Places Known For

title ancient

Koumbi Saleh

title Review of: Recherches Archéologiques sur la Capitale de l'Empire de Ghana by Sophie Berthier journal African Archaeological Review volume 16 issue 1 pages 83–85 jstor 25115527 . * existed from before c. 830 until c. 1235 in what is now south-east Mauritania and western Mali. The Sosso people took its capital Koumbi Saleh but at the Battle of Kirina (c. 1240) Sundiata Keita's alliance defeated the Sosso and began the Mali Empire, which spread its influence along the Niger River through numerous vassal kingdoms and provinces. The Gao Empire at the eastern Niger bend was powerful in the ninth century CE but later subordinated to Mali until its decline. In 1340 the Songhai people made Gao the capital of a new Songhai Empire. Haskins, page 46


Royal Highness Igwe Kenneth Onyeneke Orizu III The present reigning monarch is His Royal Highness Igwe Kenneth Onyeneke Orizu III; he is the longest serving mornach in Nigeria and he is currently the 17th monarch in the Nnofo Royal lineage. Igwe Kenneth Orizu III is the first class chief

, until, probably, the matter got to the highest obi in the lineage. If the complainant was not satisfied at this point, he would appeal to the obi of the quarter and the leaders of his family could be summoned to defend their judgment. Through this legal procedure, guilt


title al-Muqaddimah others Franz Rosenthal publisher Princeton University Press place Princeton, NJ . * The Fatimids turned westward in 911 CE, destroying the imamate of Tahert and conquering Sijilmasa in Morocco. Ibadi Kharijite refugees from Tahert fled south to the oasis at Ouargla. All this had been done by him to prepare for the appearance of Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, the ''imam (Shia Imam)''-caliph of the Fatimids. Al-Mahdi was rescued from a prison in Sijilmasa (present-day Morocco) and proclaimed as caliph, ruling from the former residence of the Aghlabids.


, and Archaeology location London publisher Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund (Palestine Exploration Fund) volume 1 ( p.156 ) *


-trauma.html title Ancient Human's Head Trauma Points to Foul Play last Welsh first Jennifer publisher Live Science accessdate 17 January 2012 thumb 400px (File:Danxia 0754.jpg) '''Mount Danxia''' (丹霞山) is a famous scenic area near Shaoguan city in the northern part of Guangdong, China (People's Republic of China). The Danxia mountain is formed from a reddish sandstone which has been eroded over time into a series of mountains surrounded by curvaceous cliffs and many unusual


first Gaston authorlink Gaston Maspero contribution History of Egypt contribution-url http: books?id taT4NjJ8VWsC year 1903 title History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria editor-last Sayce editor-first Archibald Henry volume 9 pages place N.p. publisher Kessinger Publishing * This is a list of Egyptian capitals in a chronological order. * Thinis (Actual Location Unknown)(before 2950 BC) the first capital of Upper and Lower Egypt * Memphis (Memphis, Egypt): (2950 BC - 2180 BC) - I - VIII dynasties State formation began during this era and perhaps even earlier. Various small city-states arose along the Nile. Centuries of conquest then reduced Upper Egypt to three major states: Thinis, Naqada, and Nekhen. Sandwiched between Thinis and Nekhen, Naqada was the first to fall. Thinis then conquered Lower Egypt. Nekhen's relationship with Thinis is uncertain, but these two states may have merged peacefully, with the Thinite royal family ruling all of Egypt. The Thinite kings are buried at Abydos (Abydos, Egypt) in the Umm el-Qa'ab cemetery. - align center about 3080 BCE bgcolor #DDFFDD Narmer (or Menes) unites '''Lower Egypt''' and '''Upper Egypt''' under the '''First Dynasty of Egypt'''. Thinis becomes the capital of all '''Egypt (Ancient Egypt)'''. - - align center about 3200 BCE bgcolor #DDFFDD The city-states of '''Thinis''', '''Naqada''', and '''Nekhen''' dominate Upper Egypt. -

