crescents; in 1793 the number of crescents was reduced to one and an eight-pointed star was later added on, when the rule of the Ottoman Empire ended, Turkey was the only Muslim state regarded as a world power at the time. Its flag was known from West Africa to the Far East, and helped to popularize the crescent and star among the Muslim populations of many countries of Asia and Africa. Muhammad Ali, who became Pasha of Egypt in 1805, introduced the first national flag of Egypt, red with three white crescents, each accompanied by a white star. This flag, in turn, influenced the design of the first flag of independent Egypt, which was green with a white crescent and three white stars to symbolize the peaceful co-existence of Muslims, Christians and Jews. During the past two centuries the crescent and star has featured on the flags of other Muslim countries. Operation Torch On 23 October 1942, ''Texas'' embarked upon her first major combat operation when she sortied with Task Group 34.8 (TG 34.8), the Northern Attack Group for Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa. The objective assigned to this group was Mehedia (Mahdia) near Port Lyautey and the port itself. The ships arrived off the assault beaches early in the morning of 8 November and began preparations for the invasion. ''Texas'' transmitted Lieutenant General (Lieutenant General (United States)) Dwight D. Eisenhower's first "Voice of Freedom" broadcast, asking the French not to oppose Allied landings on North Africa. When the troops went ashore, ''Texas'' did not come immediately into action to support them. At that point in the war, amphibious warfare doctrine was still embryonic; and many did not recognize the value of a pre-landing bombardment. Instead, the Army insisted upon attempting surprise. ''Texas'' finally entered the fray early in the afternoon when the Army requested her to destroy an ammunition dump near Port Lyautey. One more gunfire mission was provided on the 10th before the ceasefire on 11 November. Action Report, Battleship Texas, 19 November 1942 http: commons.wikimedia.org wiki File:N._Africa_Nov_1942_gun_firing.jpg Thus, unlike in later operations, she expended only 273 rounds of '''Philip of Mahdia''', of Greek (Greeks) origin, was the emir of Palermo, the second ''ammiratus ammiratorum (Admiral)'', and successor of the great George of Antioch. He was a eunuch who rose through the ranks of the royal ''curia'' in Palermo until he was eventually one of King Roger II's most trusted men. On George's death in year 546 of the Hegira (Hijri year) (AD 1151 or 1152), Roger appointed him to the highest post in the kingdom. In 1060 Pisa engaged in its first battle with Genoa, and the Pisan victory helped to consolidate its position in the Mediterranean. Pope Gregory VII recognized in 1077 the new "laws and customs of the sea" instituted by the Pisans, and Emperor Henry IV granted them the right to name their own consuls, advised by a Council of Elders. This was simply a confirmation of the present situation, because in those years the marquis had already been excluded from power. In 1092 Pope Urban II awarded Pisa supremacy over Corsica and Sardinia, and at the same time raised the town to the rank of archbishopric. Pisa sacked the Tunisian city of Mahdia in 1088. Four years later Pisan and Genoese ships helped Alfonso VI of Castile to force El Cid out of Valencia.
2001rank.html title CIA – The World Factbook – Country Comparisons – GDP (purchasing power parity) publisher Cia.gov date accessdate 25 January 2011 Brazil is one of the world's fastest growing (Economic growth) major economies. Economic reforms have given the country new international recognition.
