Places Known For

unique physical


Anosy Region

la mise en oeuvre du Projet Ilmenite de QMM s.a. a Tolagnaro. Mica Mica's value is based on its unique physical properties. It has a crystalline structure which forms layers which can be split (delaminated) into very thin sheets (0.125 to 0.025 mm. or thinner), while remaining stable when exposed to electricity). This gives it superior electrical properties as an insulator (insulator (electricity)) and a dielectric, as it can support an electrostatic field while dissipating minimal energy in the form of heat. It also has a high dielectric breakdown and is resistant to corona discharge. It is also stable when exposed to light, moisture and extreme temperatures. Mica is also chemically inert, dielectric, elastic, flexible, hydrophilic, insulating, lightweight, platy, reflective, refractive, resilient, and ranges in opacity from transparent to opaque. The two commercially important micas, used in a variety of applications, are Muscovite, the principal mica used by the electrical industry, thermally stable to 500 °C, is used in high frequency and radio frequency capacitors. The second is Phlogopite, which remains stable up to 900 °C and is used in applications in which a combination of high-heat stability and electrical properties is required. Discovered near Tranomaro in 1912 (though it can be found in crystalline schists from Fort Dauphin up to Ihosy), within 6 years 18 tons yr of phlogopite mica was exported, with over 500 tons yr by 1928. By 1947 there were 50 different companies mining mica, though the majority of the mining was done by just 10 of them. There were still 15 mines operating in 1962, with active exploration going on at 20 other sites. Mining companies included the Etablissements W. Boetschi, Les Fils de O. Jenny, the Societe des Minerals de la Grande Isle at Benato and th Union des Micas. However, in 1963 the US stopped purchasing mica, resulting in the closure of several mines and the production being cut by 2 3rds. The biggest mine was and still is at Ampandandrava, about 250 km from Tolagnaro, which currently is being mined by Groupe Akesson, exporting 1,000 tons yr. Robequain, C. (1947). Le mica de Madagascar. ''Annales de Géographie, 56''(301), 75–76. Le Mica Madagascar Matin. (2011, Aout). SOMIDA – Une production annuelle de 1 000 T de Mica. Monazite Monazite, a reddish-brown phosphate mineral, contains rare earth (rare earth mineral) metals. It was originally mined from beach sands at and near Tolagnaro by Societe d'Exploitation des Monazites, which had a treatment plant which produced 200 tons yr, though in 1964 the plant was moved to Vohibarika. There are still an estimated 310,000 tons of this in the heavy-mineral sands near Tolagnaro. Monazite de Manantenina Monzanite Heavy-mineral sands near Tolagnaro have an estimated 177,000 tons of monzanite, with another 64,000 tons with a high Thorium content located 100 km north of Tolagnaro. Rutile Rutile, a mineral composed primarily of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2), is an important constituent of heavy mineral sands ore deposits which typically also include Ilmenite and Zircon. The two main uses of Rutile are either in the manufacture of refractory ceramic (as a white pigment), and for the production of Titanium metal. About 15,000 tons yr are being exported by QMM as a byproduct of its Ilmenite mining in the region. see Ilmenite above Sapphires Sapphires are worn as jewelry. They are also used in several other applications, including infrared optical components (i.e. scientific instruments), high-durability applications (windows, wristwatch crystals and movement bearing (bearing (mechanical))s) and very thin electronic wafers (i.e. used in insulating integrated circuits). The presence of Sapphires in Anosy was first written about by Etienne de Flacourt in 1658, they were most likely also seen by Barthelemy Hugon in 1808; and sapphire crystals were described by a French geologist working in the mica mines near Tranomaro in the 1950s. However, it wasn't until 1991 that very high quality blue sapphires of up to 35 carat (carat (mass))s (similar in quality to those from Kashmir) were purchased by gemologist John Darbellay near the Antandroy villages of Andranondambo and