Algiers to Tunis which he undertook with the trained athlete in under 14 days. Lebensfragen, Arnold Ehret, Carl Kuhn Verlag, 1923 Returning to Germany, his sister discouraged him from continuing with fasting. In 1909, Ehret wrote his article denouncing the "Metabolic Theory". After returning to Germany, he reverted to "good eating". The next winter, he took a trip to Algiers in northern Africa with a French bicyclist, ''"I took a bicycle trip of about 800 miles, from Algiers to Tunis, accompanied by a trained bicyclist who lived on an ordinary diet.", Prof. B. W. Child, ''Biographical Sketch of Prof. Arnold Ehret", page 15, ''The Mucusless Diet Healing System'', Arnold Ehret, New York: ELPC Inc, 1994 The Story of My Life as told to Anita Bauer, Beneficial Books, 1980, page 107 called Peter Professor Arnold Ehret's ''The Story Of My Life as told to Anita Bauer'', Beneficial Books, 1980 where he experimented with fasting and a fruit diet. In a desperate attempt to end his health problems, Ehret decided to stop eating, and was surprised to find that he did not starve, but gained in strength and vitality. Professor B. W. Child's Biographical Sketch of Ehret in ''Rational Fasting'', ELPC, 1994 Due to his new lifestyle, Ehret claimed to have cured himself of his diseases and to be able to perform feats of physiological strength, including a 1000 mile bicycle trip from Algiers to Tunis which he undertook with the trained athlete in under 14 days. Lebensfragen, Arnold Ehret, Carl Kuhn Verlag, 1923 Returning to Germany, his sister discouraged him from continuing with fasting. In 1909, Ehret wrote his article denouncing the "Metabolic Theory". Escort duty After a series of training operations along the eastern seaboard primarily off the New England coast the destroyer began duty escorting transatlantic convoys in mid-January 1943. On the 14th, she departed New York (New York City) with Convoy UGF-4. The convoy reached Casablanca on the 25th, and, after a week in port, ''Woolsey'' escorted the return convoy, GUF-4, back to New York, arriving there on 13 February. At the beginning of March, she helped shepherd Convoy UGF-6 to Casablanca, then made a brief round-trip voyage from Casablanca to Gibraltar and back before returning to the east coast with GUF-6 early in April. The warship then plied the waters of the eastern seaboard until mid-May, conducting antisubmarine patrols and screening coastwise convoys between Norfolk (Norfolk, Virginia) and New York. On 14 May, ''Woolsey'' put to sea from New York with her last transatlantic convoy, UGS-8. She and her charges reached Casablanca on 1 June, and the destroyer remained there a fortnight. On the 15th, she departed Morocco, but, instead of returning to the United States as she had done in the past, she headed via Gibraltar to Algiers on the Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea) coast of North Africa. Mediterranean operations When ''Woolsey'' reached Gibraltar the next day, an Atlantic phase of her wartime career ended, and the Mediterranean phase began. She reported for duty with the 8th Fleet (U.S. 8th Fleet) just in time to participate in the invasion of Sicily (Allied invasion of Sicily), and operations in Italian waters (Italy) consumed the bulk of her time and energy during the ensuing eight months. For the Sicily assault, she drew duty as a fire-support ship for one of three sectors into which the Licata landing beaches were divided. Save for one brief round-trip voyage to Algiers in mid-July, ''Woolsey'' provided gunfire support for the troops operating ashore on Sicily and helped to defend Allied shipping from German air attacks. Though she appears not to have accounted for any Luftwaffe aircraft, she did succeed in destroying an enemy railroad battery with gunfire. From July 1943 to February 1944, ''Edison'' served in the Mediterranean Sea. On 10 July she provided fire support for the troops landing on Sicily (Allied invasion of Sicily) to which she escorted support convoys from Algiers and Bizerte until September. She screened the assault transports in the invasion at Salerno (Allied invasion of Italy) on 9 September, and remained off the beaches to guard minesweepers (minesweeper (ship)) and provide fire support for the advancing troops. Continuing Mediterranean escort duty, on 16 December ''Edison'' screened while commons:(الجزائر (مدينة


