moving from the Middle Danube region into Transylvania before the middle of the 10th century. The eight archaeological sites that are attributed to the Magyar conquerors are mainly men’s graves with strong military character, and they all are situated in western Transylvania, for example at Cluj (Cluj-Napoca), Gâmbaş (Aiud), and Deva (Deva, Romania). Kristó 2003, pp. 50-51. Until the mid 10th century, the Magyars were under constant threat of Pecheneg attack; therefore, they built a double defensive line on both the western and eastern side of the Apuseni Mountains and the Banat Mountains. Kristó 2003, p. 52. Anything east of the double defensive line as far as the dwelling area of the Pechenegs was considered a marcher region (marches). Place names adopted by the Magyars in Transylvania suggest that the region had been inhabited by people mostly of Slavic tongue before the Magyars settled there. Kristó 2003, p. 36-38., 102. Wikipedia:Aiud Commons:Aiud
the strong military abilities of the Vandal nobility and their armies. As a result, Berber raids and settlements, which had been checked by the Vandals returned once more. Additionally, under the stratified and centralized economic practices of the Empire, many of the small freeholding farmers both of Vandal and Roman origin lost economic opportunities which left them prey to more powerful rich landlords, and the whole system decayed. Eventually, powerful armies of Arabs under the banner of Islam ultimately swept through the city, which became increasingly acculturated toward Berbers and Arabs. By the 10th century, the city's name had transformed in the local dialect from a Latin to a Berber and ultimately into the Arabicized name of for Caesarea, '''Sharshal'''. Finally, following reconquest by Europeans in the 19th century the city name was changed to '''Cherchell''' which is the French spelling of the contemporary Arabic Berber name of the town. In the city's remaining Byzantine history, it went into slow decline in which the city's remaining Roman and what remained of the semi-Romanized Vandal elite held a stratified position over the growing numbers of Berbers it allowed to settle in return for cheap labor. However, this reduced the economic status of small freeholders and urban dwellers, especially what remained of the Vandal population who provided most of the local military forces. Furthermore, the increasing use of Berber workers replaced the declining quasi-Roman population of free peasants. By the 8th century, the city and surrounding area lacked both a strong urban core of free citizens, or a rural population of freeholding farmers, nor did it support a competent defense. Over a period of fifteen years, successive waves of Arab armies into Byzantine North African territory (including what is now Algeria) wore down the smaller and less motivated Imperial armies, until finally, Moslem tribesmen lay siege to the city of Caesarea. Despite being resupplied by Byzantine fleets, the small Byzantine ruling class and its dependents were eventually overwhelmed by Islamic forces. Much of the Byzantine nobility and its civil service fled to other parts of the Empire, while what remained of the Roman and semi-Roman population accepted Islamic supremacy in return for protected status. For two generations, what remained of the quasi-Roman population and Berbers launched several revolts often in conjunction with reinforcements from the Empire. Islamic forces duly crushed these revolts. After several revolts by Berbers and what remained of the Roman and tiny Vandal populations, Arab Moslems tore down much of the city's defenses and recycled its crumbling Roman buildings. The city, already little more than a relic of its former glory, was now surrounded by a camp of Moslem warriors and their retinue. Additionally, joined by growing numbers of Arab tribesmen, most of the town was converted forcibly or otherwise over the following two centuries. Nonetheless, later Berbo-Islamic rule was more tolerant and respectful of its Greco-Roman Christian past and endeavored to rebuild aspects of the towns former civilization. For the following few centuries, the city remained a power center of Arabs and Berbers with a small but significant population of semi-Roman Christians. During this period, several attempts at reconquest were made by Europeans, who under various nationalities such as Spanish, French, or Norman managed to hold the city off and on for a few generations before being pushed out again by Moslems. Notable of these in providing material for historical review, especially of what remained of its