of the largest and richest cities in the world during the 17th century – funding the vast wealth that ultimately made Spain a world power at the time. With the silver mining industry in Potosi at its height, Cochabamba thrived during its first centuries of existence. The city entered a period of decline during the 18th century as mining began to wane. In 1786, King Charles III of Spain renamed the city to the 'loyal and valiant' Villa of Cochabamba. This was done to commend the city's pivotal role in suppressing the indigenous rebellions of 1781 in Oruro by sending armed forces to Oruro to quell the uprisings. Since the late 19th century it has again been generally successful as an agricultural centre for Bolivia. The 1793 census shows that the city had a population of 22,305 persons. There were 12,980 mestizos, 6,368 Spaniards, 1,182 indigenous natives, 1,600 mulattos and 175 African slaves. In 2000, Cochabamba was wracked with large-scale protests over the privatisation of the city's water supply. See Cochabamba protests of 2000. In January 2007 city dwellers clashed with mostly rural protestors, leaving four dead and over 130 injured. The democratically-elected Prefect of Cochabamba, Manfred Reyes Villa, a former military aide to the Luis García Meza dictatorship of the 1980s, had allied himself with the leaders of Bolivia's Eastern Departments in a dispute with President Evo Morales over regional autonomy and other political issues. The protestors blockaded the highways, bridges, and main roads, having days earlier set fire to the departmental seat of government, trying to force the resignation of Reyes Villa. Citizens attacked the protestors, breaking the blockade and routing them, while the police did little to stop the violence. Further attempts by the protestors to reinstate the blockade and threaten the government were unsuccessful, but the underlying tensions have not been resolved. In July 2007, a monument erected by veterans of January's protest movement in honour of those killed and injured by government supporters was destroyed in the middle of the night, reigniting racial conflicts in the city. In August 2008, a nationwide referendum was held, and while the president Evo Morales had 67% support in Bolivia, the prefect of Cochabamba, Manfred Reyes Villa, was not confirmed by the voters of the department. Geography Cochabamba Department is bordered by Chuquisaca (Chuquisaca Department) and Potosi Department to the south, Oruro (Oruro Department) and La Paz Department (La Paz Department, Bolivia) to the west, Beni Department to the north, and Santa Cruz Department (Santa Cruz Department (Bolivia)) to the east. The borders are formed mainly by rivers, like '''Ichilo''' to the east, '''Rio Grande''' to the south and '''Cotacajes''' to the west. Andes Travel Map Government The chief executive office of Bolivia departments (Departments of Bolivia) (since May 2010) is the governor; until then, the office was called the prefect, and until 2006 the prefect was appointed by the President of Bolivia. The current governor, Edmundo Novillo Aguilar of the Movement for Socialism – Political Instrument for the Sovereignty of the Peoples was elected on 4 April 2010 and took office 30 May. Under the 2009 Constitution (Bolivian Constitution of 2009), Bolivian departments have an elected legislature, the Departmental Legislative Assembly. The Cochabamba Assembly has 34 members including two indigenous representatives. The most recent election results are as follows: '''Yuracaré''' (also '''Yurakaré''', '''Yurakar''', '''Yuracare''', '''Yurucare''', '''Yuracar''', '''Yurakare''', '''Yurujuré''', '''Yurujare''') is an endangered (endangered language) language isolate of central Bolivia in Cochabamba (Cochabamba Department) and Beni (Beni Department) departments spoken by the Yuracaré people.
