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taking power


Kingdom of Egypt

of 4 February 1942, British troops and tanks surrounded Abdeen Palace in Cairo and Lampson presented Farouk with an ultimatum (Abdeen Palace Incident of 1942). Farouk capitulated, and Nahhas formed a government shortly thereafter. However, the humiliation meted out to Farouk, and the actions of the Wafd in cooperating with the British and taking power, lost support for both the British and the Wafd among both civilians and, more importantly, the Military of Egypt Egyptian military


Madurai Nayak dynasty

is said to have set himself immediately to strengthening his capital and improving the administration of his dominions. He was supported by his able general Ariyanatha Mudaliar who led Viswantha Nayak's army and had become second in command taking power along with the latter. Saints, Goddesses and Kings By Susan Bayly He demolished the Pandya rampart and ditch which at that time surrounded merely the walls of Madurai's great temple, and erected in their place an extensive double-walled fortress defended by 72 bastions; and he constructed channels from upper waters of the Vaigai river to supply the kingdom with water. Perhaps the Peranai and Chittanai dams owe their origins to him. Vishwanatha Nayakka ruled from 1535 to 1544, and was succeeded by Varathappa Nayakkar who ruled for a very short period of about a year. In 1545, Dumbicchi Nayakkan became the Governor, and after twenty months, he was succeeded by Vishwanatha Nayakkan again, until Vitthala Raja took over. Category:Telugu people Category:History of Andhra Pradesh Category:Dynasties of India Category:Indian monarchs Category:Tamil people Category:Hindu monarchs Category:Telugu monarchs Category:Tamil monarchs (Category:Madurai Nayak Dynasty) Category:History of Tiruchirappalli


Olivenza

homenagem a João Francisco Marques, Volume I''. Universidade do Porto, sd, pp. 137-144. In Portuguese. At the same time, John had to face an enemy at home. His wife, Carlota Joaquina, loyal to Spanish interests, initiated an intrigue with the objective of deposing her husband and taking power herself, an attempt that failed in 1805, resulting in the queen's exile from court, after which she resided at Queluz National Palace, while the regent took up residency at Mafra National Palace. Schwarcz, Lília Moritz; Azevedo, Paulo Cesar de & Costa, Angela Marques da. ''A longa viagem da biblioteca dos reis: do terremoto de Lisboa à independência do Brasil''. Companhia das Letras, 2002, pp. 479-480. In Portuguese. ''Aclamação de d. João''. Arquivo Nacional, 2003. In Portuguese. Flight to Brazil in both locations. * The town of Olivenza (in Portuguese ''Olivença''), in Badajoz province (Badajoz (province)), and its surrounding territory, which used to be Portuguese until the 19th century and is still claimed by Portugal. He earned notoriety at an early age by telling Napoleon to his face at the conference in Bayonne in 1808 that the Portuguese would not ‘consent to become Spaniards’ as the French Emperor wanted. He was Portuguese plenipotentiary to the Congress of Vienna in 1814, where he attempted to press Portugal's claims to Olivenza, and to the Congress of Paris in 1815. After this he was briefly ambassador to London, but then was appointed secretary of state for foreign affairs in Brazil. After the Portuguese Revolution of 1820 he was commissioned by the revolutionary junta to inform the king (Dom João VI, then living in Brazil) of what had taken place and to request his return to Portugal. In 1823 he was made a Marquis and became foreign minister as well as head of the committee which D. João appointed to devise a new constitutional charter. The resulting document, to which the King was unable to agree, was so liberal that it drew down on Palmela the hatred of the reactionary forces in the country, especially the Queen and the Infant Dom Miguel, who in 1824 had him arrested. After he obtained his liberty he was made a minister of state and returned to London as ambassador. thumb left Pedro de Sousa Holstein (Image:DPedrodeSousaHolstein3.jpg)