Roman and Byzantine infrastructure and population was the Norman Kingdom of Africa. Eventually, Ottoman Turks managed to successfully reconquer the city from Spanish occupation in the 16th century, using the city primarily as a fortified port. In 1520, Hayreddin Barbarossa captured the town and annexed the Algerian Pashalic. His elder brother Oruç Reis built a fort over the town. Under Turkish occupation, the city's importance as a port and fort led to it being inhabited by Moslems of many nationalities, some engaging in privateering and piracy on the Mediterranean. In reply, European navies and especially the French Navy and the Knights Hospitaller (self-proclaimed descendants of the Crusaders) laid siege to the city and occasionally captured it for limited periods of time. For a century in the 1600s and for a brief period in the 1700s the city either was under Spanish or Hospitallar control. During this period a number of palaces were built, but the overwhelming edifice of Hayreddin Barbarossa's citadel, was considered too militarily valuable to destroy and uncover the previous ancient buildings of old Caesarea. In 1738, a terrible earthquake shook the town and left the town defenses damaged. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars and Revolutions of the early 19th century, the French under both British, American, and other European powers were encouraged to attack and destroy the Barbary Pirates. From 1836 to 1840 various allied navies, but mostly French hunted down the Barbary pirates and conquered the Barbary ports while threatening the Ottoman Empire with war if it intervened. In 1840, the French after a significant siege captured and occupied the town. The French lynched the Barbary Pirates including the local pasha for Crimes against the laws of nations. fact In turn, many ancient statues and buildings were either restored and left in Cherchell, or taken to museums in Algiers, Algeria or Paris, France for further study. However, not all building projects were successful in uncovering and restoring the ancient town. The Roman amphitheatre was considered mostly unsalvageable and unnecessary to rebuilt. Its dress stones were used to the build a new French fort and barracks. Materials from the Hippodrome were used to build a new church. The steps of the Hippodrome were partly destroyed by Cardinal Charles Lavigerie in a search for the tomb of Saint Marciana. French occupation also brought new European settlement, to join the city's long-established communities of semi-Arabized Christians of local origin and old European merchant families, in addition to Berbers and Arab Muslims. Under French rule, European and Christians became a majority of the population again until World War II. In the immediate years before World War Two, losses to the French national population from World War One, and a declining birthrate in general among Europeans kept further colonial settlement to a trickle. Arab and Berber populations started seeing an increase in growth. French-Algerian colonial officials and landowners encouraged larger numbers of surrounding Berber tribesmen to move into the surrounding region to work the farms and groves cheaply. In turn, more and more Berbers and Arabs moved into the city seeking employment. By 1930 the combined Berbo-Arab Algerian population represented nearly 40% of the city's population. The changing demographics within the city were disguised by the large numbers of French military personnel based there and the numbers of European tourists visiting the what had become known as the Algerian Riviera. Additionally, during World War II, Cherchell, with its libraries, cafes, restaurants, and hotels served as a base for the United States Army and Allied War effort (Allies of World War II), hosting a summit conference (List of World War II conferences) between the US and UK in October 1942. The end of the war with its departure of Allied forces and a reduction of French naval personnel due to rebasing saw an actual decline in Europeans living in the city. Additionally, the general austerity of the post-war years dried up the tourism industry and caused financial stagnation and losses to the local Franco-Algerian community. In 1952, a census recorded that the Frenco-Algerian population had declined to 50% of the popupation. For the remaining 1950's Cherchell was only slightly caught up by the Algerian War of Independence. With its large proportion of Europeans, French control and influence was strong enough to discourage all but the most daring attacks by anti-French insurgents. By 1966, after independence from