, the mark of a world power. Ultimately, control of the Suez Canal and of Gibraltar would complete the picture. Kelly, Saul, ''The Lost Oasis'', p. 102 thumb right 240px Al Kufrah borders from 2001 to 2007 (File:Libyen Al Kufrah.png) '''Kufra''' or '''Kofra''' ( ''), also spelled ''Cufra'', is the largest district (Districts of Libya) of Libya. Its capital is Al Jawf (Al Jawf, Libya), one of the oases in Kufra
en&sa X&ei ZjvRUq-RHsq_kgWqooDICQ&ved 0CCsQ6AEwAA#v onepage&q %22Dai%20Nippon%20Teikoku%22%20%22Empire%20of%20Great%20Japan%22&f false page 83 was a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, empire and world power (great power) that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution (Constitution of Japan) of modern Japan. Imperial Japan's rapid
industrialization and militarization under the slogan , making it one
philosophies. In the Meiji Restoration period, military and economic power was well emphasized. Military strength became the means for national development and stability. Imperial Japan became the only non-Western world power and a major force in east and southeast Asia in about 40 years as a result of industrialization and economic development. As writer Albrecht Fürst von Urach (Albrecht von Urach) comments in his booklet "The Secret of Japan's Strength," which was written during the Axis powers period: The rise of Japan to a world power during the past 80 years is the greatest miracle in world history. The mighty empires of antiquity, the major political institutions of the Middle Ages and the early modern era, the Spanish Empire, the British Empire, all needed centuries to achieve their full strength. Japan's rise has been meteoric. After only 80 years, it is one of the few great powers that determine the fate of the world. The Secret of Japan's Strength www.calvin.edu The sudden westernization, once it was adopted, changed almost all areas of Japanese society, ranging from armaments, arts, clothes, etiquette, judicial and political systems, language, etc. The Japanese government sent students to Western countries to observe and learn their practices, and also paid "foreign advisors (Foreign government advisors in Meiji Japan)" in a variety of fields to come to Japan to educate the populace. For instance, the judicial system and constitution were largely modeled on those of Germany. The government also outlawed customs linked to Japan's feudal past, such as publicly displaying and wearing katana and the top knot (Chonmage), both of which were characteristic of the samurai class, which was abolished together with the caste system. This would later bring the Meiji government into conflict with the Samurai (Satsuma Rebellion). File:Takamori Saigo.png Saigō Takamori, one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history File:Meiji tenno1.jpg Emperor Meiji, the 122nd emperor of Japan File:Iwakura mission.jpg The mission major member. Left to right : Kido Takayoshi, Yamaguchi Masuka, Iwakura Tomomi, Itō Hirobumi, Ōkubo Toshimichi File:Thomas Blake Glover.jpg Merchant Thomas Blake Glover was a British (United Kingdom) merchant in Bakumatsu and received Japan's second highest order (Order (honour)) from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan's industrialization. File:HIH Princess Higashifushimi Kaneko.jpg HIH Princess Kaneko Higashi-fushimi in western clothing Constitution was an administrative post not of Cabinet rank in the government of the Empire of Japan. The Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal was responsible for keeping the Privy Seal of Japan and State Seal of Japan. With the rise of the 1917 revolution (Russian Revolution of 1917), the Altay attempted to make their region a separate Burkhanist republic called Oryot, but their support for the Mensheviks during the Civil War (Russian Civil War) led to the venture's collapse after the Bolshevik victory and the rise of Stalin. In the 1940s, the Altay were accused of being pro-Japanese (Empire of Japan), and the word "oyrot" was declared counterrevolutionary. By 1950, Soviet industrialization (History of the Soviet Union (1927-1953)#Planning) policies brought Russian immigrants reducing the proportion of Altay from 50% to 20% of the population. "Altay", Centre for Russian Studies, NUPI, retrieved 17 October 2006 Ethnic Altaians currently make up about 31% of the Altai Republic's population. Altai Republic :: official portal At 11pm Trans-Baikal time on August 8, 1945, Soviet foreign minister Molotov (Vyacheslav Molotov) informed Japanese ambassador Sato (Naotake Satō) that the Soviet Union had declared war on the Empire of Japan, and that from August 9 the Soviet Government would consider itself to be at war with Japan. Soviet Declaration of War on Japan, August 8, 1945. (Avalon Project at Yale University) At one minute past midnight Trans-Baikal time on August 9, 1945, the Soviets commenced their invasion simultaneously on three fronts to the east, west and north of Manchuria. The operation was subdivided into smaller operational and tactical parts: *Khingan-Mukden Offensive Operation (August 9, 1945 - September 2, 1945)
