Places Known For

traditional view


Leduc, Alberta

did in 2003 was novel. The more traditional view had been to see the two cities are economic rivals. For example, in the 1980 both cities claimed to be the "Oil Capital of Canada". Calgary is home to most oil company head offices. Edmonton, and more so its surrounding region (Nisku (Nisku, Alberta), Leduc (Leduc, Alberta), Fort Saskatchewan (Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta)), is the site of most oil-and-gas related industry including refining (Oil refinery) and manufacturing.


Woodstock, Ontario

Birkett, in December 1888. The couple had three children: Cecil (born in 1890), Hazel (born in 1893), and Marjorie (born in 1903, but died sixteen months later). Babcock 21–22 Rutherford had a traditional view of gender roles, and was happy to leave most child-rearing responsibilities to his wife. Roome 6 '''Ingersoll''' is a town in Oxford County


Norfolk Island

to the population of the colony at Pitcairn Island (History of the Pitcairn Islands). * May 14 – A committee of Vigilance (San Francisco Committee of Vigilance) is founded in San Francisco, California. It lynches two gangsters, arrests most Democratic Party (Democratic Party (United States)) officials and disbands itself on August 18. In 1933, Sir Ernest Scott, stated the traditional view of the reasons for colonisation: “It is clear that the only consideration which weighed seriously with the Pitt Government was the immediately pressing and practical one of finding a suitable place for a convict settlement ”. Sir Ernest Scott, ''Australia,'' J. Holland Rose et al., ''Cambridge History of the British Empire,'' Volume 7, Part 1, Cambridge University Press, 1933, (reissued 2010), p.58. In the early 1960s, historian Geoffrey Blainey questioned the traditional view of foundation purely as a convict dumping ground. His book ''The Tyranny of Distance'' Geoffrey Blainey (1966) ''The Tyranny of Distance; How Distance shaped Australia’s History''. Sun Books, Melbourne. Reprinted 1982. ISBN 0-333-33836-7 suggested ensuring supplies of flax and timber after the loss of the American colonies may have also been motivations, and Norfolk Island was the key to the British decision. A number of historians responded and debate brought to light a large amount of additional source material on the reasons for settlement. See a range of historians' views in Ged Martin (1981) ''The Founding of Australia: Argument about Australia's Origins'' Hale & Iremonger, Sydney. ISBN 0-908094-00-0. See also David Mackay, ''A Place of Exile: The European Settlement of New South Wales,'' Melbourne, Oxford UP, 1985; Alan Atkinson, "The first plans for governing New South Wales, 1786-87", ''Australian Historical Studies,'' vol.24, no.94, April 1990, pp. 22-40; Alan Frost, "Historians, Handling Documents, Transgressions and Transportable Offences", ''Australian Historical Studies,'' vol.25, no.98, Oct.1992, pp.192-213, p.199; David Mackay, ‘"Banished to Botany Bay": the fate of the relentless historian’, ''Australian Historical Studies,'' vol.25, no.98, Oct.1992, pp. 214-216; and Alan Frost, "A Fit of Absence of Mind? The decision to colonise Botany Bay, 1779-1786", ''Botany Bay Mirages: Illusions of Australia’s Convict Beginnings,'' Melbourne University Press, 1994, pp.98-109. This has most recently been set out and discussed by Professor Alan Frost. Alan Frost, ''Botany Bay: The Real Story,'' Collingwood, Black Inc, 2011, ISBN 978-1-86395-512-6; Alan Frost, ''The First Fleet: The Real Story,'' Collingwood, Black Inc, 2011, ISBN 978-1-86395-529-4. Romantic descriptions of the beauty, mild climate, and fertile soil of Norfolk Island in the South Pacific led the British government to establish a subsidiary settlement of the New South Wales colony there in 1788. It was hoped that the giant Norfolk Island pine trees and flax plants growing wild on the island might provide the basis for a local industry which, particularly in the case of flax, would provide an alternative source of supply to Russia for an article which was essential for making cordage and sails for the ships of the British navy. However, the island had no safe harbor, which led the colony to be abandoned and the settlers evacuated to Tasmania in 1807. King, Robert J. "Norfolk Island: Phantasy and Reality, 1770-1814." ''The Great Circle,'' vol. 25, no. 2, 2003, pp.20-41. The island was subsequently re-settled as a penal settlement in 1824. From 1 February 1927 until 12 June 1931, the Northern Territory was divided up as North Australia and Central Australia at latitude 20°S (20th parallel south). New South Wales has had one further territory surrendered, namely Jervis Bay Territory comprising 6,677 hectares, in 1915. The