the French, Cherchell had lost nearly half of its population and all of its Franco-Algerian population. Cherchell has continued to grow post-independence, recovering to peak colonial-era population by the 1980s. Cherchell currently has industries in marble, plaster quarries and iron mines. The town trades in oils, tobacco and earthenware. Additionally, the ancient cistern first developed by Juba and Cleopatra Selene II was restored and expanded under recent French rule and still supplies water to the town. Although the Algerian Riveria ended with the war, Cherchell is still a popular tourist places in Algeria. Cherchell has various splendid temples and monuments from the Punic, Numidian and Roman (Ancient Rome) periods, and the works of art found there, including statues of Neptune and Venus, are now in the Museum of Antiquities (Museum of Antiquities (Algiers)) in Algiers. The former Roman port is no longer in commercial use and has been partly filled by alluvial deposits and has been affected by earthquakes. The former local mosque of the Hundred Columns contains 89 columns of diorite. This remarkable building now serves as a hospital. The local museum displays some of the finest ancient Greek and Roman antiquities found in Africa. Cherchell is the birthplace of writer and movie director Assia Djebar. Historical population class wikitable - ! Year !! Population - 1901 9,000 - 1926 11,900 - 1931 12,700 - 1936 12,700 - 1954 16,900 - 1966 11,700 - 1987 18,700 - 1998 24,400 See also * Caesarea of Mauretania References birth_place Cherchell, Algeria death_date Early life Djebar was born in Cherchell, a coastal town near Algiers from Berber (Berber people) descent. Her family lived in a little village nearby called Mouzaïaville. There, she attended the primary school where her father taught French (French language). She later attended a boarding school in Blida. In 1955, Djebar became the first Algerian woman to be accepted at the École Normale Supérieure, an elite Parisian college. DATE OF BIRTH 30 June 1936 PLACE OF BIRTH Cherchell, Algeria DATE OF DEATH death_date 5 BC to 6 death_place Caesarea (Cherchell), Kingdom of Mauretania (Mauretania) place of burial Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania Juba and Cleopatra could not return to Numidia as it had been provincialized in 46 BC. The couple was sent to Mauretania, an unorganized territory that needed Roman supervision. They renamed their new capital ''Caesarea'' (modern Cherchell, Algeria), in honor of the Emperor. Roller, ''The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene'' p. 98–100 Cleopatra is said to have exercised great influence on policies that Juba created. Through her influence, the Mauretanian Kingdom flourished. Mauretania exported and traded well throughout the Mediterranean. The construction and sculptural projects at Caesarea and at another city Volubilis, were built and display a rich mixture of Ancient Egyptian (Ancient Egypt), Greek and Roman (Architecture of ancient Rome) architectural styles. Roller, ''The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene'' p. 91–162 '''Find Images (Wikipedia:Requested_pictures):''' Cherchell, Algerian Civil War '''Translate (Wikipedia:Translation into English):''' :ar:ولاية الجلفة, :fr:Timimoun There they built three more galliots and a gunpowder production facility. In 1513 they captured four English ships on their way to France, raided Valencia (Valencia, Spain) where they captured four more ships, and then headed for Alicante and captured a Spanish galley near Málaga. In 1513 and 1514 the three brothers engaged Spanish squadrons on several other occasions and moved to their new base in Cherchell, east of Algiers. In 1514, with 12 galliots and 1,000 Turks, they destroyed two Spanish fortresses at Bougie (Béjaïa), and when a Spanish fleet under the command of Miguel de Gurrea, viceroy of Majorca, arrived for assistance, they headed towards Ceuta and raided that city before capturing Jijel in Algeria, which was under Genoese control. They later captured Mahdiya in Tunisia. Afterwards they raided the coasts of Sicily, Sardinia, the Balearic Islands and the Spanish mainland, capturing three large ships there. In 1515 they captured several galleons, a galley and three barques at Majorca. Still in 1515 Aruj sent precious gifts to the Ottoman Sultan Selim I who, in return, sent him two galleys and two swords embellished with diamonds. In 1516, joined by Kurtoğlu (Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis), the brothers besieged the Castle of Elba, before heading once more towards Liguria where