Achaean League

What is Achaean League known for?


powerful military

-2 (2006) until 43 BC (Gaius Cassius Longinus) and the Roman conquest. thumb 350px left Ancient coin of the Aetolian League, reading '''ΑΙΤΩΛΏΝ''' showing diademed head of a king to the left and Aitolos (File:Aetolian League.JPG) standing right. Circa 211 (211 BC)- 196 BC The Aetolians set up a united league, the Aetolian League, in early times. It soon became a powerful military confederation and by c. 340 BC it became one of the leading military powers in ancient Greece. The '''Battle of Gythium''' was fought in 195 BC between Sparta and the coalition of Rome, Rhodes, the Achaean League and Pergamum. As the port of Gythium was an important Spartan base the allies decided to capture it before they advanced inland to Sparta. The Romans and the Achaeans (Achaean League) were joined outside the city by the Pergamese and Rhodian fleets. The Spartans held out but one of the joint commanders, Dexagoridas, decided to surrender the city to the Roman legate (legatus). When Gorgopas (Gorgopas (2nd Century BC)), the other commander, found out he killed Dexagoridas and took solo command of the city. After Dexagoridas' murder the Spartans held out more vigorously. However, Flaminius of the allied forces arrived with 4,000 more men and the Spartans decided to surrender the city on the condition that the garrison could leave unharmed. The result of this battle forced Nabis, the tyrant of Sparta, to abandon the surrounding land and withdraw to the city of Sparta. Later that year, Sparta capitulated to the allies. The '''Battle of Mantinea''' was fought in 207 BC between Sparta led by Machanidas and the Achaean League, whose forces were led by Philopoemen. The Achaeans were victorious, and Machanidas was slain. Historical usage Not all states gave their naval commanders such a title. Athens, for instance, placed its fleet under the command of generals (''strategoi (strategos)'') holding the same title as those who commanded its land forces. Such command structures reflected the fact that, especially early in the Classical period, fleets operated in close conjunction with land forces, and indeed, the title of navarch did not begin to appear until the time of the Peloponnesian War, when fleets began to operate more independently. This separate title was originally used in cities that lacked an established naval tradition, Sparta being the most prominent, but entered broader use later, being adopted by the navies of the Hellenistic era states such as Macedon, Syracuse (Syracuse, Italy), Ptolemaic (Ptolemaic Empire) and Seleucid Empire, Achaean League, and Rhodes. Based on the design of the defense towers, Ober proposes that the site was fortified after 370 BCE. Lawrence opts for a date in the late 4th century BCE, on the assumption that Demetrios Poliorcetes (Demetrius I of Macedon) built the fortress rather than simply occupying it. The site was under the control of the Achaean League in 243-224 BCE, and in 224 - 146 BCE it joined the Boeotian League. Shrines of Melampos (Melampus) and Heracles are known to have existed by inscriptions recovered on the site. The town and its warehouses operated down into Roman times. An inscription of c. 420 CE listed Aigosthena as a free city. A five-aisled Christian basilica was erected in the lower fortified area in the medieval period, and there was a monastery complex within the citadel. In politics after the death of Alexander the Great it was briefly ruled by Cassander. It gained some attention in 280 BC for being a part of the effort to revive the Achaean League. A battle took place at Dyme in 226 BC between the Spartans under King Cleomenes III and the Achaean League under the command of Aratus of Sicyon and ended in a Spartan victory. It was ransacked by Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus during the First Macedonian War. There was a rebellion in 115 BC. Pompey settled some pirates there and Caesar later installed a Roman colony at Dyme. The '''Battle of Dyme''' or Dymae was a battle that was fought by the Achaean League under the command of their Strategos, Aratus (Aratus of Sicyon) and a Spartan army under the command of King Cleomenes III and was part of the Cleomenean War. The battle took in place near Dyme in north-west Achaea and was fought in 226 BC. In the spring of 198 BC, Attalus returned to Greece with twenty-three quinqueremes joining a fleet of twenty Rhodian decked warships at Andros, to complete the conquest of Euboea begun the previous year. Soon joined by the Romans, the combined fleets took Eretria and later Carystus. Thus, the allies controlled all of Euboea except for Chalcis. Livy, 32.16,17; Hansen, pp. 63–64. The allied fleet then sailed for Cenchreae in preparation for an attack on Corinth. Meanwhile, the new Roman consul for that year, Titus Quinctius Flamininus, had learned that the Achaean League, allies of Macedon, had had a change in leadership which favored Rome. With the hope of inducing the Achaeans to abandon Philip and join the allies, envoys were sent, including Attalus himself, to Sicyon, where they offered the incorporation of Corinth into the Achaean League. Attalus apparently so impressed the Sicyonians, that they erected a colossal statue of him in their market place and instituted sacrifices in his honor. A meeting of the League was convened and after a heated debate and the withdrawal of some of delegates the rest agreed to join the alliance. Attalus led his army from Cenchreae (now controlled by the allies) through the Isthmus and attached Corinth from the north, controlling the access to Lechaeum, the Corinthian port on the Gulf of Corinth, the Romans attacked from the east controlling the approaches to Cenchreae, with the Achaeans attacking from the west controlling the access to the city via the Sicyonian gate. However the city held, and when Macedonian reinforcements arrived, the siege was abandoned. The Achaeans were dismissed, the Romans left for Corcyra, while Attalus sailed for Piraeus. Livy, 32.19–23; Polybius, 18.16; Hansen, p. 64. Gruen (1986), pp. 179, 181.