amp modern

; Modern'' BBCTV – he wrote later also of a suicide attempt at this time. After the Allied occupation of North Africa he was posted to Algiers as liaison officer with the French ''sécurité militaire''. In this capacity he was sent to Paris at the time of the liberation (liberation of Paris). He was warned to expect some anti-British feeling in Paris because of the attack on Mers-el-Kébir. In fact Muggeridge (speaking on the BBC retrospective programme ''Muggeridge: Ancient &amp

of 7–8 November; the city was then occupied by Allied troops. However, resistance continued at Oran and Casablanca. Giraud flew to Algiers on 9 November, but his attempt to assume command of French forces was rebuffed; his broadcast directing French troops to cease resistance and join the Allies was ignored. His mission was to prevent information about Allied convoys off the coast of Africa falling into enemy hands ''Muggeridge , Ancient &amp

; Modern'') said that he encountered no such feeling – indeed he had been allowed, on occasion, to eat and drink for nothing at Maxim's (Maxim's Paris). He was assigned to make an initial investigation into P. G. Wodehouse's five broadcasts from Berlin during the war. Though he was prepared to dislike Wodehouse, the interview became the start of a lifelong friendship and publishing relationship. Muggeridge ended the war as a Captain (Captain (land)). From 1898 to 1902 Édouard Drumont represented Algiers in the Chamber of Deputies (Chamber of Deputies of France). He was sued for accusing a parliamentary deputy of having taken a bribe from the prominent Jewish banker Édouard Alphonse de Rothschild to pass a piece of legislation the banker wanted. Drumont attracted many supporters and was one of the primary sources of antisemitic ideas that would later be embraced by Nazism. see also "In 1886 the French antisemite Edouard Drumont published 'La France Juive' (Jewish France), creating the false nightmarish image of a France dominated by Jews, and sowing the poisonous seeds which came to fruit when Vichy French officials collaborated in the mass muder of French Jewry." in Adam Keller, ''Drumont's Jewish disciple'', 2008-06-02 He exploited the Panama Company Scandal (Panama scandals) Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Harvest Books, 1973; ISBN 0-15-670153-7, p. 95-99. and reached the peak of his notoriety during the Dreyfus Affair, in which he was the most strident of Alfred Dreyfus' accusers. Ali Pasha wanted to establish in the Mediterranean a sea-power which should rival that of the dey of Algiers. In order to gain a seaport on the Albanian coast that was dominated by Venice, Ali Pasha formed an alliance with Napoleon I of France who had established François Pouqueville as his general consul in Ioannina, with the complete consent of the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Sultan Selim III. production 2005–2010 assembly Puebla (Puebla, Puebla), Mexico Changchun, China (CKD) Uitenhage, South Africa(CKD) Aurangabad (Aurangabad, Maharashtra), India (CKD) Kaluga, Russia (CKD) Algiers, Algeria (CKD; SOVAC (:de:SOVAC)) body_style 4-door saloon sedan (sedan (automobile)) 4-door station wagon Since the capture of Algiers by the Ottomans Oruch and Barbarossa (Hayreddin Barbarossa) in 1516, Algeria had been a base for conflict and piracy in the Mediterranean. thumb left Bombardment of Algiers (File:Bombardement d'Alger.1682.jpg) in 1682, by Abraham Duquesne. In 1681, Louis XIV asked Admiral (Admiral (France)) Abraham Duquesne to fight the Barbary pirates, and he bombarded Algiers between 1682 and 1683 to help Christian captives. ''Martin's History of France'' by Henri Martin, p.522 Again, d'Estrées (Jean II d'Estrées) bombarded Tripoli and Algiers from 1685 to 1688. An ambassador from Algiers visited the Court in Versailles, and a Treaty was signed in 1690 that provided peace throughout the 18th century. ''Europe Through Arab Eyes, 1578–1727'' by Nabil Matar, p.105-106 During the Directory (French Directory) regime of the First French Republic (1795–1799), the Bacri and the Busnach, Jewish negotiants of Algiers, provided important quantities of grain for Napoleon's soldiers (Grande Armée) who participated in the Italian campaign (French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1796) of 1796. However, Bonaparte refused to pay the bill back, claiming it was excessive. In 1820, Louis XVIII paid back half of the Directory's debts. The Dey, who had