Places Known For

white field

Montserrado County

Bong County’s flag is purple, signifying the dawn, and orange, signifying the County’s newness. '''Todee District''' is one of four districts (Districts of Liberia) located in Montserrado County, Liberia. There was a former Armed Forces of Liberia base there housing the Tubman Military Academy and Second Infantry Battalion in 1984 (Library of Congress Liberia Country Study) and there have been some discussion post-2003 of rebuilding the base.

Bishopric of Würzburg

-Kreis.svg Coat of arms 120px The coat of arms show the symbols of the three historical states to which the area of the district belonged. The biggest part of the district was part of the Bishopric of Würzburg until 1803; Würzburg is represented by the red and white field divided by a line with three peaks, which was originally the coat of arms of Franconia. The wheel is the symbol of the Archbishopric of Mainz; the cross is the symbol of the Teutonic Order. Image:Wappen

British Antarctic Territory

It is subdivided into 100 ''pence'' (singular: ''penny''). A number of nations that do not use sterling also have currencies called the "pound (Pound (currency))". ;British Overseas Territories :There are fourteen British Overseas Territories many of which issue their own currencies which are distinct under ISO 4217; Gibraltar, Saint Helena and the Falkland Islands have their own pounds which are at par with Sterling. These notes cannot be used in the UK or outside the territories of origin. Falkland Island Pounds are also commonly used in the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the British Antarctic Territory. St Helena pounds can also be used


River (Saint John) Madawaska River which flows into the Saint John River (Saint John River (New Brunswick)) at Edmundston, New Brunswick and Madawaska, Maine flows through the region. The Republic of Madawaska now exists only in the hearts of the inhabitants of this legendary republic, who proudly refer to themselves as ''brayons''. A flag of the republic was created in 1938, bearing a bald eagle and an arc of six red stars on a white field. This flag flies at the city hall

Jewish Autonomous Oblast

Autonomous Oblast , situated in the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia, by the Chinese (People's Republic of China) border. The stripes symbolize the rainbow. The white field may be reminiscent of the Israeli flag (Flag of Israel). wikipedia:Jewish Autonomous Oblast commons:category:Jewish Autonomous Oblast


ensign Government Ensign since 1907 ''Actes et correspondance au sujet de l'emploi par le vapeur "Duke of Normandy" de pavillons distinctifs'', Jersey 1907 The flag of Jersey comprises a red saltire on a white field, and in the upper quadrant the badge of Jersey (Coat of arms of Jersey) (a red shield holding the three leopards of Normandy (Flag of Normandy) in yellow) surmounted by a yellow "Plantagenet crown (crown (heraldry))". The flag was adopted by the States of Jersey on June 12, 1979, proclaimed (royal proclamation) by Queen Elizabeth (Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom) on December 10, 1980 and first officially hoisted on April 7, 1981. - Jersey Jersey Statistics Unit 116 21 89,300 05 Channel Islands Jersey - In 2007, a controversy developed after it emerged that Alexander's campaign team had accepted a £950 impermissible donation from Paul Green, a property magnate, Q&A: Wendy Alexander donations row , ''BBC'', 1 December 2007 a matter that was investigated by the Electoral Commission (Electoral Commission (United Kingdom)) and Strathclyde Police. Alexander wrote to illegal donor, ''BBC News Online'', 30 November 2007 When it emerged that the donation of £950 had come from a personal account, and not a business account, the money was immediately forfeited. Further newspaper reports on 30 November indicated Alexander was aware of the identity of the donor, after having sent a personal letter of gratitude to Mr Green (at his home in Jersey) concerning the donation. Bombshell for Labour on illegal donations, ''The Scotsman'', 1 December 2007 As Mr Green was not registered as an elector in the United Kingdom this barred him from donating to a UK-based party. However, the Electoral Commission concluded in February 2008 that Alexander had taken 'significant steps' to comply with funding regulations and decided there was no basis for further action. Alexander in clear over donations, ''BBC News Online'', 7 February 2008 As part of the Electoral Commission ruling, they also stated that Alexander "did not take all reasonable steps" and that "there is not sufficient evidence to establish that an offence has been committed". Statement by the Electoral Commission, ''Electoral Commission (Electoral Commission (United Kingdom))'', 7 February 2008 These mixed messages have resulted in a number of people questioning the decision, including Alex Salmond the head of the Scottish Government who likened the result to a ''not proven'' verdict. Alexander in clear over donation, ''BBC News Online'', 7 February 2008 It was presented with its colours at Inverness in March 1778 and moved into barracks at Fort George (Fort George, Scotland). In March 1779 it moved to Perth (Perth, Scotland) where, following a dispute over their pay and bounty payment, soldiers from the regiment took part in the Burntisland mutiny of March 1779, whilst under the command of Major John Sinclair, 11th Earl of Caithness (Lord Berridale), after which it was transferred to Jersey in the Channel Islands and embarked for New York in August 1779. Europe In 1806 the regiment returned to the UK (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland). The following year, the regiment was deployed to Jersey for garrison duty. They were stationed there until 1808, when the 76th were deployed to Spain to take part in the Peninsular War. ** '''Equalization of age of consent''': Czechoslovakia (see Czech Republic (LGBT rights in the Czech Republic), Slovakia (LGBT rights in Slovakia)) ** '''Decriminalisation of homosexuality''': UK Crown Dependency of Jersey and the Australian state of Queensland (LGBT rights in Queensland) ** '''LGBT Organizations founded''': BiNet USA (USA), OutRage! (UK) and Queer Nation (USA) ** '''Anti-discrimination legislation''': United Kingdom (Equality Act (Sexual Orientation) Regulations)