224'

the koinon of Achaeans, when the ''strategos'' was Egnatius Brachyllus, decided to send an embassy to the emperor Caracalla IG II² 1094 Inscriptions An inscription from ancient Orchomenus (Orchomenus (Boeotia)) dating to 234–224 BC states that members of the Achaean Federation must invoke Zeus and Athena. Mogens Herman Hansen, 2004 Army

Corinth Corinth (243–224 BC, again 197 BC) *Stymphalos *Tenea From Argolis *Troezen (243 BC) *Epidaurus (243 BC) *Cleonae (Cleonae (Argolis)) (235 BC) *Argos (229 BC) *Hermione (Ermioni) (229 BC) *Phlius (229 BC) *Alea (Alea, Argolis) *Asine From Arcadia ''From the ancient political geography of Arcadia, not totally compatible with modern Arcadia'' *Megalopolis (Megalopolis, Greece) (235 BC) *Mantineia (235 227 BC) * Orchomenus (Arcadia

*Aratus of Sicyon VIII 231 - 230 BC *Lydiadas of Megalopolis III 230 - 229 BC *Aratus of Sicyon IX 229 - 228 BC *Aristomachos of Argos 228 - 227 BC *Aratus of Sicyon X 227 - 226 BC *Hyperbatas 226 - 225 BC *Aratus of Sicyon in 225 224 BC held the exceptional office of ''strategos autokrator'' *Timoxenos 225 - 224 BC *Aratus of Sicyon XI 224 - 223 BC *Timoxenos 223 - 222 BC (?) *Aratus of Sicyon XII 222 - 221 BC *Timoxenos 221 - 220 BC * Aratus


great military

and a major figure in the demise of Sparta as a Greek power (b. 253 BC) ** Hannibal, Carthaginian (Carthage) statesman, military commander and tactician, one of history's great military leaders, who has commanded the Carthaginian forces against Rome (Roman Republic) in the Second Punic War (b. 247 BC) * Rhodes and its allies Pergamum, Cyzicus, and Byzantium combine their fleets and defeat Philip V in the Battle of Chios. His flagship is trapped and rammed

great military leaders, who has commanded the Carthaginian forces against Rome (Roman Republic) in the Second Punic War (b. 247 BC) * An earthquake (226 BC Rhodes earthquake) destroys the city of Kameiros on the island of Rhodes and the Colossus of Rhodes. * The Spartan King Cleomenes III captures Mantineia and defeats the Achaean League under Aratus of Sicyon at Hecatombaeum, near Dyme in north-eastern Elis. * The Spartan King


position+battle

included the two great leagues. Usually rivals, the Aetolian League and Achaean League, now became allies against the Macedonian power. He succeeded in dealing this coalition severe blows, wresting Boeotia from their alliance. The revolution in Epirus (Epirus (ancient state)), which substituted a republican league for the monarchy, gravely weakened his position. - Battle of Mantinea (Battle of Mantinea (207 BC)) Philopoemen of the Achaean League defeats


historical commentary

: A Sourcebook'' * Walbank, F.W (1933), ''Aratos of Sicyon'' * Walbank, F.W (1967), ''A Historical Commentary on Polybius'', Volume III * Walbank; Astin; Frederiksen; Ogilvie (1984), ''The Cambridge Ancient History'', Volume VII, Part I" External links *Hannibal and the Punic Wars *Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 *