loaned to the Bacri 250,000 franc (French franc)s, requested from France the rest of the money. thumb right 250px A print showing Fadhma N'Soumer during combat, although in real life, it seems that Lalla Fadhma did not herself use weapons (Image:Portrait-Fatma N'Soumer.jpg) The French began their occupation of Algiers in 1830, starting with a landing in Algiers. As occupation turned into colonization, Kabylia remained the only region independent of the French government. Pressure on the region increased, and the will of her people to resist and defend Kabylie increased as well. thumb Capture of the Zaatcha (1849) (File:Prise de la Zaatcha (1849).png) Shortly after Louis Philippe's constitutional monarchy was overthrown in the revolution of 1848, the new government of the Second Republic (French Second Republic) ended Algeria's status as a colony and declared in the 1848 Constitution the occupied lands an integral part of France. Three civil territories — Algiers, Oran (Oran (department)), and Constantine (Constantine, Algeria) — were organized as French départements (Departments of France) (local administrative units) under a civilian government. For the first time, French citizens in the civil territories elected their own councils and mayors; Muslims had to be appointed, could not hold more than one-third of council seats, and could not serve as mayors or assistant mayors. The administration of territories outside the zones settled by colons remained under the French Army. Local Muslim administration was allowed to continue under the supervision of French Army commanders, charged with maintaining order in newly pacified regions, and the bureaux arabes. Theoretically, these areas were closed to European colonization. Just to the west of Aghlabid lands, Abd ar Rahman ibn Rustam ruled most of the central Maghrib from Tahert, southwest of Algiers. The rulers of the Rustamid imamate, which lasted from 761 to 909, each an Ibadi Kharijite imam, were elected by leading citizens. The imams gained a reputation for honesty, piety, and justice. The court at Tahert was noted for its support of scholarship in mathematics, astronomy, and astrology, as well as theology and law. The Rustamid imams, however, failed, by choice or by neglect, to organize a reliable standing army. This important factor, accompanied by the dynasty's eventual collapse into decadence, opened the way for Tahert's demise under the assault of the Fatimids. For many years, the Fatimids posed a threat to Morocco, but their deepest ambition was to rule the East, the Mashriq, which included Egypt and Muslim lands beyond. By 969, they had conquered Egypt and in 972, the Fatimid ruler Al Muizz established the new city of Cairo as his capital. The Fatimids left the rule of Ifriqiya and most of Algeria to the Zirids (972–1148). This Berber dynasty, which had founded the towns of Miliana, Médéa, and Algiers and centered significant local power in Algeria for the first time, turned over its domain west of Ifriqiya to the Banu Hammad branch of its family. The Hammadids ruled from 1011 to 1151, during which time Bejaïa became the most important port in North Africa. Without much difficulty, Christian Spain imposed its influence on the Maghrib coast by constructing fortified outposts (presidios) and collecting tribute during the 15th and early 16th centuries. On or near the Algerian coast, Spain took control of Mers el Kebir in 1505, Oran in 1509, and Tlemcen, Mostaganem, and Ténès, all west of Algiers, in 1510. In the same year, the merchants of Algiers handed over one of the rocky islets in their harbor, where the Spaniards built a fort. The presidios in North Africa turned out to be a costly and largely ineffective military endeavor that did not guarantee access for Spain's merchant fleet. Indeed, most trade seemed to be transacted in the numerous free ports. Moreover, from the 16th to the 18th century, sailing superior ships and hammering out shrewd concessions, merchants from England, Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and Italy, as well as Spain, dominated Mediterranean trade (Mediterranean Sea). The Armée de Libération Nationale (ALN) commanders and the GPRA (Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic) (Gouvernement Provisionel de la République Algérienne) struggled for power, including an unsuccessful attempt to dismiss Colonel Houari Boumédiènne, chief of staff of the ALN in Morocco. Boumédiènne formed an alliance