Marohoto (20 km from Tranomaro) in the Manambolo valley, just 80 km northwest of Tolagnaro (though it takes a 6-hour drive of almost 210 km to get there). Thai purchasers arrived in 1993, soon joined by traders from Israel, Sri Lanka and several other countries, and by 1994 almost 10,000 miners had rushed to the area from all parts of Madagascar. However, while the initial finds of sapphires in this area were only 2 to 3 meters below ground, in gravel held by clay, since then most sapphires found are almost randomly embedded in a limestone or marble bedrock. These rocks take extensive work to obtain, requiring sledgehammers, spikes and small fires. Thus, the number of miners was only about 5,000 a year later; today Andranondambo only has about 1,000 residents, many occasionally continue to search for sapphires, though they also farm, are vendors, etc. Foreigners visit only occasionally, as most middlemen are now Malagasy. Three different companies attempted to mine commercially, but only for a brief time. An Environmental Impact Study conducted in 2004 found the area "highly degraded" and the remaining dry spiny and gallery forest, threatened ecosystems, "fragmented." AllAboutGemstones.com (2008). Tranomaro & Andranondambo Gem Mines. GGGems.com (2011). The story of the first Madagascar Sapphire. G. Pocobelli & Co. (2010). Fine Gemstones Madagascar. Tilghman, Laura et al. (2006). Artisinal Sapphire mining in Madagascar: Environmental and social impacts. Tilghman, Laura et al. (2007, Nov). Artisanal Sapphire Mining in Madagascar: Environmental and Social Impacts. Also see http: www.uvm.edu rsenr gemecology madagascar.html, http: www.africafiles.org printableversion.asp?id 16980 and for photos see https: picasaweb.google.com 114110521766775704955 AndranodamboSapphireMiningInMadagascar#5165443619761757490 Andranodambo – Sapphire mining in Madagascar. for views of this area from space see 24°26'11.39"S, 46°34'47.45"E & 24°24'21.60"S, 46°35'21.00"E Uranothorite Thorite is an important ore of Uranium. A variety of Thorite often called "Uranothorite", rich in Uranium, is highly radioactive. By the end of World War II, Madagascar was viewed by France as having a "treasure-trove" of minerals, so several of France's nuclear experts told Charles de Gaulle he needed to keep Madagascar as a colony "regardless of political costs." Multiple deposits of Thorium and Uranium, principally in the form of Uranothorite, were discovered near Tranomaro, in the loop of the Mandrare river, in 1953 by a French Geological Survey, just 80 km northwest of Fort Dauphin. However, getting there by road meant driving west almost to Amboasary and then northeast for a total distance from Tolanaro of about 200 kilometres. The local farmers, who raised cattle and goats, and grew rice, manioc and maize, knew of these deposits, calling these rocks "vatovy" to describe their density and black color. They used them as slingshot ammunition and fishing weights. In 1953, the French Commissariat de l’Energie Atomique (CEA) see what is now called the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives established their center for mining at Ambatomika ("place of Mica rocks") and brought in mining equipment, built a mill, lab, offices, a small clinic, a store as well as housing and a clubhouse for the expatriates living there. What they milled was mined from small, open-pit mines, which had a minimum overburden (for a picture of one of these mines see within a 20 km radius of this site. Some of these sites were mined by colonial concessionaires who sold their ore to the CEA. By 1958, there were 44 Europeans working with 440 Malagasy there, a limited number of mid-level Imerina with many more Antandroy and some Betsileo working as guards, porters and miners. Early, artisanal mining was not recorded, but from 1954 to 1963 almost 4,000 tonnes of highly radioactive Uranothorite was mined and exported to France. By 1962, these exports were worth CFAF 389 million, and by 1964 this was Madagascar's second most valuable export. In 1963, the original Ambindandrakemba mine was exhausted, the site at Ambatomika was lost, and all the equipment was moved north 40 km to Betioky, near the Belafa ore body which was thought to have somewhere between 2,000 and 5,000 tons