Bernicia

, where he was betrayed by a friend, and murdered by Oswiu’s soldiers. After Edwin was killed in battle against Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd (Kingdom of Gwynedd) and Penda of Mercia, Northumbria fell into disarray, with Eanfrith (Eanfrith of Bernicia) taking power in the sub-kingdom of Bernicia and Osric taking power in Deira. According to Bede, Osric was, like Eanfrith, a Christian who reverted to paganism upon coming to power. '''Eanflæd''' (19 April 626 – 11 December 704) was queen of Bernicia and later, the abbess of an influential Christian monastery in Whitby, England. She was the daughter of King Edwin of Deira and Æthelburg (Æthelburg of Kent), daughter of King Æthelberht of Kent. In about 642 Eanflæd married King Oswiu of Bernicia. After Oswiu's death in 670, she retired to Whitby Abbey, which had been founded by Hilda of Whitby. Eanflæd became the abbess around 680 and remained there until her death. The monastery had strong association with members of the Deiran royal family and played an important role in the establishment of Roman Christianity in England during that historical period. She was canonized as a saint for her role in its establishment. In 642 Oswiu, King of Bernicia, head of the rival Northumbrian royal family, sent a priest named Utta to Kent, which then was ruled by Eanflæd's cousin, Eorcenberht (Eorcenberht of Kent), to ask for her hand in marriage. Bede, ''Ecclesiastical History'', Book III, Chapter 15. Oswiu already had been married, to a British princess, named Rieinmellt, but recently had become King on the death of his brother, Oswald (Oswald of Northumbria), at the battle of Maserfield. King Penda of Mercia, the victor of Maserfield, dominated central Britain (Great Britain) and Oswiu was in need of support. Marriage with Eanflæd would provide Kentish, and perhaps Frankish, support, and any children Oswiu and Eanflæd might have would have strong claims to all of Northumbria. Higham, ''Convert Kings'', p. 225; Holdsworth "Oswiu"; Thacker. The date of the marriage is not recorded. Thacker states "in or shortly after 642"; Holdsworth, "Oswiu", prefers 643. thumb right Imaginary depiction of Ida from John Speed (Image:Ida - John Speed.JPG)'s 1611 "Saxon Heptarchy" '''Ida''' (died c. 559) is the first known king of the Anglian (Angles) kingdom of Bernicia, which he ruled from around 547 until his death in 559. Little is known of his life or reign, but he was regarded as the founder of a line from which later Anglo-Saxon (Anglo-Saxons) kings in this part of northern England and southern Scotland claimed descent. His descendants successfully fought off British (Britons (historical)) resistance and ultimately founded the powerful kingdom of Northumbria. Sources The ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' indicates that Ida's reign began in 547, and records him as the son of Eoppa (Eoppa of Bernicia), grandson of Esa, and great-grandson of Ingwy. ''The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' (s:Anglo-Saxon Chronicle - Ingram Translation), entry for 547. Likewise, the ''Historia Brittonum'' records him as the son of Eoppa, and calls him the first king of ''Berneich'' or Bernicia. ''Historia Brittonum'' (s:History of the Britons), ch. 56. The ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' elaborates that he ruled for twelve years and built the Bernician capital of Bamburgh Castle. Later, however, the ''Chronicle'' confuses his territory with the later Northumbria, saying that Ælla (Ælla of Deira), historically a king of Deira rather than Bernicia, succeeded him as king after his death. ''The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' (s:Anglo-Saxon Chronicle - Ingram Translation), entry for 560. Northumbria did not exist until the union of Bernicia with the kingdom of Deira; this happened for the first time under Ida's grandson Æthelfrith (Æthelfrith of Northumbria). The genealogies of the Anglo-Saxon kings attached to some manuscripts of the ''Historia Brittonum'' give more information on Ida and his family; the text