Toledo, Spain

of Gibraltar coat of arms : "An escutcheon on which the upper two thirds shall be a white field and on the said field set a red castle, and below the said castle, on the other third of the escutcheon, which must be a red field in which there must be a white line between the castle and the said red field, there shall be a golden key which hangs by a chain from the said castle, as are here figured". The Castle and Key remain the Arms of Gibraltar to this day. left thumb The Coat of arms of Gibraltar arms (Image:Original coat of arms of Gibraltar.jpg) granted to the city of Gibraltar by a Royal Warrant passed in Toledo (Toledo, Spain) on 10 July 1502 by Isabella I of Castile *1502 10 July - By a Royal Warrant passed in Toledo (Toledo, Spain) by Isabella I of Castile, Gibraltar was granted its coat of arms (Coat of arms of Gibraltar): "An escutcheon on which the upper two thirds shall be a white field and on the said field set a red castle, and below the said castle, on the other third of the escutcheon, which must be a red field in which there must be a white line between the castle and the said red field, there shall be a golden key which hangs by a chain from the said castle, as are here figured". The Castle and Key remain the Arms of Gibraltar to this day. *1506 - Alleging a false donation by the king Philip I of Castile, the Duke of Medina Sidonia attempted to recover Gibraltar by besieging the town. The siege was unsuccessful and the Duke was admonished by the Regency and forced to pay a fee to the town. The town received the title of "Most Loyal City" (Tenth Siege of Gibraltar).The Duke died in 1507. The powerful influence of his family opened him a public career early in life. He was made archdeacon of Calatrava, and became a member of the king's council while young. In 1338 he was chosen archbishop of Toledo (Toledo, Spain) in succession to his uncle by the favour of the king, Alfonso XI of Castile. At the battle of Rio Salado he successfully fought against a Marinid invasion from Morocco in 1340, and at the taking of Algeciras in 1344 he led the armed levy of his archbishopric. In the Iberian peninsula, as elsewhere, the Empire fell not with a bang but with a whimper. Rather than there being any convenient date for the "fall of the Roman Empire" there was a progressive "de-Romanization" of the Western Roman Empire in Hispania and a weakening of central authority, throughout the 3rd, 4th and 5th centuries. Rhea Marsh Smith, ''Spain: A Modern History'' (University of Michigan: Ann Arbor, 1965) p. 20. At the same time, there was a process of "Romanization" of the Germanic and Hunnic tribes settled on both sides of the ''limes'' (the fortified frontier of the Empire along the Rhine and Danube rivers). The Visigoths, for example, were converted to Arian Christianity (Arianism) around 360, even before they were pushed into imperial territory by the expansion of the Huns. Rhea Marsh Smith, ''Spain: A Modern History'', p. 25. In the winter of 406, taking advantage of the frozen Rhine, the (Germanic (Germanic tribes)) Vandals and Sueves, and the (Sarmatian) Alans invaded the empire in force. Three years later they crossed the Pyrenees into Iberia (Iberian Peninsula) and divided the Western parts, roughly corresponding to modern Portugal and western Spain as far as Madrid, between them. Rhea Marsh Smith, ''Spain: A Modern History'', p. 14. The Visigoths meanwhile, having sacked Rome two years earlier, arrived in the region in 412 founding the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse (in the south of modern France) and gradually expanded their influence into the Iberian peninsula at the expense of the Vandals and Alans, who moved on into North Africa without leaving much permanent mark on Hispanic culture. The Visigothic Kingdom (Visigoths#Visigothic kingdom in Hispania) shifted its capital to Toledo (Toledo, Spain) and reached a high point during the reign of Leovigild. thumb left Battle of Tours (File:Steuben - Bataille de Poitiers.png). This battle is often considered of macro-importance in European and Islamic history. In 486, Clovis I, leader of the Salian Franks, defeated Syagrius at Soissons (Battle of Soissons (486)) and subsequently united most of northern and central Gaul under his rule. Clovis then recorded a succession of victories against other Germanic tribes such as the Alamanni at Tolbiac (Battle of Tolbiac). In 496, pagan Clovis adopted Catholicism. This gave him greater legitimacy and power over his Christian subjects and granted him clerical support against the Arian Visigoths. He defeated Alaric II at Vouillé (Battle of Vouillé) in 507 and annexed Aquitaine, and thus Toulouse, into his Frankish kingdom. The Goths retired to Toledo (Toledo, Spain) in what would become Spain. Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian Dynasty but his kingdom would not survive his death. Under Frankish inheritance traditions, all sons would inherit part of the land, so four kingdoms emerged: centered on Paris, Orléans, Soissons, and Rheims. Over time, the borders and numbers of Frankish kingdoms were fluid and changed frequently. Also during this time, the Mayors of the Palace (Mayor of the Palace), originally the chief advisor to the kings, would become the real power in the Frankish lands; the Merovingian kings themselves would be reduced to little more than figureheads. Edward James, ''The Franks'' (1991) * The Arba'ah Turim (The Tur, The Four Columns) by Rabbi Jacob ben Asher (1270–1343, Toledo, Spain). This work traces the Halakha from the Torah text and the Talmud through the Rishonim, with the ''Hilchot'' of Alfasi as its starting point. Ben Asher followed Maimonides's precedent in arranging his work in a topical order, however, the Tur covers only those areas of Jewish religious law that were in force in the author's time. The code is divided into four main sections; almost all codes since this time have followed the Tur's arrangement of material. ** Orach Chayim: "The Way of Life" worship and ritual observance in the home and synagogue, through the course of the day, the weekly sabbath (Shabbat) and the festival cycle. thumb right The game of astronomical tables, from ''Libro de los juegos'' (File:Alfonso LJ 97V.jpg) The '''''Libro de los Juegos''''', ("Book of games"), or '''''Libro de acedrex, dados e tablas''''', ("Book of chess, dice and tables", in Old Spanish) was commissioned by Alfonso X of Castile (Kingdom of Castile), Galicia (Kingdom of Galicia) and León (Kingdom of León) and completed in his scriptorium in Toledo (Toledo, Spain) in 1283, Sonja Musser Golladay, "Los Libros de Acedrex Dados E Tablas: Historical, Artistic and Metaphysical Dimensions of Alfonso X’s Book of Games" (PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2007), 31. Although Golladay is not the first to assert that 1283 is the finish date of the ''Libro de Juegos'', the ''a quo'' information compiled in her dissertation consolidates the range of research concerning the initiation and completion dates of the ''Libro de Juegos''. Wollesen, Jens T. "Sub specie ludi...: Text and Images in Alfonso El Sabio's Libro de Acedrex, Dados e Tablas", ''Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte'' 53:3, 1990. pp. 277-308. is an exemplary piece of Alfonso’s medieval literary legacy. *240 BC – First recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. *1085 – Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. *1420 – Henry the Navigator is appointed governor of the Order of Christ (Order of Christ (Portugal)). Later life In 1922, an important year of his life, Escher traveled through Italy (Florence, San Gimignano, Volterra, Siena, Ravello) and Spain (Madrid, Toledo (Toledo, Spain), Granada). He was impressed by the Italian