of uranothorianite, embedded within 100,000 to 300,000 tons of ore. In addition to the CEA, there were 4 private mining companies in 1963 including C.F. Lanouo, Kotovelo (plant at Marovato), Societe des Minerals de la Grand Ile (mine at Ambatoaho, Societe d'Exploitation des Mines d'Andranondambo (mine at Bevalala) and the Societe Miniere et Forestiere at Betanimera. In 1963 these producers were being paid 2,850 to 5,000 CFAF kg for uranium metal content and CFAF 100 to 350 kg of Thorium. However, due to the French having found much larger deposits in both Gabon and Niger, and due to the by then worn out equipment and exhausted mines, mining ended in 1968. While the higher-grade deposits have been exhausted, there is still a considerable amount of lower-grade material in this area. In 2005, the Malagasy Government conducted aerial magnetic and radiometric surveys of the area, finding the amounts of Thorium and Uranium increased as one moves west, though this could be due to "transported cover" on the Easter side of the area. In 2007 drilling by the Canadian firm, Pan African Mining Corporation, at one site found "high-grade uranium mineralisation grading 4,329 ppm uranium”, with deposits as far down as 60 metres below the surface. In 2009–10 LP HILL began ground traverses for Thorium and Uranium in the Marodambo area (in addition they have permits to search for Cordierite, Garnets and Sapphires). London-based Bekitoly Resources Ltd. is also involved in the strategic acquisition, exploration and development of uranium, rare earth deposits and other minerals in Madagascar. Their property occurs within includes 8 of the historical open-pit deposits. Their exploration activities have included airborne radiometrics and hyperspectral surveys, ground radiometrics and magnetics, mapping, grab sampling, trenching and drilling which have identified numerous widespread radiometric anomalies with uranium and thorium scintillometer readings of up to 26,257 and 43,215 ppm respectively, as well as the rare earth elements of Cerium, Dysprosium, Erbium, Gadolinium, Lanthanum, Neodymium, Praseodymium, Samarium and Yttrium. Their data also suggests there are numerous additional areas "with good indications" that remain untested. Arkenstone. (2010). Thorianite specimen from Maromby Commune (near Tranomaro) Girschik, H.F. (2009, Oct.). Mining History and Geology of the [Uranium & Thorium Exploration] Project. Hecht, Gabrielle (2002). Rupture-Talk in the Nuclear Age: Conjugating Colonial power in Africa. ''Social Studies of Science, 32''(5 6), 691–727. Hecht, Gabrielle. (2009). Ambatomika, Southern Madagascar, 1950s–1960s (pp. 903–908). In Africa and the Nuclear World: Labor, Occupational Health, and the Transnational Production of Uranium. ''Comparative Studies in Society and History, 51''(4), 896–926. Vuna Group. (n.d.). Uranium and Rare Earth exploration—Madagascar. Proposed acquisition of Tranomaro Mineral Development Corporation Ltd. by LP Hill Plc Murdock, T.G. (1964). The Mineral industry of the Malagasy Republic. Tourmaline Tourmaline is a semi-precious gemstone which has been found near Ampasimainty, Ianakafy and Iankaroka, all south of Betroka. It has also been found near Behara and Tranomaro, which are both closer to Amboasary. A 7 cm Tourmaline crystal found near Tranomaro was recently sold by Arkenstone Fine Minerals for US$2,250. Zircon Zircon is used in the decorative ceramics industry as a substance which can be added to another material in order to make the ensuing system opaque. It is also the principal precursor to metallic zirconium (fairly uncommon), but also to all compounds of zirconium, including Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2), which is a highly refractory material. About 25,000 tons yr of Zircon are being exported by QMM as a byproduct of its Ilmenite mining in this region see Ilmenite above . Population While the people who have historically lived in Anosy are known as the Antanosy, they may be more accurately described as "those from Anosy" given Anosy's history. In addition there are many Antandroy living in Anosy, primarily Tolagnaro, along with Malagasy from the rest of the island, many of them now working for QMM's mining efforts. There are Asians who own many of the shops in town