to Georgia’s capital Tbilisi where it operated as the Government of Abkhazia in exile for almost 13 years. During this period, the Government of Abkhazia in exile, led by Tamaz Nadareishvili, was known for a hard-line stance towards the Abkhaz problem and frequently voiced their opinion that the solution to the conflict can be attained only through Georgia's military response to secessionism. WikiPedia:Abkhazia Commons:Abkhazia
. WikiPedia:Abkhazia Commons:Abkhazia
, but are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power. Schiltberger next accompanied Chekre, a Tatar prince living in Abu Bekr's horde, on an excursion to Siberia, of which name Schiltberger gives us the first clear mention of west European literature. He also probably followed his new master in his attack on the Old Bulgaria of the middle Volga, answering to the modern Kazan and its neighborhood. Wanderings in the steppe lands of south-east
of unrest ensued, which ended as Abkhazia and eastern Georgian states were unified (Unified Georgian Kingdom) under a single Georgian monarchy (History of Georgia (country)), ruled by King Bagrat III (Bagrat III of Georgia) (who was buried in the Monastery of Bedia (Bedia Cathedral) in eastern Abkhazia) at the end of the 10th century and the beginning of the 11th century. In the 16th century, after the break-up of the Georgian Kingdom into small kingdoms and principalities
the Gagra Range comes most closely to the Bzyb Range is called ''Stone Sack'' and is a popular tourist attraction. One can see mountains of both ranges overhead. This is a view from the Stone Sack to the lower stream of the Bzyb River. '''Bzyb Range''' ( WikiPedia:Abkhazia Commons:Abkhazia
Khashig (August 19, 2004) Abkhazia Revels in Nationalist’s Visit. Institute for War and Peace Reporting Caucasus Reporting Service No. 247. After war broke out between Russia and Georgia in 2008 (2008 South Ossetia war), Zhirinovsky argued in favor of Russian recognition of Abkhazian and South Ossetian independence. "We should have taken the whole territory of Georgia under control," he complained
, 2004) Abkhazia Revels in Nationalist’s Visit. Institute for War and Peace Reporting Caucasus Reporting Service No. 247. After war broke out between Russia and Georgia in 2008 (2008 South Ossetia war), Zhirinovsky argued in favor of Russian recognition of Abkhazian and South Ossetian independence. "We should have taken the whole territory of Georgia under control," he complained, and "arrested
organisation that specialises in the removal of the debris of war, has been active in Abkhazia since 1999 and has completed the removal of landmines in Sukhumi and Gali districts. It plans to finish its operations in 2007 2008 and to declare Abkhazia a "mine impact free" territory. The HALO Trust. Abkhazia The main NGO working in Abkhazia is the France-based international NGO Première-Urgence (PU):<
; ref International involvement The UN has played various roles during the conflict and peace process: a military role through its observer mission (UNOMIG); dual diplomatic roles through the Security Council and the appointment of a Special Envoy, succeeded by a Special Representative to the Secretary-General; a humanitarian role (UNHCR and UNOCHA); a development role (UNDP); a human rights role (UNHCHR); and a low-key capacity and confidence-building role ( United
Union and kept Soviet passports even after a decade. Before 2002, Russian law allowed residents of former Soviet Union to apply for citizenship if they had not become citizens of their newly independent states. The procedure was extremely
complex. The new Citizenship Law of Russia adopted on 31 May 2002 introduced a simplified procedure of citizenship acquisition for former citizens of the Soviet Union regardless of their place of residence. In Abkhazia and South Ossetia the application process was simplified even further, and people could apply even without leaving their homes. Russian nationalist non-governmental organizations with close ties to Russian officialdom simply took their papers to a nearby Russian city
'''Abkhazia''' ( ''Abkhaziya'') is a disputed territory and partially recognised state (International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia) controlled by a separatist government on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus.
Abkhazia considers itself an independent state, called the '''Republic of Abkhazia''' or '''Apsny'''. Art. 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Abkhazia Olga Oliker, Thomas S. Szayna. Faultlines of Conflict in Central Asia and the South Caucasus: Implications for the U.S. Army. Rand Corporation, 2003, ISBN 978-0-8330-3260-7. Abkhazia: ten years on. By Rachel Clogg, Conciliation Resources, 2001. Emmanuel Karagiannis. Energy and Security in the Caucasus. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7007-1481-0. The Guardian. Georgia up in arms over Olympic cash This status is recognised (International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia) by Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru,
The Georgian government (Government of Georgia (country)), United Nations and the majority of the world's governments consider Abkhazia a part of Georgia's territory, though Georgia is not in control of it. Under Georgia's official designation it is an autonomous republic, called the '''Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia''', whose government (Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia) sits in exile in Tbilisi.
The status of Abkhazia is a central issue of the Georgian–Abkhazian conflict. The wider region formed part of the Soviet Union until 1991. As the Soviet Union began to disintegrate towards the end of the 1980s, ethnic tensions grew between the Abkhaz (Abkhaz people) and Georgians (Georgian people) over Georgia's moves towards independence. This led to the 1992–1993 War in Abkhazia (War in Abkhazia (1992–1993)) that resulted in a Georgian military defeat, ''de facto'' independence of Abkhazia and the mass exodus and ethnic cleansing of the Georgian population (Ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia) from Abkhazia. In spite of the 1994 ceasefire agreement (Agreement on a Cease-fire and Separation of Forces) and years of negotiations, the status dispute has not been resolved, and despite the long-term presence of a United Nations monitoring force (UNOMIG) and a Russian-dominated Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) peacekeeping operation, the conflict has flared up on several occasions. In August 2008, the sides again fought during the South Ossetia War (2008 South Ossetia war), which was followed by the formal recognition of Abkhazia by Russia, the annulment of the 1994 ceasefire agreement and the termination of the UN and OSCE missions.
Abkhazia, Transnistria, Nagorno-Karabakh (Nagorno-Karabakh Republic), and South Ossetia are post-Soviet "frozen conflict" zones. OSCE: De Gucht Discusses Montenegro Referendum, Frozen Conflicts, GlobalSecurity.org, Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty, May 2006 Vladimir Socor,