external territories were added: Norfolk Island (1914); Ashmore Island, Cartier Islands (1931); the Australian Antarctic Territory transferred from Britain (1933); Heard Island, McDonald Islands, and Macquarie Island transferred to Australia from Britain (1947). Forty-two species from five genera populate New Zealand, and all are endemic (endemism) to New Zealand and the surrounding islands (Norfolk Island, New Caledonia). http: www.teara.govt.nz en cicadas 1 Many New Zealand cicada species differ from those of other countries by being found high up on mountain tops. '''Medicare''' is Australia's publicly funded universal health care system, operated by the government authority Medicare Australia. Medicare is intended to provide affordable treatment by doctors and in public hospitals for all resident citizens and permanent residents except for those on Norfolk Island. Residents with a Medicare card can receive subsidised treatment from medical practitioners who have been issued a Medicare provider number, and fully subsidised ("free") treatment in public hospitals. Visitors from countries which have reciprocal arrangements with Australia have limited access to Medicare, as detailed below. The Australian Government has signed Reciprocal Health Care Agreements (RHCA) with the governments of the United Kingdom, Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgium, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Malta, Italy, Republic of Ireland and New Zealand. Optional caption Nations participating 72 The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — send separate teams to the Commonwealth Games, as do the three Crown Dependencies (Crown dependency) — Jersey, the Isle of Man and Guernsey — and 9 of the 14 British Overseas Territories. The Cook Islands and Niue, non-sovereign territories in free association (Associated state) with New Zealand, and Norfolk Island, an external territory (states and territories of Australia#External territories) of Australia, also compete separately. There are thus 53 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, but 72 competing teams at the Commonwealth Games. Athletes participating 3,863 Like the sporophytes of seed plants, those of ferns consist of: * Stems (Plant stem): Most often an underground creeping rhizome, but sometimes an above-ground creeping stolon (e.g., Polypodiaceae), or an above-ground erect semi-woody trunk (e.g., Cyatheaceae) reaching up to 20 m in a few species (e.g., ''Cyathea brownii'' on Norfolk Island and ''Cyathea medullaris'' in New Zealand). * Leaf: The green, photosynthetic (photosynthesis) part of the plant. In ferns, it is often referred to as a frond, but this is because of the historical division between people who study ferns and people who study seed plants, rather than because of differences in structure. New leaves typically expand by the unrolling of a tight spiral called a crozier or fiddlehead. This uncurling of the leaf is termed circinate vernation. Leaves are divided into three types: *Ball's Pyramid (part of New South Wales) *Norfolk Island, in the extreme north of the Tasman Sea, on the border with the Coral Sea (External Territory) *Middleton Reef (part of Coral Sea Islands Territory) The Australian dollar is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia and its territories (Territory (administrative division)), including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island. It is also the official currency of the independent Pacific Island nation (Pacific Islands)s of Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu. Commonwealth and off-shore protected areas in the Australian Capital Territory, the Northern Territory, the Christmas Island Territory, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands Territory, the Norfolk Island Territory and the Australian Antarctic Territory are managed by Parks Australia, a division of the Department of the Environment and Water Resources (Department of the Environment and Water Resources (Australia)), with the exception of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, which is managed by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, a separate body within the department. The '''Australian dollar''' (sign (currency sign): '''$'''; code (ISO 4217): '''AUD''') is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia (Australia), including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states (Pacific Islands) of Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu. Within Australia it is almost always abbreviated with the dollar sign ('''$'''), with '''A$''' sometimes used to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. WikiPedia:Norfolk Island Dmoz:Regional Oceania Norfolk Island