countryside and by the Alhambra, a fourteenth-century Moorish (Moorish architecture) castle in Granada, Spain. He came back to Italy regularly in the following years. In Italy he met ''Jetta Umiker'', whom he married in 1924. The young couple settled down in Rome and stayed there until 1935, when the political climate under Mussolini (Benito Mussolini) became unbearable. Their son, ''Giorgio Arnaldo Escher'', named after his grandfather, was born in Rome. The family next moved to Château-d'Œx, Switzerland, where they remained for two years. Spain Improvised incendiary devices were used for the first time in the Spanish Civil War between July 1936 and April 1939, Thomas, Hugh (Hugh Thomas) (1994). ''The Spanish Civil War''. Simon & Schuster, p. 468. ISBN 0671758764 before they became known as "Molotov cocktails". In 1936, General Francisco Franco ordered Spanish Nationalists to use the weapon against Soviet T-26 tanks supporting the Spanish Republicans (Second Spanish Republic) in a failed assault on the Nationalist stronghold of Seseña, near Toledo (Toledo, Spain), 40 km south of Madrid. History of the Molotov cocktail After that, both sides used simple petrol bombs or petrol-soaked blankets with some success. Tom Wintringham, a veteran of the International Brigades, later publicised his recommended method of using them: Most of North Island corresponds to central and southern Spain, from Valladolid (opposite the southern point of South Island, Cape Palliser), through Madrid and Toledo (Toledo, Spain) to Cordoba (Córdoba, Spain) (directly antipodal to Hamilton (Hamilton, New Zealand)), Lorca (opposite East Cape), Málaga (Cape Colville), and Gibraltar. Parts of the Northland Peninsula oppose Morocco, with Whangarei nearly coincident with Tangiers. In 1507 he was appointed tutor to Emperor Maximilian I (Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor)'s (1493–1519) seven year old grandson, Charles, who was later to become Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) (1519 – 56). In 1515 Adrian was sent to Spain on a diplomatic errand, and after his arrival at the Imperial Court in Toledo (Toledo, Spain), Charles V secured his succession to the See (Episcopal see) of Tortosa, and on 14 November 1516 commissioned him Inquisitor General of Aragon. The following year, Pope Leo X (1513–21) made Adrian a cardinal (Cardinal (Catholicism)), naming him Cardinal Priest of the Basilica of Saints John and Paul. ) is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. Once used as a Roman palace in the 3rd century, it was restored under Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) and Philip II of Spain in the 1540's. Henry Kamen, ''Philip of Spain'', (Yale University Press, 1999), 184-185. In 1521, Hernán Cortés was received by Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) at the Alcázar, following Cortes' conquest of the Aztecs. ''Toledo and the New World in the Sixteenth Century'', Javier Malagón-Barceló, '''The Americas''', Vol. 20, No. 2 (Oct., 1963), 124. Guillaume's nephew and namesake, Guillaume III de Croÿ (William de Croÿ (archbishop)) (1498-1521), was educated in Louvain (Leuven) with Juan Luís Vives, a great philosopher of the time. As it appeared unlikely that he would succeed to the lands of his grandfather, Philippe I, he was destined to the church. Family interests ensured his rapid promotion: he was elected Bishop of Cambrai at the age of 17. Within a year, Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) bestowed upon his young Burgundian friend the archbishopric of Toledo (Toledo, Spain), making him a cardinal and Primate of Spain. This unprecedented move brought Spain to the brink of a civil war. Guillaume accompanied his uncle and Charles to Worms, where on January 6 he died aged 22, following a fall from his horse. His tomb is in the Celestin monastery of Louvain, founded by his father.