they captured 12 ships and damaged 28 others. Urania is only known through a funeral inscription of her Freedwoman Julia Bodina found at Cherchell, Algeria. Ptolemaic Genealogy: Cleopatra Selene, Footnote 10 Cherchell was then known as Caesaria, the capital of the Roman Client Kingdom of Mauretania in the Roman Empire. In Bodina’s funeral inscription, Bodina ascribes Urania as ''Queen Julia Urania''. She was ascribed as ''Queen ''as a local courtesy or probably a posthumus honor as a dedication to the memory of the former ruling monarch. The inscription reveals that Bodina was a loyal former slave to Urania. date September 7, 1937 place Mediterranean Sea, off Cherchell, present-day Algeria result Republican tactical victory Republican convoy lost The '''Battle of Cape Cherchell''' was a naval battle between the Nationalist (Nationalist Spain) heavy cruiser ''Baleares'' (Spanish cruiser Baleares) and the Republican (Second Spanish Republic) light cruisers ''Libertad'' (Almirante Cervera class cruiser) and ''Méndez Núñez'' (Blas de Lezo class cruiser) in the Spanish Civil War, several miles north of the Algerian (French Algeria) city of Cherchell. In the early morning hours of September 7, 1937, ''Baleares'' unexpectedly met a Republican convoy consisting of two merchant ships escorted by Republican cruisers and destroyers. ''Baleares'' was beaten off and badly damaged in the engagement, but the merchantmen were lost when they tried to slip away along the Algerine shoreline.
with a strong military tradition, belonging to the Piperi clan. His father was, until 1910, an officer of the Kingdom of Serbia army, stationed with the artillery regiment in Topčider, a suburb of Belgrade. Jovanović went to school in Nikšić, and then progressed to the Yugoslav Royal Army's military academy in Belgrade in 1924. There he was a contemporary of Velimir Terzić and Petar Ćetković, who would later also become significant commanders in the partisan forces during World
en about locations02.html#l03 Anadolu Efes S.K.., http: www.anadoluefes.com index.php?gdil in&gsayfa op&galtsayfa operasyonlardetay&gicsayfa rusya&gislem &gbilgi ALFA (Mexico) and others. Banking is mostly represented by national banks such as Sberbank, VTB Bank, Alfa-Bank, Bin Bank, Ak Bars Bank, MDM Bank, Trust Bank and also regional banks from Ulyanovsk Oblast. Ulyanovsk has also a strong military base presence
Netherlands . After the French (France) occupation (1794–1815) it became part of the province of Liège (Liège (province)) until 1963 when it was transferred to the province of Limburg (Limburg (Belgium)), and thus became part of Flanders. Limbourg is located on top of a hill which in its turn is surrounded by the river Vesdre. This was a strong military advantage in the Middle Ages and allowed the city to defend itself against foreign invaders. In the Middle Ages, the ruling family came to have the rank of Duke and so the town was the seat of the Duchy of Limburg, which was a part of the Lower Lorraine region of the Holy Roman Empire. In 959 the Lotharingian duke Bruno the Great divided the duchy between ''Lotharingia superior'' (Upper Lorraine) (Upper Lorraine) and ''Lotharingia inferior'' (Lower Lorraine) (Lower Lorraine), giving each to the rule of a margrave. Except for one brief period (1033–44, under Gothelo I (Gothelo I, Duke of Lorraine)), the division was never reversed and the margraves had soon raised their separate fiefs into dukedoms. In the twelfth century the ducal authority in Lower Lorraine became fragmented, causing the formation of the Duchy of Limburg and the Duchy of Brabant, whose rulers retained the title Duke of Lothier (derived from "Lotharingia"). With the disappearance of a "lower" Lorraine, the duchy of Upper Lorraine became the primary referent for "Lorraine" within the Holy Roman Empire. After centuries of French invasions and occupations, Lorraine was finally ceded to France at the close of the War of the Polish Succession (1737). In 1766 the duchy was inherited by the French crown and became the province of Lorraine (Lorraine (province)). In 1871, after the Franco-Prussian War, the German-speaking part of Lorraine was merged with Alsace to become the province of Alsace-Lorraine in the German Empire. Today the greater part of the French side of the Franco-German border belongs to the Lorraine ''région'' (Lorraine (region)). History Archaeological discoveries have dated the first settlement in the Sittard area around 5000 B.C. Present day Sittard is assumed to be founded around 850 A.D. being build around a motte (motte-and-bailey). Sittard was first mentioned