What is Aleppo known for?

ancient religious

of Churches Press Release: THE DATE OF EASTER: SCIENCE OFFERS SOLUTION TO ANCIENT RELIGIOUS PROBLEM url http: ~mmontes pr.wcc.19970324.html date 24 March 1997 The reform would have been implemented starting in 2001, since in that year the Eastern and Western dates of Easter would coincide. :''"By concentrating on the field armies, the strongholds had to wait. Of course, smaller fortresses, or ones easily surprised, were taken as they came along. This had two effects

great support

of the Chouf and Metn. birth_date WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo

modern literary

being fired as the Vichy French forces retired westwards. thumb 180px Qestaki Al-Homsi (Image:Qestaki al-Homsi.jpg) In 1865 the Syrian writer, poet, and physician Francis Marrash published his novel Ghabat al-haq, considered to be the first modern novel of Arabic literature. With his book ''The researcher's source in the science of criticism'', Qestaki al-Homsi from Aleppo, Syria is considered to be the founder of modern literary criticism among

promoting support title UDP-Aleppo publisher UDP-Aleppo date 15 December 2011 accessdate 11 March 2012 The programme promotes capacities for sustainable urban management and development at the national and municipal level. The Programme has three fields of work: # Aleppo City Development Strategy (CDS): promoting support structures for the municipality, including capacity building, networking, and developing municipal strength in the national development dialogue. # Informal Settlements (IS): includes strategy and management development of informal settlements. # The Project for the Rehabilitation of the Old City of Aleppo (OCA): includes further support to the rehabilitation of the Old City, as well as to a long-term oriented city development strategy. The UDP cooperates closely with other interventions in the sector, namely the EU-supported 'Municipal Administration Modernization' programme. It is planned to operate from 2007 to 2016. Twin towns — sister cities WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo

public campaign

in Aleppo State new elections that were supposed to lead to the breaking of the union with Damascus and restore the independence of Aleppo State. The French were driven to believe by pro-French Aleppine politicians that the people in Aleppo were supportive of such a scheme. After the new council was elected, however, it surprisingly voted to keep the union with Damascus. Syrian nationalists (Syrian National Block) had waged a massive anti-secession public campaign that vigorously mobilized

decades promoting

Al-Aziz's death in 1198. Although he was closely besieged in Damascus (1199), he defeated Al-Afdal at the Battle of Bilbeis in January 1200. After his victory, he was proclaimed Sultan and ruled wisely and well over both Egypt and Syria for nearly two decades, promoting trade and good relations with the Crusader states (1200–1217). He took Ahlat in 1207 and bring to Ahlatshahs. He took the field again on hearing news of the Fifth Crusade, despite his advanced age (62, in the year 1217), and organized the defenses of Egypt and Palestine. He fell ill and died while on campaign (August 1218) and was succeeded by his son Malik Al-Kamil. All three remaining Western Neo-Aramaic dialects are facing critical endangerment as living languages. As with any village community in the 21st century, young residents are migrating into major cities like Damascus and Aleppo in search of better employment opportunities, thus forcing them into monolingual Arabic-speaking settings, in turn straining the opportunity to actively maintain Neo-Aramaic as a language of daily use. Also, the Syrian government, as towards other minority cultures, has done little to support or protect the language, forcing community monasteries and independent institutions to be solely responsible for passing the language on, even if through very limited use. Origins Following a decline in trade with the Levant over a number of decades, several London merchants petitioned Queen Elizabeth I in 1580 for a charter to guarantee exclusitivity when trading in that region. The London Port Books from the 1560s and 70s do not record any shipments by English merchants to or from the Levant, when Venice filled the role of intermediary and Antwerp retained its position as entrepôt. (Willan 1955:400ff). The Company had no colonial (colonialism) aspirations, but rather established "Factories (Factory (trading post))" (trading centers) in already-established commercial centers, such as the Levant Factory in Aleppo, as well as Constantinople, Alexandria and Smyrna. Throughout the Company's history, Aleppo served as headquarters for the whole company in the Middle East. By 1588, the Levant Company had been converted to a regulated monopoly on an established trade, from its initial character as a joint-stock company. The prime movers in the conversion were Sir Edward Osborne and Richard Staper. A new charter was granted in January 1592, and by 1595 its character as a regulated company had become clear. Willan 1955:405-07. Life Jacob of Edessa was born in Aindaba near Aleppo, around 640. He studied at the famous monastery of Ken-neshre (on the left bank of the Euphrates, opposite Jergbis) and later at Alexandria. Jacob left Eusebona and proceeded to the great convent of Tel WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo

religious commitment

;Profile: Aleppo, Syria's second city. BBC News. 24 July 2012. The Jews of Aleppo were known for their religious commitment, Rabbinic leadership, and their liturgy, consisting of Pizmonim and Baqashot. After the Spanish Inquisition, the city of Aleppo received many Sephardic Jewish immigrants, who eventually joined with the native Aleppo Jewish community. Peaceful relations existed between the Jews and surrounding