Tsardom of Russia

to the Danish Crown (Danish monarchy), and the loss of the territory to the Tsardom of Russia. In 1575 after Muscovy attacked Danish claims in Livonia, Frederick II dropped out of the competition as well as the Holy Roman Emperor. After this Johan III held off on his pursuit for more land due to Muscovy obtaining lands that Sweden controlled. He used the next two years of truce to get in a better position. In 1578, he resumed the fight for not only Livonia, but also everywhere due to an understanding he

Nizhny Novgorod

The climate in the region is humid continental and it is similar to the climate in Moscow, although colder in winter, which lasts from late November until late March with a permanent snow cover. Districts thumb 250px colspan "2" style "width:50%;vertical-align:top;" █ Avtozavodsky █ Kanavinsky █ Leninsky █ Moskovsky █ Sormovsky style "width:50%;vertical-align:top;" █ Nizhegorodsky █ Prioksky █ Sovetsky (File:Districts of Nizhny Novgorod City.svg) The city is divided by the river Oka into two major parts: the '''Upper city''' (''Nagornaya chast'') on the hilly right side and the '''Lower city''' (''Nizhnyaya'' or ''Zarechnaya chast'' — what literally means "the part over the river") on the left bank of the river. The Upper city is the old historical part of Nizhny Novgorod, whereas the Lower city is larger, newer and consists of more industrial districts. The Upper city is administratively divided into three districts (rayons): * Nizhegorodsky (the central historical part, plus the part along the river Volga) * Prioksky (is situated along the river Oka) * Sovetsky The districts of the Lower city: * Kanavinsky (Kananvino) * Sormovsky (Sormovo) * Avtozavodsky (Avtozavod) * Moskovsky * Leninsky Get in thumb 250px the Fair (Image:Nizhny Novgorod Fair 2010.jpg) By train Trains are probably the best and the most convenient way to get to Nizhny Novgorod. Most of the Trans-Siberian (Trans-Siberian Railway) trains (including the legendary train No.1 between Moscow and Vladivostok and the train from Moscow to Beijing) pass via Nizhny Novgorod. By train '''from Moscow''': * The fastest option is to take Sapsan that will carry you for 3h 55m (departure from Moscow's ''Kursky station'' twice per day, one early at the morning, the other at evening). * A bit slower is ''Lastochka'' train that takes 4h 5m, once per day, departure from Moscow ''Kursky'' station at about 14:00, from Nizhny at about 19:00. * Burevestnik train, once per day, morning from Nizhny, second half of the day from Moscow ''Kursky'' station, 4h 19m. * Comfortable overnight trains departing from Moscow's ''Kazansky station'' and from ''Yaroslavsky station'', departure at about midnight, arrival at about 07:00. * Of course it is possible to use other trains going eastward departing from various Moscow's stations. By train '''from Saint Petersburg''': the night train "Volga" departs each evening and arrives to NN next morning. There are also direct train connections with Kazan, Samara, Kirov, Yaroslavl and other cities of the region (there are mainly night trains). As well as with Vladivostok, Beijing, Ulaanbaatar, Irkutsk, Astrakhan, Simferopol, Novorossiysk and many others. You can look up the schedule of train and buy the tickets at Russian railroads web site type exactly "N.Novgorod" into the station name field. '''Suburban trains''' from Nizhny Novgorod go to most of the other towns within approx 200 km and sometimes more, most notably Arzamas , Balakhna, Dzerzhinsk, Gorokhovets and Murom. Some of the train are express suburban trains that are rather fast and have only a few stops, some are slower and have stops every 5-10 km. '''The train station''' is located in the Lower city not far from river, and is a major hub for the in-city public transport. The main station buildings are located on the south side of tracks, there is also a suburban ticket office at the north side. A metro (subway) station is located under the square in front of the station buildings, there are also bus and tram stops on both sides, although the tram ones are a bit more difficult to find. In the train station itself, a must see is the main hall with two soviet-style mosaics on the walls, one of which symbolizes the life of soviet people in Nizhny and Moscow. Also note the huge chandelier in the same hall. By plane The international airport of Nizhny Novgorod (GOJ) is situated in Strigino district in about 30–40 minutes by taxi from city centre (if there are no traffic jams). The airport is very small, although there plans for reconstruction. There are several daily flights to Moscow, also there are connections with Baku (Azerbaijan) (Baku), Frankfurt (Germany) (Frankfurt), Kaliningrad, Novosibirsk, Prague (Czech Republic) (Prague), Surgut, Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Yerevan (Armenia) (Yerevan), and some other cities along Volga such as Kazan or Samara. Most of the flights are operated by the different Russian airlines, but flights to Frankfurt are by Lufthansa, and to Prague by Czech Airlines. You can get to the airport by buses number 11, 20, T-29, T-46 (20 rubles in July 2012) or by taxi (normal price from city centre will be around 700-800 roubles or $20-30 if pre-booked). By car Nizhny Novgorod is situated on M7 E30 road. The road is quite ok and usually takes about 6 hours to get to Nizhny from Moscow while observing speed limits (although many Russians can make it 4 hours by speeding much). However the traffic