and there are also a few Europeans living in Tolagnaro working in the area(s) of Conservation, Mining, Tourism or for the Catholic Church. While there were many French living and working in the Anosy region during the French occupation of Madagascar, most had left by the mid-1970s. Tolagnaro was also the center for work by American Lutherans, primarily in southern Madagascar, from the 1890s to the mid-1980s (see '''History of Anosy''' below). Much more recently, there were over 700 Expatriates, primarily from South Africa, who worked on the construction of the new port and mining facilities. Religions The majority of those living in Anosy practice traditional Folk religion. The two largest Christian denominations in the Anosy region are the Roman Catholic and the Malagasy Lutheran churches. There is also a small Muslim community. The Catholic Church was established in what was then still Fort Dauphin in 1896. It currently has 5 parishes, with about 170 congregations and 16 Cures. Congrégation de la Mission (Lazaristes) (Ed.). (1996). ''Le Christianisme dans le sud de Madagascar. Mélanges à l'occasion du centenaire de la reprise de l'évangélisation du sud de Madagascar par la congrégation de la Mission (Lazaristes) 1896–1996''. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany. history of Christianity in South Madagascar with chapter on history of American Lutheran missions in the South (1887–1950) by Dr. James B. Vigen, other chapters regarding history of different Catholic congregations and “Bilan du Christianisme dans le Sud de Madagascar” by Mgr Rakotondravahatra, Jean-Guy which describes current context, state and challenges of Christianity in South Madagascar. Galibert, Nivoelisoa. (2007). ''À l’angle de la Grande Maison. Les Lazaristes de Madagascar: Correspondance avec Vincent de Paul (1648–1661), textes établis, introduits et annotés par Paris. Presses de l’Université Paris-Sorbonne. n.a. (?). La fonction Missionnaire: Sur la Mission Lazariste à Fort-Dauphin (1648–1674) From AnthropologieEnLigne.com Of the Protestants in Anosy, the vast majority of them Lutheran. There are approximately 20 Malagasy Lutheran pastors working with 134 churches in the Tolagnaro Synod, meaning each pastor works with between 3 and 12 churches. Burgess, Andrew. (1932). ''Zanahary in south Madagascar''. Minneapolis: Board of Foreign Missions. Vigen, J.B. (1995). The First Norwegian-American Foreign Missionaries: John and Oline Hogstad. From ''Norwegian-American Studies, 34'', see http: www.naha.stolaf.edu In addition to the Malagasy Lutheran Church, the Church of Jesus Christ in Madagascar (FJKM) has several congregations in the Anosy region as do several other Protestant denominations. Tourism Given its pleasant climate (average temperature of 20 0 in July to 27 0 Celsius in January), magnificent beaches, natural reserves (including several containing lemurs), variety of hotels and that it's only a one hour flight from Antananarivo, some have given Tolagnaro the title of "la cote d'Azur Malgache." Popular places to visit include Evatraha, Libanona beach, Lokaro, Manafiafy, Nahampoana and Vinanibe. Ranarijaona, Tiana H. (2003?). Etude d’impact des infrastructures touristiques dans la region de Tolagnaro. Mémoire de fin de stage, Universite de Toamasina. RAZAFINDRABE Andrianomenjanahary Manoela. (2007). Developpement economique axe sur le tourisme cas de l'Anosy, region a forte potentialite touristique. Maitrise. Universite d'Antananarivo. General tourism information about Tolagnaro can be found at a variety of sites: Lonely Planet. (2009). Fort Dauphin (Taolagnaro). WildMadagascar. (n.d.). Pictures of Fort Dauphin. '''Tourist Agencies in Antananarivo:''' There are a variety of tourist agencies in Antananarivo one can work with if you'd like to visit Tolagnaro. Authentic Madagascar Tours. Antanosy Region. DiscoverMadagascar.com (n.d.). Places to see in Fort Dauphin and its Surroundings. MadaCamp. (2009). Fort Dauphin. Madagascar National Tourism Board. Fort Dauphin area. TravelMadagascar. Fort Dauphin. '''Tourist Agencies in Tolagnaro:''' There are also several tourist agencies in Tolagnaro one can work with. Weather The average temperature in Tolagnaro ranges from Category:Anosy Region Category:Regions of Madagascar