names Ida's "one queen" as Bearnoch and indicates that he had twelve sons. Several of these are named, and some of them are listed as kings. ''Historia Brittonum'' (s:History of the Britons), ch. 57. One of them, Theodric (Theodric of Bernicia), is noted for fighting against a British coalition led by Urien Rheged and his sons. ''Historia Brittonum'' (s:History of the Britons), ch. 63. Aneirin's best known work is ''Y Gododdin'', a series of elegies for the warriors of the northern Brythonic kingdom of Gododdin who, in ''circa'' 600, fell against the Angles of Deira (Deira (kingdom)) and Bernicia at the Battle of Catraeth (probably Catterick (Catterick, North Yorkshire) in North Yorkshire). The poetry abounds in textual difficulties and consequently interpretations vary. One stanza contains what ''may'' possibly be the earliest reference to Arthur (King Arthur), as a paragon of bravery with whom one fallen warrior is compared : the identification is, however, conjectural. The poem tells us that Aneirin was present at this battle and, having been taken prisoner, was one of only four (or two) Brythonic survivors. He remained a captive until his ransom was paid by Ceneu ap Llywarch Hen. Early history Castle Hill, on which Stirling Castle is built, forms part of the Stirling Sill, a formation of quartz-dolerite around 350 million years old, which was subsequently modified by glaciation to form a "crag and tail". Fawcett, p.14 It is likely that this natural feature was occupied at an early date, as a hill fort is located on Gowan Hill, immediately to the east. Fawcett, p.15 The Romans (Roman Britain) bypassed Stirling, building a fort at Doune instead, but the rock may have been occupied by the Maeatae at this time. Fawcett, p.16 It may later have been a stronghold of the Manaw Gododdin, and has also been identified with a settlement recorded in the 7th and 8th centuries as Iudeu, where King Penda (Penda of Mercia) of Mercia besieged King Oswy (Oswiu of Northumbria) of Bernicia in 655. The area came under Pictish control after the defeat of the Northumbrians at the Battle of Dun Nechtain thirty years later. However, there is no archaeological evidence for occupation of Castle Hill before the late medieval (Late Middle Ages) period. Gifford & Walker, p.42–43 The roots of the battle lay in Penda's success in dominating England through a number of military victories, most significantly over the previously dominant Northumbrians. In alliance with Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd he had defeated and killed Edwin of Northumbria at Hatfield Chase (Battle of Hatfield Chase) in 633, and subsequently he defeated and killed Oswald of Northumbria at the Battle of Maserfield in 642. Maserfield effectively marked the overthrow of Northumbrian supremacy, and in the years that followed the Mercians apparently campaigned into Bernicia, besieging Bamburgh at one point; the Northumbrian sub-kingdom of Deira (Deira (kingdom)) supported Penda during his 655 invasion. Aftermath Following the battle, Deira (Deira (kingdom)), in the southern part of Northumbria, chose a king of its own, Oswine (Oswine of Deira), while Bernicia in the north (which had been dominant, with Oswald, a member of the Bernician royal line, ruling both Bernicia and Deira prior to Maserfield) was ruled by Oswald's brother Oswiu. Thus the battle led to the internal weakening and fracturing of the Northumbrian kingdom, a situation which lasted until after the battle of the Winwaed, despite Oswine's murder on the orders of Oswiu in 651. History York had been founded as the Roman (Roman Britain) legionary fortress (castra) of ''Eboracum'' and revived as the Anglo-Saxon (Anglo-Saxons) trading port of ''Eoforwic''. It was first captured in November, 866 by Ivar the Boneless, leading a large army of Danish (Danes) Vikings, called the "Great Heathen Army" by Anglo-Saxon chroniclers, which had landed in East Anglia (Kingdom of East Anglia) and made their way north, aided by a supply of horses with which King Edmund of East Anglia (Edmund the Martyr) bought them