leading military

-2 (2006) until 43 BC (Gaius Cassius Longinus) and the Roman conquest. thumb 350px left Ancient coin of the Aetolian League, reading '''ΑΙΤΩΛΏΝ''' showing diademed head of a king to the left and Aitolos (File:Aetolian League.JPG) standing right. Circa 211 (211 BC)- 196 BC The Aetolians set up a united league, the Aetolian League, in early times. It soon became a powerful military confederation and by c. 340 BC it became one of the leading military powers in ancient Greece. The '''Battle of Gythium''' was fought in 195 BC between Sparta and the coalition of Rome, Rhodes, the Achaean League and Pergamum. As the port of Gythium was an important Spartan base the allies decided to capture it before they advanced inland to Sparta. The Romans and the Achaeans (Achaean League) were joined outside the city by the Pergamese and Rhodian fleets. The Spartans held out but one of the joint commanders, Dexagoridas, decided to surrender the city to the Roman legate (legatus). When Gorgopas (Gorgopas (2nd Century BC)), the other commander, found out he killed Dexagoridas and took solo command of the city. After Dexagoridas' murder the Spartans held out more vigorously. However, Flaminius of the allied forces arrived with 4,000 more men and the Spartans decided to surrender the city on the condition that the garrison could leave unharmed. The result of this battle forced Nabis, the tyrant of Sparta, to abandon the surrounding land and withdraw to the city of Sparta. Later that year, Sparta capitulated to the allies. The '''Battle of Mantinea''' was fought in 207 BC between Sparta led by Machanidas and the Achaean League, whose forces were led by Philopoemen. The Achaeans were victorious, and Machanidas was slain. Historical usage Not all states gave their naval commanders such a title. Athens, for instance, placed its fleet under the command of generals (''strategoi (strategos)'') holding the same title as those who commanded its land forces. Such command structures reflected the fact that, especially early in the Classical period, fleets operated in close conjunction with land forces, and indeed, the title of navarch did not begin to appear until the time of the Peloponnesian War, when fleets began to operate more independently. This separate title was originally used in cities that lacked an established naval tradition, Sparta being the most prominent, but entered broader use later, being adopted by the navies of the Hellenistic era states such as Macedon, Syracuse (Syracuse, Italy), Ptolemaic (Ptolemaic Empire) and Seleucid Empire, Achaean League, and Rhodes. Based on the design of the defense towers, Ober proposes that the site was fortified after 370 BCE. Lawrence opts for a date in the late 4th century BCE, on the assumption that Demetrios Poliorcetes (Demetrius I of Macedon) built the fortress rather than simply occupying it. The site was under the control of the Achaean League in 243-224 BCE, and in 224 - 146 BCE it joined the Boeotian League. Shrines of Melampos (Melampus) and Heracles are known to have existed by inscriptions recovered on the site. The town and its warehouses operated down into Roman times. An inscription of c. 420 CE listed Aigosthena as a free city. A five-aisled Christian basilica was erected in the lower fortified area in the medieval period, and there was a monastery complex within the citadel. In politics after the death of Alexander the Great it was briefly ruled by Cassander. It gained some attention in 280 BC for being a part of the effort to revive the Achaean League. A battle took place at Dyme in 226 BC between the Spartans under King Cleomenes III and the Achaean League under the command of Aratus of Sicyon and ended in a Spartan victory. It was ransacked by Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus during the First Macedonian War. There was a rebellion in 115 BC. Pompey settled some pirates there and Caesar later installed a Roman colony at Dyme. The '''Battle of Dyme''' or Dymae was a battle that was fought by the Achaean League under the command of their Strategos, Aratus (Aratus of Sicyon) and a Spartan army under the command of King Cleomenes III and was part of the Cleomenean War. The battle took in place near Dyme in north-west Achaea and was fought in 226 BC. In the spring of 198 BC, Attalus returned to Greece with twenty-three quinqueremes joining a fleet of twenty Rhodian decked warships at Andros, to complete the conquest of Euboea begun the previous year. Soon joined by the Romans, the combined fleets took Eretria and later Carystus. Thus, the allies controlled all of Euboea except for Chalcis. Livy, 32.16,17; Hansen, pp. 63–64. The allied fleet then sailed for Cenchreae in preparation for an attack on Corinth. Meanwhile, the new Roman consul for that year, Titus Quinctius Flamininus, had learned that the Achaean League, allies of Macedon, had had a change in leadership which favored Rome. With the hope of inducing the Achaeans to abandon Philip and join the allies, envoys were sent, including Attalus himself, to Sicyon, where they offered the incorporation of Corinth into the Achaean League. Attalus apparently so impressed the Sicyonians, that they erected a colossal statue of him in their market place and instituted sacrifices in his honor. A meeting of the League was convened and after a heated debate and the withdrawal of some of delegates the rest agreed to join the alliance. Attalus led his army from Cenchreae (now controlled by the allies) through the Isthmus and attached Corinth from the north, controlling the access to Lechaeum, the Corinthian port on the Gulf of Corinth, the Romans attacked from the east controlling the approaches to Cenchreae, with the Achaeans attacking from the west controlling the access to the city via the Sicyonian gate. However the city held, and when Macedonian reinforcements arrived, the siege was abandoned. The Achaeans were dismissed, the Romans left for Corcyra, while Attalus sailed for Piraeus. Livy, 32.19–23; Polybius, 18.16; Hansen, p. 64. Gruen (1986), pp. 179, 181.