Equatorial Guinea

as a ''lingua franca'' for trade between the different peoples in southeastern Africa. In the Kalahari Desert of Southern Africa, the distinct people known as the Bushmen (also "San", closely related to, but distinct from "Hottentots (Khoikhoi)") have long been present. The San evince unique physical traits, and are the indigenous people of southern Africa. Pygmies are the pre-Bantu indigenous peoples of central Africa. São Tomé and Príncipe constitute one of Africa's smallest countries, with a Commons:Category:Equatorial Guinea WikiPedia:Equatorial Guinea Dmoz:Regional Africa Equatorial Guinea


Gabon

franca '' for trade between the different peoples in southeastern Africa. In the Kalahari Desert of Southern Africa, the distinct people known as the Bushmen (also "San", closely related to, but distinct from "Hottentots (Khoikhoi)") have long been present. The San evince unique physical traits, and are the indigenous people of southern Africa. Pygmies are the pre-Bantu indigenous peoples of central Africa. thumb The awesome natural wonder - Pico Cão Grande (File:São Tomé - Pico Cão Grande.jpg). '''São Tomé and Príncipe''' is a small nation composed of an archipelago located in the Gulf of Guinea of equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The nation's main islands are São Tomé Island and Príncipe Island, for which the country is named. These are located about Commons:Category:Gabon WikiPedia:Gabon Dmoz:Regional Africa Gabon


Cameroon

Desert of Southern Africa, the distinct people known as the Bushmen (also "San", closely related to, but distinct from "Hottentots (Khoikhoi)") have long been present. The San evince unique physical traits, and are the indigenous people of southern Africa. Pygmies are the pre-Bantu indigenous peoples of central Africa. Modern Sub-Saharan African music has been influence by music from the New World (Jazz, Salsa, Rhythm and Blues etc.) vice-versa being influenced by enslaved Sub-Saharan Africans. Popular styles are Mbalax in Senegal and Gambia, Highlife in Ghana, Zoblazo in Ivory Coast, Makossa in Cameroon, Soukous in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kizomba in Angola, and Mbaqanga in South Africa. New World styles like Salsa, R&B Rap, Reggae, and Zouk also have widespread popularity. Native-born Spanish citizens of all races and ethnic groups make up 88% of the total population, and 12% are immigrants. Among the immigrants, around 57% of them come from Spain's former colonies in Latin America (including those from Cuba, Mexico, Chile and Uruguay), Africa and Asia. The rest are mostly Eastern European (especially Romanians, Russians, Serbians, Croatians, Bosnians, Ukrainians and Albanians), North and West Africans (notably Moroccans, Algerians, Senegalese, Nigerians and Cameroonians), Middle Eastern peoples including the Lebanese (Lebanon) and Syrian communities, Indians, Pakistanis and Chinese, as well as a sizeable number of citizens from the European Union, as of 2007 mostly Romanians, British (British people), Bulgarians, Portuguese (Portuguese people), Polish (Poles), and Germans. In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala (Duala people) of the Cameroon, the Igbo (Igbo people) and other peoples of the lower Niger (Niger River), the Kongo (Kingdom of Kongo), and the Kasanje kingdom and Chokwe (Chokwe people) of Angola. Among the Ashanti (The Ashanti) and Yoruba (Yoruba people) a third of the population consisted of enslaved people. Southern Cameroons Ambazonia Southern Cameroons today makes up the two English-speaking regions of the Republic of Cameroun (Cameroon), the North West and South West regions. The people of Southern Cameroons' claim to self-determination arises out of their allegations that the Republic of Cameroun (Cameroon) forcefully annexed their territory by the 1961 take over of the territory and the 1972 dissolution of the federation in favor of a Unitary Republic of Cameroon (Cameroon). Southern Cameroons scored a victory in a legal battle against the Republic of Cameroon when the African Commission for Human and Peoples' Rights found that there were unresolved issues with the constitutional structure of the Republic of Cameroon vis-a-vis Southern Cameroons. More importantly, the African Commission found that contrary to the claims of the Republic of Cameroon, the people of Southern Cameroons are indeed a "people" under the African Charter and broad international law with the inalienable right to determine their destiny. Commons:Category:Cameroon WikiPedia:Cameroon Dmoz:Regional Africa Cameroon