Shusha

was repulsed but the war was to continue for a year and a half. The book describes the love of Ali for Nino, with excursions to mountain villages in Daghestan (Republic of Dagestan), Shusha in Azerbaijan, Tbilisi, Georgia and Persia. Upon graduating from high school, Ali determines to marry Nino. At first she hesitates, until Ali promises that he will not make her wear the veil, or be part of a harem. Ali's father, despite his Muslim traditional view of women, supports the marriage; Nino's father tries to postpone the marriage.


Tyre, Lebanon

-sovereign local entity. The term '''city-state''' which originated in English (alongside the German '''Stadtstaat''') does not fully translate the Greek term. The ''poleis'' were not like other primordial ancient city-states like Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon) or Sidon, which were ruled by a king or a small oligarchy, but rather a political entity ruled by its body of citizens. The traditional view of archaeologists, that the appearance of urbanization at excavation sites could be read


Brittany

was not legally part of the realm of England. The traditional view has been that the Norman monarchy granted these outright. A revisionist view is that such rights were more common in the 11th century throughout the Conquest, but were largely suppressed in England, and survived in the Marches. Settlement was encouraged, as if the lands were desert: Knights were granted their own lands, which they held in feudal service to the Norman lords. Settlement was also encouraged in towns that were given market

universal — Edward Gibbon believed that there had been a great deal of British survival — it was the dominant paradigm. Though many scholars would now utilise this argument, the traditional view is still held by many other historians, Lawrence James recently writing that England was 'submerged by an Anglo-Saxon current which swept away the Romano-British.' Lawrence James, ''Warrior Race'', (London: Abacus. 2002), p.30 It is clear that some British people migrated

(modern day Galicia (Galicia (Spain)), in northwest Spain) at about the same time. The historian Peter Hunter-Blair (Peter Hunter Blair) expounded what is now regarded as the traditional view of the Anglo-Saxon arrival in Britain. Bell-Fialkoff Bell: ''The role of migration in the history of the Eurasian steppe'', p.303. That is why many scholars still subscribe to the traditional view that combined archaeological, documentary and linguistic evidence suggests that considerable numbers of Anglo-Saxons settled in southern and eastern England. He suggested a mass immigration, fighting and driving the Sub-Roman Britons off their land and into the western extremities of the islands, and into the Breton and Iberian peninsulas. Hunter-Blair, ''Roman Britain and early England'' Particularly Chapter 8: ''The Age of Invasion'' '''Breizh Cola,''' "the cola of Brittany", is bottled by Phare Ouest Literally ''West lighthouse''. This is a pun on the phrase '''Far West''', the French equivalent of Wild West. . It is one of many new types of alternate cola, or "altercola," competing with more established and widespread brands such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola. These colas are currently produced in small volumes and are generally readily available in local markets only. Another example was in November 1943, when Ōshima was taken on a four-day tour of the Atlantic Wall fortifications on the coast of France. Upon his return to Berlin, he wrote a detailed 20-page report of his visit, giving an account of the location of every German division (Division (military)), as well as its manpower and weaponry. He described tank ditches in detail, armament of turrets located close to the shore, and available mobile forces. This provided valuable intelligence to the planners of the D-Day assault. Connected to this was that the Allies knew that Operation Fortitude was working because just one week before D-Day, Hitler confided to Ōshima that while the Allies might make diversionary feints in Norway, Brittany and Normandy, they will actually open up "an all-out second front in the area of the Straits of Dover (Strait of Dover)". Thus Ōshima dutifully reported that the bulk of German forces would not be waiting in Normandy, but mistakenly, at the Pas-de-Calais area. She was born at the château de Coëtsal near Plumergat, in the ''département (département in France)'' of the Morbihan, in Brittany, her father, Joseph-Arundel de Riquetti, comte de Mirabeau, 1820–1860, being the great-grandson of Victor de Riquetti, marquis de Mirabeau (Victor de Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeau) (''Mirabeau Père''), noted 18th century economist, and grandnephew of Honoré Mirabeau the celebrated revolutionary orator. In view of her later opinions, it is interesting to remember that Sibylle was actually descended from Octave Mirabeau's reactionary younger brother, André-Boniface-Louis de Riquetti, vicomte de Mirabeau, (1754–1792) known as ''Mirabeau-Tonneau'' because of his notorious ''embonpoint'', who famously broke his sword in front of France's Revolutionary Assembly (where he represented the nobility of the Limousin (Limousin (province))) while bitterly crying out: "now that The King is giving up his kingdom, a nobleman no longer needs a sword to fight for him!" thumb left Louis II de La Trémoille in an ancient engraving. (Image:Tremoille.JPG) He commanded an army that attempted to secure Brittany for the French crown after internal revolts had weakened Francis II, Duke of Brittany during the so-called "Mad War" (''La Guerre Folle''). His decisive victory at the Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier (Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier (1488)) on 27 July 1488 ended effective Breton independence. Traditionally, most people were given names from the Roman Catholic calendar of saints. Common names of this type are ''Jacques'' (James (James (name))), ''Jean'' (John (John (given name))), ''Michel'' (Michael), ''Pierre'' (Peter (Peter (name))), or ''Jean-Baptiste'' (John the Baptist) for males; and ''Marie'' (Mary (Mary (given name))), ''Jeanne'' (Jane (Jane (given name))), ''Marguerite'' (Margaret (Margaret (name))), ''Françoise'' (Frances (Francis (given name))), or ''Élisabeth'' (Elizabeth (Elizabeth (given name))) for females. In certain regions such as Brittany or Corsica, more local names (usually of local saints) are often used (in Brittany, for instance, male ''Corentin'' or female ''Anne''; in Corsica, ''Dominique'' (suitable both for males and females). However, people from immigrant communities often choose names from their own culture. Furthermore, in recent decades it has become common to use first names of foreign origin, such as ''Kevin'', ''Enzo'' or ''Anthony'' for males; for females, ''Jessica'', ''Jennifer'', ''Karine'' or ''Sonia''. Also, females were given names that are feminine to the common French names like Jacqueline (Jacqueline (name)) and Gérald (Gerald)ine. Traditionally, most people were given names from the Roman Catholic calendar of saints. Common names of this type are ''Jacques'' (James (James (name))), ''Jean'' (John (John (given name))), ''Michel'' (Michael), ''Pierre'' (Peter (Peter (name))), or ''Jean-Baptiste'' (John the Baptist) for males; and ''Marie'' (Mary (Mary (given name))), ''Jeanne'' (Jane (Jane (given name))), ''Marguerite'' (Margaret (Margaret (name))), ''Françoise'' (Frances (Francis (given name))), or ''Élisabeth'' (Elizabeth (Elizabeth (given name))) for females. In certain regions such as Brittany or Corsica, more local names (usually of local saints) are often used (in Brittany, for instance, male ''Corentin'' or female ''Anne''; in Corsica, ''Dominique'' (suitable both for males and females). However, people from immigrant communities often choose names from their own culture. Furthermore, in recent decades it has become common to use first names of foreign origin, such as ''Kevin'', ''Enzo'' or ''Anthony'' for males; for females, ''Jessica'', ''Jennifer'', ''Karine'' or ''Sonia''. Also, females were given names that are feminine to the common French names like Jacqueline (Jacqueline (name)) and Gérald (Gerald)ine. Town twinning Grand Saconnex is twinned (town twinning) with the town of Carantec in Brittany in western France. Conseil des Communes et Regions d'Europe