off and by civil in-fighting between royal candidates in the Anglian Kingdom (Heptarchy) of Northumbria between the leaders of its two sub-kingdoms; Bernicia and Deira. Declaring a truce, the rivals for the throne of Northumbria joined forces but failed to retake the city in March, 867, and with their deaths Deira came under Danish (Denmark) control as the Kingdom of Northumbria and the Northumbrian royal court fled north to refuge in Bernicia. A Viking attempt against Mercia the same season failed and in 869 their efforts against Wessex were fruitless in the face of opposition from Kings Ethelred (Ethelred of Wessex) and Alfred the Great. The archbishop, Wulfhere (Wulfhere of York) seems to have temporised and collaborated with the Norse, for he was expelled from York when a Northumbrian uprising in 872 was only temporarily successful; he was recalled and held his seat until his death. The Viking king Guthred was buried in York Minster, a signal that he and the archbishop had reached a lasting accommodation. Both suggestions are made by Richard Hall, "A kingdom too far: York in the early tenth century", in N.J. Higham and D.H. Hill, ''Edward the Elder, 899-924'', 2001:188. All the Viking coinage appears to have emanated from the mint at York, a mark of the city's unique status in Northumbria as an economic magnet. York's importance as the seat of Northumbria was confirmed when the Scandinavian warlord, Guthrum, headed for East Anglia, while Halfdan Ragnarsson seized power in AD 875. Haywood (1995), p. 70. While the Danish army was busy in Britain, the Isle of Man and Ireland, the Swedish (Swedes) army was occupied with defending the Danish and Swedish (Sweden) homelands where Halfdan's brothers were in control. The south-east had been absorbed by the English (England) Kingdom of Bernicia Northumbria (Bernicia) in the seventh century. Galloway in the south west was a Lordship with some regality. In a Galwegian (Galwegian Gaelic) charter dated to the reign of Fergus (Fergus of Galloway), the Galwegian ruler styled himself ''rex Galwitensium'', King of Galloway. Oram (2000) p. 62 In the north east the ruler of Moray (Mormaer of Moray) was called not only "king" in both Scandinavian and Irish sources, but before Máel Snechtai (Máel Snechtai of Moray), "King of Alba". For Findláech (Findláech of Moray), ri Alban, ''Annals of Ulster'', ''s.a.'' 1020; Anderson (1922) vol. i, p. 551. For Máel Coluim (Máel Coluim of Moray), ''Annals of Tigernach'', ''s.a.'' 1029; Anderson (1922) vol. i, p. 571. The ''Annals of Tigernach'' though styles Findláech merely ''Mormaer''. thumb right A digital reconstruction of Anglo-Saxon Yeavering created by Past Perfect, a project run jointly by Durham and Northumberland County Councils. (File:Yeavering Digital Image.jpg) In the Early Mediaeval period, Yeavering was situated in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Bernicia. Hope-Taylor 1977 (#Hop77). p. 16. Welsh tradition regards Rhydderch as one of the northern British kings who fought against the early Anglo-Saxon (Anglo-Saxons) realm of Bernicia. The ''Historia Brittonum'' depicts him as an enemy of several Bernician kings of the late sixth century, but the theatre of the wars between them is not identified. It is said he joined with Urien of Rheged and Morcant Bulc in their ill-fated alliance: In 629 (629 inIreland), the Dal nAraide appear to have defeated the Dál Riata at Fid Eóin, killing Connad Cerr, although the victor is named as Maél Caích, perhaps an otherwise unknown brother of Congal. AU 629.1; AT 631.1; Mac Niocaill, pg.95, Byrne, pg.109 As well as their king, the Dál Riata suffered the loss of two grandsons of Áedán mac Gabráin and the Bernician exile Osric (perhaps a son of Æthelfrith (Æthelfrith of Bernicia)) was also killed. It is possible that upon becoming King of Ulaid, Congal resigned the affairs of Dal nAraide to Maél Caích mac Scandail who met opposition from other Criuthne led by Dícuil mac Echach who may have been a member of the Latharna of Larne (a Dal nAraide tribe). Mac Niocaill, pg.95; Byrne, pg.109


