Places Known For

unique contribution


French colonial empire

225–226 the Spanish nation was a cultural and linguistic concept that tied Spain’s colonies to the metropole despite the oceans that separated them. Cánovas argued Spain was markedly different from rival empires like Britain (British Empire) and France (French colonial empire). Unlike these empires, spreading civilization was Spain’s unique contribution to the New World. Schmidt-Nowara, The Conquest of History, p.34–42 This popular reimagining of the Spanish Empire bestowed special significance on Cuba as an integral part of the Spanish nation. The focus on preserving the empire would have disastrous consequences for Spain’s sense of national identity in the aftermath of the war. The quest for national emancipation was first undertaken during the Serbian national revolution (Serbian revolution), in 1804 until 1815. The national liberation war (Serbian revolution) was followed by a period of formalization, negotiations and finally, the Constitutionalization, effectively ending the process in 1835. Rados Ljusic, ''Knezevina Srbija'' For the first time in Ottoman history, the entire Serbian Christian population (Serbian Orthodox Church) had risen up against the Sultan. Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.


Vilnius

unique contribution to the life of the city, and crafts, trade, and science prospered. The 17th century brought a number of setbacks. The Commonwealth was involved in a series of wars, collectively known as The Deluge (Deluge (history)). During the Russo-Polish War (1654–1667), Vilnius was occupied by Russian forces; it was pillaged and burned, and its population was massacred. During the Great Northern War it was looted by the Swedish army. An outbreak of bubonic plague in 1710 killed about 35,000 residents (The plague during the Great Northern War#Lithuania.2C Livonia.2C Estonia); devastating fires occurred in 1715, 1737, 1741, 1748, and 1749. The city's growth lost its momentum for many years, but even despite this fact, at the end of the 18th century and before the Napoleon wars, Vilnius with 56 000 inhabitants entered the Russian Empire as its 3rd largest city. In the Russian Empire thumb left Grande Armée La Grande Armée (File:French Army in the Town Hall Square of Vilnius.Lithuania.1812.jpg) in Vilnius during its retreat (near the Vilnius Town Hall (Town Hall, Vilnius)) thumb right St. Anne's Church, Vilnius St. Anne's Church (File:Vilnius St Anns church.jpg) and the church of the Bernardine Monastery in Vilnius The fortunes of the Commonwealth declined during the 18th century. Three partitions (Partitions of Poland) took place, dividing its territory among the Russian Empire, the Habsburg Empire (Habsburg Monarchy), and the Kingdom of Prussia. After the third partition (Third Partition of Poland) of April 1795, Vilnius was annexed by the Russian Empire and became the capital of the Vilna Governorate. During Russian rule, the city walls were destroyed, and, by 1805, only the Gate of Dawn remained. In 1812, the city was taken by Napoleon (Napoleon I) on his push towards Moscow (French invasion of Russia), and again during the disastrous retreat. The Grande Armée was welcomed in Vilnius. Thousands of soldiers died in the city during the eventual retreat; the mass graves were uncovered in 2002. Inhabitants expected Tsar Alexander I (Alexander I of Russia) to grant them autonomy in response to Napoleon's promises to restore the Commonwealth, but Vilnius didn't become autonomous by itself nor as a part of Congress Poland. Following the November Uprising in 1831, Vilnius University was closed and Russian repressions halted the further development of the city. Civil unrest in 1861 was suppressed by the Imperial Russian Army. Piotr S. Wandycz, The lands of partitioned Poland, 1795–1918, University of Washington Press, 1974, p. 166. During the January Uprising in 1863, heavy fighting occurred within the city, but was brutally pacified by Mikhail Muravyov (Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov-Vilensky), nicknamed ''The Hangman'' by the population because of the number of executions he organized. After the uprising, all civil liberties were withdrawn, and use of the Polish Egidijus Aleksandravičius, Antanas Kulakauskas; ''Carų valdžioje: Lietuva XIX amžiuje'' ("Lithuania under the reign of Czars in 19th century"); Baltos lankos, Vilnius 1996. Polish translation: ''Pod władzą carów: Litwa w XIX wieku'', Universitas, Kraków 2003, page 90, ISBN 83-7052-543-1 and Lithuanian languages was banned. Dirk Hoerder, Inge Blank, Horst Rössler, "Roots of the transplanted", East European Monographs, 1994, pg. 69 Vilnius had a vibrant Jewish population: according to Russian Empire Census Russian census of 1897 , out of the total population of 154,500, Jews constituted 64,000 (approximately 40% percent). Joshua D. Zimmerman, ''Poles, Jews, and the politics of nationality'', Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN 0-299-19464-7, Google Print, p. 16 During the early 20th century, the Lithuanian-speaking population of Vilnius constituted only a small minority, with Polish, Yiddish, and Russian speakers comprising the majority of the city's population. "A 1909 official count of the city found 205,250 inhabitants, of whom 1.2 percent were Lithuanian; 20.7 percent Russian; 37.8 percent Polish; and 36.8 percent Jewish. — Timothy Snyder (Timothy D. Snyder), ''The Reconstruction of Nations. Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus 1569–1999''. Yale University Press 2003, p. 306. In Poland thumb left Gediminas' Tower Gediminas Tower (File:Beautiful spring sunset in Vilnius Lithuania.jpg) thumb 220px right Museum of Lithuania's theatre, music and cinema (Radziwiłł (File:Lietuvos teatro muzikos ir kino muziejus.jpg) Palace) thumb left Orthodox Cathedral of the Theotokos, Vilnius Cathedral of the Theotokos (File:Russian Orthodox Church of The Holy Mother of God Vilnius (5990381200).jpg), built in 1348. During World War I, Vilnius and the rest of Lithuania was occupied by the German Army (German Empire) from 1915 until 1918. The Act of Independence of Lithuania, declaring Lithuanian independence from any affiliation to any other nation, was issued in the city on 16 February 1918. After the withdrawal of German forces, the city was briefly controlled by Polish self-defence units (Lithuanian and Belarusian Self-Defence) which were driven out by advancing Soviet forces (Soviet westward offensive of 1918–1919). Vilnius changed hands again during the Polish-Soviet War (Polish–Soviet War) and the Lithuanian Wars of Independence: it was taken (Vilna offensive) by the Polish Army (Polish Land Forces), only to fall to the Soviet (Soviet Union) forces again. Shortly after its defeat in the battle of Warsaw (Battle of Warsaw (1920)), the retreating Red Army, in order to delay the Polish advance, ceded the city to Lithuania after signing the Soviet-Lithuanian Treaty (Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty) on 12 July 1920. WikiPedia:Vilnius Dmoz:Regional Europe Lithuania Localities Vilnius Commons:Category:Vilnius