Sidon

Commons:Sidon


Toledo, Spain

in the development of León and Castile and the first major milestone in the ''Reconquista''. Christian Mozarabs from Al-Andalus had come north to populate the deserted frontier (marches) lands, and the traditional view of Spanish history has been that they brought with them the remains of Visigothic and Classical culture, and a new ideology of ''Reconquista'', a crusade against the Moors. Modern historians see the fall of Toledo as marking a basic change in relations with the Moorish


Normandy

is thought to be a reaction to the fighting during the Anglo-Saxon mutiny between about 450 to 500, as was the migration to Britonia (modern day Galicia (Galicia (Spain)), in northwest Spain) at about the same time. The historian Peter Hunter-Blair (Peter Hunter Blair) expounded what is now regarded as the traditional view of the Anglo-Saxon arrival in Britain. Bell-Fialkoff Bell: ''The role of migration in the history of the Eurasian steppe'', p.303. That is why many scholars still subscribe to the traditional view that combined archaeological, documentary and linguistic evidence suggests that considerable numbers of Anglo-Saxons settled in southern and eastern England. He suggested a mass immigration, fighting and driving the Sub-Roman Britons off their land and into the western extremities of the islands, and into the Breton and Iberian peninsulas. Hunter-Blair, ''Roman Britain and early England'' Particularly Chapter 8: ''The Age of Invasion'' '''Tessy-sur-Vire''' is a commune (Communes of France) in the Manche department (Departments of France) in Normandy in north-western France. Descamps was born in Dunkirk, but lived principally at Paris, till an accidental circumstance fixed him at Rouen, in 1740. On his way to England, he formed an acquaintance with Le Cornier of Cideville (Pierre-Robert Le Cornier de Cideville), the friend of Voltaire, who, anxious for the honor of his native town, persuaded the young artist to select it as the place of his future residence. Once settled, he founded, after the Royal Dublin Society following the basic ideas of the Philosophes of the Enlightenment (Age of Enlightenment), a tuition-free art school, which was to play a key role in the development of pictorial art in Normandy. Descamps wrote a memoir about this school for the French Academy awarded him a prize. * Marie (1291 – January 22, 1365, Wijnendaele), Lady of Merode, married in 1309 in Paris John I, Marquis of Namur * Catherine (1296–1368, Normandy), married John II of Ponthieu, Count of Aumale Commons:Normandie


Sichuan

) are correct. Sent by Emperor Wu (Emperor Wu of Han China) to what is now south-west China, Tang Meng is said to have come across something called ''jujiang'' or "sauce-betel". He was told it came from the markets of Shu (Shu (state)), an area in what is now the Sichuan province. The traditional view among historians is that "sauce-betel" is a sauce made from betel leaves, but arguments have been made that it actually refers to pepper, either long or black. ref>


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