on ferrous metallurgy which allowed for the mass production of metal weapons and thus the equipment of large standing armies. The first military power to profit from these innovations was the Neo-Assyrian Empire, which achieved a hitherto unseen (List of largest empires#Ancient empires) extent of centralized control, the first "world power" to extend over the entire Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia, the Levant and Egypt (Ancient Egypt)). thumb 250px A fanciful 1759 map entitled ''The Holy Land (File:1759 map Holy Land and 12 Tribes.jpg) or Palestine''. It supposes the depiction in the Holy Scriptures (Books of the Bible) of the ancient kingdoms of Judah and Israel and the locations of the 12 tribes (Israelites) as per Tobias Conrad Lotter, a geographer from Augsburg, Germany The region was among the earliest in the world to see human habitation, agricultural communities and civilization. During the Bronze Age, independent Canaanite city-states were established, and were influenced by the surrounding civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Minoan (Minoan civilization) Crete, and Syria. Between 1550-1400 BCE, the Canaanite cities became vassals to the Egyptian New Kingdom who held power until the 1178 BCE Battle of Djahy (Canaan) (Battle of Djahy) during the wider Bronze Age collapse. The Philistines arrived and mingled with the local population, and according to Biblical tradition, the United Kingdom of Israel (United Monarchy) was established in 1020 BC and split within a century to form the northern Kingdom of Israel (Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)), and the southern Kingdom of Judah. The region became part of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from c740 BCE, which was itself replaced by the Neo-Babylonian Empire in c.627 BCE. According to the bible, a war with Egypt culminated in 586 BCE when Jerusalem was destroyed by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II and the local leaders of the region of Judea were deported to Babylonia (Babylonian captivity). In 539 BCE, the Babylonian empire was replaced by the Achaemenid Empire. According to the bible and implications from the Cyrus Cylinder, the exiled population of Judea was allowed to return to Jerusalem (The Return to Zion). *Sumer, Babylonia, History of Sumer *Assyria, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Babylonia and Assyria *Hittites, History of the Hittites, Syro-Hittite states Jesus grew up in Galilee. For over a half-millennium, the language for the region was Aramaic (Aramaic language), stemming from the Neo-Assyrian Empire's invasion of the Northern Kingdom (722 BC) and the Babylonian captivity of the Kingdom of Judah (586 BC). This became a western-Aramaic dialect, a version of standard Aramaic (Aramaic language) (which had originally been the language of Damascus), and a number of Hebrew words and some Hebrew-inspired grammar were often mixed into Jewish usage. However, for some Jews, Hebrew (Hebrew language) remained a primary colloquial language, until the 3rd century AD. '''Quwê''' – also spelled '''Que''', '''Kue''', '''Qeve''', '''Coa''', '''Kuê''' and '''Keveh''' – was a "Neo-Hittite" Assyria (Neo-Assyrian Empire)n vassal state or province at various times from the 9th century BCE to shortly after the death of Ashurbanipal around 627 BCE in the lowlands of eastern Cilicia, and the name of its capital city, tentatively identified with Adana, in modern Turkey. According to many translations of the Bible, it was the place from which King Solomon obtained horses. (I Kings 10: 28, 29; II Chron. 1:16).
foreign policy is a by-product of the country's unique position as a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power. U.S. Congressional Report on Brazil United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-06-23. Brazilian foreign policy has generally been based on the principles of multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and non-intervention in the affairs
that the Spanish did not have the ability to properly explore the Pacific Ocean, and were not capable of finding the islands which lay at a latitude 20° north of the galleon route and their currents. However, Spanish activity in the Pacific was paramount until the late 18th century. Andrés de
Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS :'''George''': By Gum, this is interesting! I always loved history. The Battle of Hastings (w:Battle of Hastings), Henry VIII (w:Henry VIII of England) and his six knives (w:Wives of Henry VIII) and all that! :'''Blackadder''': You see, Baldrick, in order to prevent a war in Europe, two super blocs developed: us, the French and the Russians on one side (w:Allies of World War I); and the Germans and Austro-Hungary on the other (w:German Empire). The idea was to have two vast, opposing armies, each acting as the other's deterrent (w:Causes of World War I#Arms Race). That way, there could never be a war. :'''Baldrick''': Except, well, this is sort of a war, isn't it? First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995.