;A History of Coffee", ''Economic History Congress'' XIII (Buenos Aires, 2002) full text Arguably the most controversial member of the Fatimid dynasty, Hakim confronted numerous difficulties and uprisings during his relatively long reign. While he did not lose any important territories in North Africa, the Ismaili communities there were attacked by Sunni fighters led by their influential Maliki jurists. Relations between the Fatimids and the Qarmatians of Bahrain also remained hostile. On the other hand, Hakim’s Syrian policy was successful as he managed to extend Fatimid hegemony to the emirate of Aleppo. Above all, the persistent rivalries between the various factions of the Fatimid armies, especially the Berbers (Berber people) and the Turks (Turkish people), overshadowed the other problems of Hakim’s caliphate. Whilst he was in Cairo, studying and preaching, he upset the highly excitable Chief of the Army, Badr al-Jamalī. It is also said by later sources that the Ismaili Imam-Caliph al-Mustanṣir (Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah) informed Hassan that his elder son Nizar would be the next Imam. Hassan was briefly imprisoned by Badr al-Jamali. The collapse of a minaret of the jail was taken to be an omen in the favor of Hassan and he was promptly released and deported. The ship that he was traveling on was wrecked. He was rescued and taken to Syria. Traveling via Aleppo and Baghdad, he terminated his journey at Isfahan (Isfahan (city)) in 1081. - 1138 – A '''massive earthquake (1138 Aleppo earthquake)''', one of the deadliest (List of earthquakes#Deadliest earthquakes on record) in recorded history, struck Aleppo, Syria. unreferenced section Further travels (1663-1667) In November 1663 again sailed for the East, calling at Alexandria and landing at Sidon, whence he proceeded by land to Damascus, Aleppo, and then through Mesopotamia to Mosul, Baghdad and Mendeli. In the ''Six Voyages'' Tavernier states that he departed from Butler's company (1630) with the intention to travel to Ratisbon (Regensburg) to attend Ferdinand III's investiture as King of Romans. However, as the actual investiture did not take place until 1636, it is probable that he actually attended the ceremony between his first and second voyages. By his own account he had seen Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Poland and Hungary, as well as France, England and the Low Countries, and spoke the principal languages of these countries. He was now eager to visit the East; and at Ratisbon he, with the help of Pere Joseph, Cardinal Richelieu's agent and ''Eminence grise'' he was able to join the retinue of a pair of French travelers, M. de Chapes and M. de St Liebau, who had received a mission to the Levant. In their company he reached Constantinople early in 1631, where he spent eleven months, and then proceeded by Tokat, Erzerum and Erivan to Persia (Persian Empire). His farthest point in this first journey was Isfahan (Isfahan (city)); he returned by Baghdad, Aleppo, Alexandretta, Malta and Italy, and was again in Paris in 1633. '''Hama''' ( WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo

time range

index.html title Korea Republic: Fixtures and results publisher FIFA accessdate 27 December 2009 Note: Time range → Customize search, From → March 2006, To → June 2006 At the World Cup, Korea opened their campaign with a 2–1 victory over Togo (Togo national football team). In their second group match they scored a late equalizer to draw 1–1 against France (France national football team), putting them in a position to qualify from Group G (2006 FIFA World Cup Group G). However

studies history

WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo


'''Aleppo''' ( Russell, Alexander (1794), The natural history of Aleppo, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, pp. 1–2 Gaskin, James J. (1846), Geography and sacred history of Syria, pp. 33–34

Aleppo is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world (List of cities by time of continuous habitation#Middle East); it has been inhabited since perhaps as early as the 6th millennium BC. ''Columbia Encyclopedia'', Sixth Edition (2010) Excavations at Tell as-Sawda and Tell al-Ansari, just south of the old city of Aleppo, show that the area was occupied since at least the latter part of the 3rd millennium BC; The Oxford encyclopedia of archaeology in the Near East (1997) and this is also when Aleppo is first mentioned in cuneiform tablets unearthed in Ebla and Mesopotamia, in which it is noted for its commercial and military proficiency. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (2010) Such a long history is probably due to its being a strategic trading point midway between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia (i.e. modern Iraq).

The city's significance in history has been its location at the end of the Silk Road, which passed through central Asia and Mesopotamia. When the Suez Canal was inaugurated in 1869, trade was diverted to sea and Aleppo began its slow decline. At the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, Aleppo ceded its northern hinterland to modern Turkey, as well as the important railway connecting it to Mosul. Then in the 1940s it lost its main access to the sea, Antioch (Antakya) and Alexandretta (İskenderun), also to Turkey. Finally, the isolation of Syria in the past few decades further exacerbated the situation, although perhaps it is this very decline that has helped to preserve the old city of Aleppo, its medieval architecture and traditional heritage. It won the title of the "Islamic Capital of Culture 2006", and has also witnessed a wave of successful restorations of its historic landmarks, until the start of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and the Battle of Aleppo (Battle of Aleppo (2012–present)). Agha Khan restoration plans of the old city

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