with Ahmed Ben Bella, who together with Mohamed Khider and Rabah Bitat, announced the formation of the Political Bureau (''Bureau Politique'') as a rival government to the GPRA, which had installed itself in Algiers as the "Provisional Executive". Boumédiènne's forces entered Algiers in September, where he was joined by Ben Bella, who quickly consolidated his power. Ben Bella purged his political opponents from the single slate of candidates for the forthcoming Algerian National Assembly elections. However, underlying opposition to the Political Bureau and to the absence of alternative candidates was manifested in an 18 percent abstention rate nationwide that rose to 36 percent of the electorate in Algiers. Representatives of these groups and members of the Algerian Communist Party (''Parti Communiste Algérien'', PCA) met in Algiers in 1936 at the first Algerian Muslim Congress. The congress drew up an extensive Charter of Demands, which called for the abolition of laws permitting imposition of the ''régime d'exception'', political integration of Algeria and France, maintenance of personal legal status by Muslims acquiring French citizenship, fusion of European and Muslim education systems in Algeria, freedom to use Arabic in education and the press, equal wages for equal work, land reform, establishment of a single electoral college, and universal suffrage. Allied landings were made at Algiers and Oran by 70,000 British and United States troops on November 8, 1942, in coordination with landings in Morocco. As part of Operation Torch under the overall command of General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Algiers and Oran were secured two days later after a determined resistance by French defenders. On November 11, Admiral François Darlan, commander in chief of Vichy French forces, ordered a ceasefire in North Africa. Algeria provided a base for the subsequent Allied campaign in Tunisia. History In 1481 the Papal bull ''Æterni regis (Aeterni regis)'' had granted all land south of the Canary Islands to Portugal. Only this archipelago and the possessions of Santa Cruz de la Mar Pequeña (1476–1524), Melilla (conquered (Conquest of Melilla) by Pedro de Estopiñán in 1497), Villa Cisneros (founded in 1502 in current Western Sahara), Mazalquivir (1505), Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera (1508), Oran (1509–1790), Algiers (1510–1529), Bugia (1510–1554), Tripoli (Tripoli, Libya) (1511–1551), Tunis (1535–1569) and Ceuta (ceded by Portugal in 1668) remained as Spanish territory in Africa. When the Gestapo captured Jean Moulin, Frenay fled to Algiers. In November 1943 he met De Gaulle who appointed him as a minister of prisoners, refugees and deportees (deportation). The region south of Algiers, in particular, came to be virtually dominated by the GIA; they called it the "liberated zone". Later it would be known as the "triangle of death (Triangle of Death (Algeria))". During this period, judging from its London-based magazine ''Al-Ansar (Al-Ansar (magazine))'', it worked out ever broader ideological justifications for killing civilians, with the help of fatwas from such figures as Abu Qatada. Abu Qatada's writings and speeches have been critically assessed by a contemporary Muslim scholar, Shaykh 'Abdul-Malik ar-Ramadani al-Jaza'iri, in the book ''Takhlis al-'Ibad min Wahshiyyat Ab'il-Qataad aladhi yu'du ila Qatli'n-Nisa wa Awlad'' (Jeddah: Maktabah Asalah al-Athariyyah, 1422AH commons:(الجزائر (مدينة

Algiers

'''Algiers''' ( ) is the capital (Capital (political)) and largest city of Algeria. According to the 1998 census, the population of the city proper was 1,519,570 and that of the urban agglomeration was 2,135,630. In 2009, the population was about 3,500,000. An estimate put the population at about 3,574,000 in 2010. Algiers is located on the Mediterranean Sea and in the north-central portion of Algeria.

Sometimes nicknamed ''El-Behdja'' (البهجة) or alternatively ''Alger la Blanche'' ("Algiers the White") for the glistening white of its buildings as seen rising up from the sea, Algiers is situated on the west side of a bay of the Mediterranean Sea. The modern part of the city is built on the level ground by the seashore; the old part, the ancient city of the deys, climbs the steep hill behind the modern town and is crowned by the casbah or citadel, above the sea. The casbah and the two quays form a triangle.

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