jams in the suburbs of Moscow can make the way longer. By bus There are regular state-owned daily bus connections with Moscow (from Kanavinskaya bus station in Nizhny to metro Schelkovskaya in Moscow) but the buses are very slow (it can take up to 10 hours with several stops in all the towns along the road) and rather uncomfortable. There are also faster private daily and overnight buses between Kursky railway terminal in Moscow and Moskovsky railway terminal in Nizhny Novgorod. Also there are state-owned and private buses to many nearby cities. There are several bus stations in Nizhny, but for the buses going away from Nizhny Novgorod oblast only two are used: Kanavinskaya bus station near the railroad station for buses going North and West, and the main bus station (''Avtovokzal'') near pl. Lyadova for the buses going South and East. By boat River cruises down the Volga operate during the summer months (early May to end of September). Dozens of boats operated by different companies run from Moscow to Astrakhan and back. One way or return cruises may be reserved to from practically any city along the Volga. Get around Public transport 2GIS site has an up-to-date (and often updated) information on all transport routes, together with route planner: (in Russian, but just click on the map and on the pop-up use "Маршрут отсюда" for source and "Маршрут сюда" for destination). Underground (Metro) File:Nnov-en.png thumb 350px Metro in Nizhny Novgorod The metro is probably the best way to avoid traffic jams (and the cheapest, as it costs less than say a bus), but only if you are lucky to have the place you need served by the system! In fact, with only two lines, the metro covers only a small part of the city (having only one station in the Upper city!), and therefore is of limited use. This is of no surprise, because the first line was built in late Soviet times to serve the Nizhny Novgorod car plant located in Avtozavod district; then the Soviet union dissolved, and only several stations have been built since. Nevertheless, the Nizhny Novgorod metro today is the third largest in Russia. The two lines are connected in Moskovskaya station, above which the railroad station is located. The first line goes from Burevestnik to Moskovskaya. The second one goes from Park Kultury via Moskovskaya, then across the river to Gorkovskaya in the city center. Several stations are going to be built. Working hours: 05:15-midnight. Price: 16RUB. You by a special coin (note its unusual shape with a hole in center), and then push it into the slot on the turnstile. Inside the metro, it is worth seeing the Moskovskaya station, which is the only metro station in the ex-USSR having four tracks and two platforms in one underground hall and even a pedestrian bridge connecting the platforms. Also note the newly built Gorkovskaya station with its mosaics on walls depicting most Nizhny Novgorod sights. Tram Nizhny Novgorod's streetcar (tram) system first opened in 1896 and now there are about 20 streetcar routes operating in the city. Unfortunately, streetcar lines are gradually removed, as the city government renovates one street after another; so take that tram while it's still running! However, beware of unpredictable travel times, as locals often park their cars so close to the tram rails that a tram can not pass (this is especially a problem on the narrow streets in city center); also there are sometimes road accidents on the tracks blocking the trams. Trolleybus Extensive network of 25 lines. Buses About 80 lines of government-owned buses. The fares are continually increasing; they were 20 RUR as of August 2012. Also about 80 lines of privately-owned buses calles ''marshrutnoe taksi'' (literally ''routed taxi'') or ''marshrutka''. These are generally smaller than government-owned buses and usually (but not always) feature a letter "T" before the number of route. Note that they have different routes from that of government buses, so a bus and a ''marshrutka'' with the same number may have slightly different (or, sometimes, completely different) routes. As of August 2012, the fares are the same as on state-run buses. Note also that in contrast to other public transport, ''marshrutkas'' do not stop at every stop; to indicate your intention to exit a ''marshrutka'', you should press a special button above the door, and to indicate your intention to enter an oncoming ''marshrutka'', you need to wave your hand. Both buses and ''marshrutkas'' are really overcrowded at rush hours; other means of transport suffer from this less. Payment On surface public transport (trams, trolleybuses, buses and ''marshrutkas'') you are expected to pay within one stop after you enter, the fare is fixed for one ride. Some vehicles (almost all trams and trolleybuses and about a half of buses and ''marshrutkas'') have a special man called ''konductor'' who will come to you, take money and give a ticket; if there is no ''konductor'', you should


white field. The area has many stone-built buildings of the 17th and 18th centuries. The 18th century parish church of St Leonards is situated on the main road between Coventry and Tamworth (the B4098 (B4098 road) or old A51 (A51 road)). It is of classical Italian style, built in 1766 on the site of an earlier foundation. Two of the oldest buildings in the parish are Barbers Farm, dating to 1586 and The Bothie at Botts Green. Life and career Cartwright was born in Alderman's

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