Quebec City

page 143 year 1981 was the first of European French (French people) explorers to journey along the St. Lawrence River with the Native Americans to view Georgian Bay and Lake Huron in the 17th century. A rugged outdoorsman, he took to the lifestyle of the First Nations and had a unique contribution to the geographical knowledge of New France. He departed from his home in Champigny-sur-Marne, southeast of Paris, France, at the young age of 10 Fischer, David, "Champlain's Dream" and set sail for Quebec (Quebec City), which was part of the newly claimed lands of New France. Brûlé, becoming an interpreter for Champlain, traveled with the Native population and not only explored the many dangerous areas of the unknown wilderness, but also learned the habits and customs of the indigenous peoples, particularly the Hurons (Wyandot people). He was sent on many portages by Samuel de Champlain as well as sent to live among the Huron people. He scouted the rivers and forests and was a guide and interpreter for Champlain, but in 1629, he betrayed his friend and patron. Not long after his disloyalty to Champlain, Brûlé was killed by the Bear tribe of Huron Indians (Wyandot people). *Centre Point, London, England *Château Frontenac, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada *Chateau Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada American War of Independence In 1776, the British government began to "rent" units to fight in the American War of Independence from various German princes. The Duke of Brunswick (Charles_I%2C_Duke_of_Brunswick-L%C3%BCneburg) signed a treaty to provide 4,000 foot soldiers and 350 heavy dragoons. On March 18, they sailed from Stade with the newly-promoted Major General Riedesel as their commander. After a stop over in England, they arrived in Quebec City on June 1. They supported the final expulsion from Canada of the American forces during the invasion of Canada (Invasion of Canada (1775)). They were then distributed for the winter through various posts in Canada. operator Aéroport de Québec Inc. city-served Quebec City, Quebec location Sainte-Foy (Sainte-Foy, Quebec), Quebec '''Québec City Jean Lesage International Airport''', also known as '''Jean Lesage International Airport''' (French (French language): ''Aéroport international Jean-Lesage de Québec'', or ''Aéroport de Québec'')


Madagascar

name leaflet Non-racist pre-Adamism can be traced back to Paschal Beverly Randolph, an occultist, Paschal was of Malagasy (Madagascar) and Native American ancestry, he was a spokesman against slavery. Paschal was a believer in pre-Adamism he wrote the book ''Pre-Adamite man : demonstrating the existence of the human race upon the earth 100,000 thousand years ago!'' under the name of Griffin Lee in 1863. His book was a unique contribution towards pre-Adamism because it wasn't


Portland, Oregon

, alternative rock, and, eventually, indie rock. In the last decade, Oregon has made a unique contribution to American independent music, with a strong indie music scene developing in Portland. The city's reputation as a hipster (hipster (contemporary subculture)) mecca has paralleled the rise of local indie musicians such as The Decemberists, Gossip (Gossip (band)), The Dandy Warhols, M. Ward, and the late Elliott Smith. Floater (band) Floater


Vancouver

scene of the early 1980s Pacific Northwest, led by the Wipers in Portland (Portland, Oregon) and like-minded bands in Seattle (Seattle, Washington) and Vancouver, BC (Vancouver). Over the next twenty years, punk rock evolved into grunge, riot grrrl, alternative rock, and, eventually, indie rock. In the last decade, Oregon has made a unique contribution to American independent music, with a strong indie music scene developing in Portland. The city's


Indonesia

("Underleaf"; 2006). These works have been cited by Balinese critics as "an important and unique contribution to our cultural heritage". The last three compositions cited plus others are featured on the 2009 CD Let Others Name You on New World records. In 1979, Tenzer co-founded the Sekar Jaya (Gamelan Sekar Jaya) gamelan ensemble in Berkeley, California, an organization of Americans dedicated to the performance of Balinese arts


Israel

;an individual or NGO (Non-governmental organization) that has made a unique contribution to the advancement of human rights in Israel". The award was established in 1981 but was renamed in 1983 after the murder of activist Emil Grunzweig by a grenade thrown by a right-wing sympathizer during a Peace Now demonstration against the war in Lebanon (1982 Lebanon war). '''David Tartakover''' (דוד טרטקובר) (born 1944) is an Israeli graphic designer, political activist, artist and design educator. Commons:Category:Israel Wikipedia:Israel Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel


Norway

Commons:Category:Norway Dmoz:Regional Europe Norway Wikipedia:Norway


France

Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France


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