Sais, Egypt

The '''Twenty-sixth Dynasty''' of Egypt (also written '''Dynasty XXVI''' or '''Dynasty 26''') was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt (Ancient Egypt) before the Persian conquest (History of Persian Egypt) in 525 (525 BC) BC (Before Christ) (although others followed). The Dynasty's reign (''c''. 685 (685 BC)-525 (525 BC) BC ) is also called the '''Saite Period''' after the city of Sais (Sais, Egypt), where its pharaohs had their capital, and marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt. Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, London 2004 Rulers The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty of Egypt had one ruler, Amyrtaeus, who was a descendant of the Saite (Sais, Egypt) kings of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty (Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt), and led a successful revolt against the Persians (Achaemenid Empire) on the death of Darius II. No monuments of his reign have been found, and little is known of his reign. '''Necho I''' (sometimes '''Nekau''') (672 BC–664 BC) was the prince (Prince of Saïs) or governor of the Egyptian city of Sais (Sais, Egypt). He was the first attested local Saite king of the twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt who reigned for 8 years, according to Manetho's Epitome. Egypt was reunified by his son, Psamtik I. Necho I is primarily known from Assyrian documents but is now also attested in one contemporary Egyptian document from his reign. He was officially "installed" at Sais by Assurbanipal around 670 BC, but he already ruled Egypt as a local king prior to this event. According to historical records, Necho I was killed by an invading Kushite force in 664 BC under Tantamani for being an ally of Assyria. The Nubian invasion into the Egyptian Delta was subsequently repelled by the Assyrians who proceeded to advance south into Upper Egypt and sack Thebes. Twenty-Fourth Dynasty The Twenty-fourth Dynasty (Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt) was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais (Sais, Egypt)), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 (732 BC) to 720 BC. Instead, Egypt was ruled (from 664 BC, a full eight years prior to Tanutamun's death) by the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, client kings established by the Assyrians who successfully brought about Egypt's political independence under their reign. Psamtik I was the first to be recognised by them as the King of the whole of Egypt, and he brought increased stability to the country in a 54 year reign from the city of Sais (Sais, Egypt). Four successive Saite kings continued guiding Egypt into another period of peace and prosperity from 610-525 BC. Unfortunately for his dynasty, a new power was growing in the Near East – Persia. Pharaoh Psamtik III had succeeded his father Ahmose II for only 6 months before he had to face the Persian Empire at Pelusium. The Persians had already taken Babylon and Egypt was no match. Psamtik III was defeated and briefly escaped to Memphis, before he was ultimately imprisoned and, later, executed at Susa, the capital of the Persian king Cambyses, who now assumed the formal title of Pharaoh. 28th-30th Dynasties The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty (Twenty-eighth dynasty of Egypt) consisted of a single king, Amyrtaeus, prince of Sais (Sais, Egypt), who rebelled against the Persians. He left no monuments with his name. This dynasty lasted 6 years, from 404 BC to 398 BC. Biography Tefnakht erected two donation stelas in Years 36 and 38 of Shoshenq V as a Prince at Saïs. His Year 38 stela from Buto is significant not only because Tefnakht employs the rather boastful epithet of "Great Chief of the entire land" but due to its list of his religious titles as '''prophet of Neith, Edjo and the Lady of Imay'''. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, p.362 This reflects his control over Sais, Buto to the north and Kom el-Hish to the southwest even prior to the end of the 22nd Dynasty—with the death of Shoshenq V—and reflects Tefnakht's political base in the Western Delta region of Egypt. The 22nd Dynasty was politically fragmenting even prior to the death of Shoshenq V. Tefnakht established his capital at Sais (Sais, Egypt), and formed an alliance with other minor kings of the Delta (Nile Delta) region in order to conquer Middle and Upper Egypt, which was under the sway of the Nubian king Piye. He was able to capture and unify many of the cities of the Delta region, thus making Tefnakht considerably more powerful than any of his predecessors in either the 22nd (Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt) or 23rd dynasties. '''Bakenranef''', known by the ancient Greeks as '''Bocchoris''', Bakenranef's name is consistently ''Bocchoris'' in the Greek accounts and in Tacitus; the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics (Champollion) has permitted the reconstruction of his authentic Egyptian name. was briefly a king of the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt. Based at Sais (Sais, Egypt) in the western Delta, he ruled Lower Egypt from c. 725 to 720 BC. Though the Ptolemaic period Egyptian historian Manetho Manetho, frags. 64, 65. considers him the sole member of the Twenty-fourth dynasty, modern scholars include his father Tefnakht in that dynasty. Although Sextus Julius Africanus quotes Manetho as stating that "Bocchoris" ruled for six years, some modern scholars again differ and assign him a shorter reign of only five years, based on evidence from an Apis Bull burial stela. It establishes that Bakenranef's reign ended only at the start of his 6th regnal year which, under the Egyptian dating system, means he had a reign of 5 full years. Bakenranef's prenomen or royal name, ''Wahkare'', means "Constant is the Spirit of Re" in Egyptian. Peter A. Clayton, ''Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt'', Thames and Hudson, London, 1994. p.188 Osorkon probably lived into his eighties, which explains why he appointed his son Takelot as the junior coregent to the throne in his final years. He would have been in failing health by this time. Osorkon III's coregency with Takelot III is the last attested royal coregency in ancient Egyptian history. Later dynasties from Nubia, Sais (Sais, Egypt), and Persia (Achaemenid Empire) all ruled Egypt with a single king on the throne.