San Miguel de Tucumán

by the people of San Miguel de Tucumán to make a stand there. His forces had increased by then to nearly 1,800 soldiers, still much less than the 3,000 at Tristan's command. Even so, he obtained a victory in the Battle of Tucumán. Luna, pp. 85–86 By that time, the First Triumvirate was replaced by the Second Triumvirate (Second Triumvirate (Argentina)), which provided greater support for Belgrano. The Second Triumvirate called the Assembly of Year XIII soon after taking

power, which was intended to declare independence and enact a national constitution, but failed to do so because of political disputes between the members. It did not take measures regarding the national flag, but allowed Belgrano to use the blue and white flag as the flag of the Army of the North. thumb The Battle of Salta (File:Batalla de Salta.jpeg), by Arístides Papi His concern with public education was not interrupted by his military campaigns. In 1813 he was rewarded with 40,000 pesos for his victories at Salta and Tucumán, an amount that would equal almost 80 gold kilograms (Gold standard). Belgrano rejected taking the prize money for himself, considering that a patriot should not seek money or wealth. He gave it back to the XIII year Assembly (Asamblea del Año XIII), with instructions to build primary schools at Tarija (Tarija, Bolivia), Jujuy (San Salvador de Jujuy), San Miguel de Tucumán, and Santiago del Estero. He laid out a series of instructions about the methods and requirements for the selection of the teachers. However, the schools were not built, and by 1823 Bernardino Rivadavia declared that the money was lost; Juan Ramón Balcarce included it in the debt of the Buenos Aires province a decade later. Yupanqui was born as '''Héctor Roberto Chavero Aranburu''' in Pergamino (Buenos Aires Province), in the Argentine pampas, about 200 kilometers away from Buenos Aires. His father was Argentine, descended from indigenous people, while his mother was born in the Basque country (Basque Country (greater region)). His family moved to Tucumán (San Miguel de Tucumán) when he was ten. In a bow to two legendary Incan (Inca Empire) kings, he adopted the stage name Atahualpa Yupanqui, which became famous the world over. Life Sosa was born on 9 July 1935, in San Miguel de Tucumán, in the northwestern Argentine province of Tucumán (Tucumán Province), of mestizo, French (French people), and Quechua (Quechua people) Amerindian (Indigenous peoples of the Americas) ancestry. In 1950, at age fifteen, she won a singing competition organized by a local radio station and was given a contract to perform for two months. She recorded her first album, ''La Voz de la Zafra'', in 1959. A performance at the 1965 Cosquín National Folklore Festival (Cosquín Festival) -where she was introduced and brought to the scene while seating among the public by fellow folk singer Jorge Cafrune-, The presentation by Jorge Cafrune and the song Mercedes Sosa sang are available here. Retrieved 3.03.2010. brought her to the attention of her native countrypeople. Biography Juan Bautista Alberdi was born in San Miguel de Tucumán , capital city of the province (provinces of Argentina) of Tucumán (Tucumán Province), Argentina, in the year of the May Revolution, the beginning of Argentine emancipation from the motherland, Spain. His father, Salvador Alberdi, was a Spanish merchant; his mother, Josefa Aráoz y Balderrama, had been born into an Argentine family of Spanish descent. She died as a result of Juan Bautista's birth. image_alt image_caption Clockwise from top: House of Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucumán, Cathedral of Concepción (Concepción, Tucumán), Quilmes ruins (Quilmes (tribe)). image_flag Provincia de tucuman.svg border '''Tucumán''' ( What today is commonly referred as the '''Independence of Argentina''' was declared on July 9, 1816 by the Congress (Congress of Tucumán) of Tucumán (San Miguel de Tucumán). In reality, the congressmen that were assembled in Tucumán (Tucumán, Argentina) declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America, which is still today one of the legal names of the Argentine Republic. The Federal League (Liga Federal) Provinces, The Argentine ''Littoral'' provinces Santa Fé (Santa Fe Province), Entre Ríos (Entre Ríos Province) and Corrientes (Corrientes Province), along with the Eastern Province (Banda Oriental) (present-dayUruguay) at war (Argentine Civil War) with the United Provinces, were not allowed into the Congress (Congress of Tucumán). At the same time, several provinces from the Upper Peru that would later become part of present-day Bolivia, were represented at the Congress. *LRA14 Santa Fe (Santa Fe, Argentina), Santa Fe Province *LRA15 Tucumán (San Miguel de Tucumán), Tucumán Province *LRA16 La Quiaca, Jujuy Province


Kingdom of Gwynedd

, which was part of the Principality, and the Royal lordships of Glamorgan and Pembroke (Pembrokeshire), was made up of numerous small lordships (Welsh Marches), each with its own courts, laws and other customs. After Edwin was killed in battle against Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd (Kingdom of Gwynedd) and Penda of Mercia, Northumbria fell into disarray, with Eanfrith (Eanfrith of Bernicia) taking power in the sub-kingdom of Bernicia and Osric taking power in Deira. According to Bede, Osric was, like Eanfrith, a Christian who reverted to paganism upon coming to power. '''Gruffydd ap Cynan''' (standard Welsh: Gruffydd ap Cynan) (c. 1055 – 1137) was a King of Gwynedd (Kingdom of Gwynedd). In the course of a long and eventful life, he became a key figure in Welsh resistance to Norman (Norman dynasty) rule, and was remembered as King of all Wales (King of Wales). As a descendant of Rhodri Mawr (Rhodri the Great), Gruffydd ap Cynan was a senior member of the princely house of Aberffraw. '''Gruffudd ap Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd''' was the grandson of Owain Gwynedd a famous king of Gwynedd (Kingdom of Gwynedd) and ruler of most of Wales in the 12th century. The longer patronymic form of his name is usually used to distinguish him from the earlier and better-known Gruffudd ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd.


Gaza City

, but in 1993, the city was transferred to the Palestinian National Authority. In the months following the 2006 election, an armed conflict (Fatah-Hamas conflict) broke out between the Palestinian political factions of Fatah and Hamas, resulting in the latter taking power in Gaza (Battle of Gaza (2007)). Egypt and Israel consequently imposed a blockade (Blockade of the Gaza Strip) on the Gaza Strip. Israel eased


Cuernavaca

 February 1913 against President (President of Mexico) Francisco I. Madero and his vice president, José María Pino Suárez. After deposing President Porfirio Díaz and taking power in 1911, Mexicans expected Madero to make widespread changes in government but were surprised and disappointed to find Madero following many of the same policies and employing the same personnel as the Díaz government. This eventually resulted in revolts against the Madero regime. Madero's


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