Seattle

of Seattle during the mid-1970s, the comics follow a group of mostly middle class teenagers who, over the summer, contract a mysterious sexually transmitted disease known as "the Bug" or "the teen plague", which causes them to develop bizarre unique physical mutations, turning them into social outcasts. image Ali-project-usa.jpg caption Ali Project performs at their first North American concert in Seattle, Washington (U.S


Romania

9A0DE4DD1238F935A35754C0A960948260 title Shaping a 'Dream' Far More Bitter Than Puckish, New York Times, 6 July 1986 (registration required) work The New York Times His changes allowed more structural flexibility in the stage to allow each production a unique physical presentation. While Ciulei was not able to attain all the goals he had envisioned, he was able to maintain and advance the Guthrie's national and international reputation as a first-rate example of American Theater and drew critical


Jerusalem

Patai, Raphael (1988). ''The Messiah Texts''. Wayne State University Press. pp. 165–166. If MNT were realized, some resources would remain limited, because unique physical objects are limited (a plot of land in the real Jerusalem, mining rights to the larger near-earth asteroids) or because they depend on the goodwill of a particular person (the love of a famous person, a live audience in a musical concert). Demand will always exceed supply for some things, and a political economy may continue to exist in any case. Whether the interest in these limited resources would diminish with the advent of virtual reality, where they could be easily substituted, is yet unclear. One reason why it might not is a hypothetical preference for "the real thing", although such an opinion could easily be mollified if virtual reality were to develop to a certain level of quality. Events * 70 – Siege of Jerusalem (Siege of Jerusalem (70)): Titus and his Roman legions breach the Second Wall of Jerusalem. The Jewish defenders retreat to the First Wall. The Romans build a circumvallation, cutting down all trees within fifteen kilometers. *1416 – The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, burns Jerome of Prague following a trial for heresy (Christian heresy). Of the 68 cities listed on Hasbro Inc.’s website for the vote, Jerusalem, was chosen as one of the 20 cities to be featured in the newest ''Monopoly'' World Edition. ''Monopoly'' Contest Stirs Up Jerusalem Conflict, Associated Press, published February 21, 2008. Before the vote took place, a Hasbro employee in the London office eliminated the country signifier “Israel” after the city, in response to pressure from pro-Palestinian (Palestinian people) advocacy groups. Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem


India

. Their unique physical characteristics make them distinct from the average Filipinos who are primarily of Malay and Chinese (Chinese Filipino) origins. '''Narsinghpur''' or Narsimhapur is a town in Madhya Pradesh state of central India. Narsinghpur is the administrative headquarters of Narsinghpur District. Konr the young, whose magical abilities are so emphasized, is as much a magician as a warrior: a magician king, perhaps a sacred king. Dumézil pointed out that Kon alone


Japan

disorder multiple personalities , Harman does not just think he becomes someone else. Rather, his personae actually take on a unique physical body when called upon. The Killer7 uncover a political plot between Japan and the United States, as Garcian slowly begins to realize the truth behind his past. While not a huge commercial hit, the game garnered a large cult following and in addition, ''killer7'' also brought Grasshopper Manufacture to the interest of North American gamers


United States

members of the Killer7 anywhere at any time. Unlike most multiple personalities (dissociative identity disorder), Harman does not just think he becomes someone else. Rather, his personae actually take on a unique physical body when called upon. The Killer7 uncover a political plot between Japan and the United States, as Garcian slowly begins to realize the truth behind his past. While not a huge commercial hit, the game garnered a large cult following and in addition, ''killer7


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