Villa de Zaachila

in the 13th century, the ruler of the Zaachila city-state began to grow in power to dominate much of the surrounding valley. Category:Municipalities of Oaxaca Category:Populated places in Oaxaca Surrounding towns A number of small towns surround the main city and are closely linked economically and culturally with the main city. Some of these towns are known for producing certain crafts that are identified with the three central valleys of Oaxaca. In these towns one can see the workshops and the crafts being produced in the traditional manner although most of these towns' products are sold in the main city. Santa María Atzompa produces glazed, glass-inlaid pottery of green, while San Antonio Arrazola and San Martín Tilcajete make alebrijes, small painted wooden figures. San Bartolo Coyotepec is known for its barro negro pottery, and Teotitlán del Valle works with wool and llama to make tapetes, or more commonly, throw rugs. These rugs are known for their intense colors, made traditionally with natural dyes, made from cempasúchil (yellow), cochineal (red) and indigo (blue). In addition, Oaxaca city and surrounding towns have market days, where one can visit the tianguis (open-air markets) set up for that day. There are markets on each day of the week. Monday in Miahuatlan (Miahuatlán de Porfirio Díaz) is for buying daily staples, and Tuesday, in Ayoquezco (Ayoquezco de Aldama) is noted for wood furniture. On Wednesday, people head to Etla (Villa de Etla) and Zimatlán (Zimatlán de Alvarez) for dairy products, especially cheese. Thursday is reserved for the two largest ''tianguis'' in Ejutla (Ejutla de Crespo) and Villa de Zaachila. On Friday, in Coyotepec, Jalietza and Ocotlán (Ocotlán (Oaxaca)) cotton textiles, embroidered blouses, corn-husk flowers and glazed pottery from Atzompa are sold. Also Llano park in Oaxaca has a small market. Saturday is reserved for the main city of Oaxaca, and to finish, on Sunday mezcal is sold in Tlacolula (Tlacolula de Matamoros). - 556 Villa de Zaachila Villa de Zaachila Zaachila (Zaachila District, Oaxaca) - - 556 Villa de Zaachila Villa de Zaachila Zaachila (Zaachila District, Oaxaca) -


339px thumb Kanauj triangle (File:Indian Kanauj triangle map.svg) Junaid, the successor of Qasim (Muhammad bin Qasim), finally subdued the Hindu resistance within Sindh. Taking advantage of the conditions in Western India, which at that time was covered with several small states, Junaid led a large army into the region in early 738 CE. Dividing this force into two he plundered several cities in southern Rajasthan, western Malwa, and Gujarat. Indian inscriptions confirm this invasion but record the Arab success only against the smaller states in Gujarat. They also record the defeat of the Arabs at two places. The southern army moving south into Gujarat was repulsed at Navsari by the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty and Rashtrakutas. The army that went east, after sacking several places, reached Avanti (Ujjain) whose ruler Nagabhata (Gurjara-Pratihara) trounced the invaders and forced them to flee. After his victory Nagabhata took advantage of the disturbed conditions to acquire control over the numerous small states up to the border of Sindh. Junaid probably died from the wounds inflicted in the battle with the Gurjara-Pratihara. His successor Tamin organized a fresh army and attempted to avenge Junaid’s defeat towards the close of the year 738 CE. But this time Nagabhata , with his Chauhan and Guhilot feudatories, met the Muslim army before it could leave the borders of Sindh. The battle resulted in the complete rout of the Arabs who fled broken into Sindh with the Gurjara-Pratihara close behind them. In the words of the Arab chronicler, ''a place of refuge to which the Muslims might flee was not to be found.'' The Arabs crossed over to the other side of the Indus River, abandoning all their lands to the victorious Hindus. The local chieftains took advantage of these conditions to re-establish their independence. Subsequently the Arabs constructed the city of Mansura (Mansura (Brahmanabad))h on the other side of the wide and deep Indus, which was safe from attack. This became their new capital in Sindh. Thus began the reign of the imperial Gurjara-Pratiharas. In the Gwalior inscription, it is recorded that Gurjara-Pratihara emperor Nagabhata "crushed the large army of the powerful Mlechcha king." This large army consisted of cavalry, infantry, siege artillery, and probably a force of camels. Since Tamin was a new governor he had a force of Syrian cavalry from Damascus, local Arab contingents, converted Hindus of Sindh, and foreign mercenaries like the Turkics (Turkic peoples). All together the invading army may have had anywhere between 10–15,000 cavalry, 5000 infantry, and 2000 camels. The Arab chronicler Sulaiman describes the army of the Pratiharas as it stood in 851 CE, "The ruler of Gurjars maintains numerous forces and no other Indian prince has so fine a cavalry. He is unfriendly to the Arabs, still he acknowledges that the king of the Arabs is the greatest of rulers. Among the princes of India there is no greater foe of the Islamic faith than he. He has got riches, and his camels and horses are numerous."


. The tombs, which are built above ground in tower-like structures called ''chullpas'', are the vestiges of the Colla people, Aymara (Aymara people) who were conquered by the Inca in the 15th century. The structures housed the remains of complete family groups, although they were probably limited to nobility. Many of the tombs have been dynamited by grave robbers (Grave robbing), while others were left unfinished.

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