234

the koinon of Achaeans, when the ''strategos'' was Egnatius Brachyllus, decided to send an embassy to the emperor Caracalla IG II² 1094 Inscriptions An inscription from ancient Orchomenus (Orchomenus (Boeotia)) dating to 234–224 BC states that members of the Achaean Federation must invoke Zeus and Athena. Mogens Herman Hansen, 2004 Army

of ''Strategoi'' (Generals) *Margos of Keryneia (Margos) 256 - 255 BC *Aratus of Sicyon I 245 - 244 BC *Aratus of Sicyon II 243 - 242 BC *Aegialeas 242 - 241 BC (?) *Aratus of Sicyon III 241 - 240 BC *Aratus of Sicyon IV 239 - 238 BC *Aratus of Sicyon V 237 - 236 BC *Dioedas 236 - 235 BC (or 244 - 243 BC) *Aratus of Sicyon VI 235 - 234 BC *Lydiadas of Megalopolis I 234 - 233 BC *Aratus of Sicyon VII 233 - 232 BC *Lydiadas of Megalopolis II 232 - 231 BC

Dioedas after Aegialeas years 243 BC – 242 BC


222

) or the whole of Roman Achaea (Achaea (Roman province)). In c. 120 BC Achaeans of cities in the Peloponnese dedicated an honorary inscription to Olympian (Twelve Olympians) Zeus, after a military expedition with Gnaeus Domitius (Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 122 BC)) against the Galatians in Gallia Transalpina. SEG 15:254 In Athens, AD 221-222

and 50 horse each from Taurion and the Messenians for defence of parts of the League open to attack via Laconia. The citizen infantry would have been armed as ''thureophoroi'', apart from the citizen light troops who would have been archers and slingers etc. This picked citizen force may well have existed before these so-called reforms, at least on an official basis, as we know of a similar elite force of the same size as Sellasia in 222. However

*Aratus of Sicyon VIII 231 - 230 BC *Lydiadas of Megalopolis III 230 - 229 BC *Aratus of Sicyon IX 229 - 228 BC *Aristomachos of Argos 228 - 227 BC *Aratus of Sicyon X 227 - 226 BC *Hyperbatas 226 - 225 BC *Aratus of Sicyon in 225 224 BC held the exceptional office of ''strategos autokrator'' *Timoxenos 225 - 224 BC *Aratus of Sicyon XI 224 - 223 BC *Timoxenos 223 - 222 BC (?) *Aratus of Sicyon XII 222 - 221 BC *Timoxenos 221 - 220 BC * Aratus


aggressive military

of the Achaeans, the Greek general Philopoemen is responsible for turning the Achaean League into an aggressive military power. He builds up the League's military capability. The Achaean League's army and cavalry under Philopoemen then defeat the Aetolians on the Elean frontier. Greece * The Battle of Gythium is fought between Sparta and a coalition of Rome, Rhodes, the Achaean League and Pergamum. As the port of Gythium is an important Spartan


186

*Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) 201 - 200 BC *Cycliadas of Pharae (Cycliadas) 200 - 199 BC *Aristaenos of Megalopolis 199 - 198 BC *Nicostratus of Acaia 198 - 197 BC *Aristaenos of Megalopolis 195 - 194 BC *Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) 193 - 192 BC *Diophanes of Megalopolis 192 - 191 BC *Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) 191 - 190 BC *Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) 189 - 188 BC *Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) 187 - 186 BC

*Aristaenos of Megalopolis 186 - 185 BC *Lycortas of Megalopolis (Lycortas) 185 - 184 BC *Archon (Archon,leader of Achaean League) 184 - 183 BC *Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) VIII 183 - 182 BC (Lycortas of Megalopolis (Lycortas) was Hipparch) *Lycortas of Megalopolis (Lycortas) 182 - 181 BC *Calicrates 180 - 179 BC *Xenarchos 175 - 174 BC *Archon (Archon,leader of Achaean League) 172 - 171 BC *Archon (Archon,leader of Achaean League) 170 - 169 BC ( Polybius

of the Achaean League before Aristaenos of Megalopolis after Diophanes years 193 BC – 192 BC

Achaean League

The '''Achaean League''' (Greek (Ancient Greek): ) or '''Aegean League''' was a Hellenistic-era confederation of Greek (Greece) city state (polis)s on the northern and central Peloponnese. (Peloponnese) The first league was formed in the 5th century BC. The second Achaean League existed between 280 BC and 146 BC. The league was named after the region of Achaea (Achaea (ancient region)).

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