in 1157. It was granted city rights (City rights in the Netherlands) by the Duke of Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) in 1243. In 1400 it was sold to the Duchy of Jülich, and remained in its possession until 1794. The city was destroyed and rebuild multiple times by fires and in various conflicts during the 15th-17th century. It was a stronghold until a great part of was destroyed in 1677 during the Franco-Dutch War. Under French occupation (First French Empire) (1794-1814), Sittard was part of the Roer (Roer (département)) department. Since 1814, it has been part of the Netherlands, except for the years 1830-1839, when it joined the Belgian Revolution. During the Second World War (World War) it was occupied by the Germans who dissolved several small municipalities, like Broeksittard (Broeksittard), into Sittard. The city was liberated September 18-19 1944 by the 2nd Armored Division (2nd Armored Division (United States)). The historic town was moslty spared destruction despite lying in the frontline for over four months in which over 4000 shells and rockets struck the city. The Prince-electors, perturbed by the steep rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, and the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor). John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and gradually vassalized the Piast (Silesian Piasts) dukes of adjacent Silesia (Duchy of Silesia) from 1327 until 1335. His son Charles IV (Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor), in 1346 again gained the Imperial crown, the most capable ruler of the Luxembourg dynasty, whose Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) and Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) in the west, but also the former March of Lusatia (Lower Lusatia) and even the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373, then holding two votes in the electoral college. Although Heerlen is only 35 km North from Kettenis, transportation in those days wasn't much different from mediaeval times (largely by stage coach or on foot). So the travelling distance was much greater than it is now. But the cultural distance was much smaller. Both Kettenis and Heerlen had been part of the Duchy of Limburg for centuries. The then borders between the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium had only recently been drawn (see Treaty of London, 1839) and regional sentiments were still much stronger than any national feelings. Limburgers (Limburg (Netherlands)) still felt closer to nearby Germans than to Hollanders. The Duchy was even part of the German Confederation from 1839 to 1866 (just 8 years earlier). Arnold never naturalised (Naturalization) and even his grandson Pierre (see #Spin-offs) had German citizenship until shortly before the Second World War. In 1363 the French king John II of Valois (John II of France) enfeoffed his youngest son Philip the Bold with the Duchy of Burgundy (''Bourgogne''). Philip in 1369 married Margaret of Dampierre (Margaret III, Countess of Flanders), only child of Count Louis II of Flanders (d. 1384), whose immense dowry not only comprised Flanders and Artois but also the Imperial County of Burgundy. He thereby became the progenitor of the House of Valois-Burgundy who systematically came into possession of different Imperial fiefs: his grandson Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy from 1419, purchased Namur (County of Namur) in 1429, inherited the duchies of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) and Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) from his cousin Philip of Saint-Pol (Philip of Saint-Pol, Duke of Brabant) in 1430. In 1432 he forced Jacqueline of Wittelsbach (Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut) to cede him the counties of Hainaut (County of Hainaut) and Holland (County of Holland) with Zeeland (County of Zeeland) according to the Treaty of Delft and finally occupied Luxembourg, exiling Duchess Elisabeth of Görlitz (Elisabeth, Duchess of Luxembourg) in 1443. Middle Ages The city of Geldern was first documented in 812. Several versions of the name have been used: ''Gelre, Gielra, Gellero, Gelera'' and similar. The probable ancestor of the Counts of Guelders was Gerhard Flamens, who received Wassenberg as a fief from Emperor Henry II (Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor) in 1020. His great-grandson Gerhard IV of Wassenberg was the first to call himself Count of Guelders (as Gerhard I), from 1096. The title "count" came from other properties, probably in Teisterbant. From 1125 only the title ''of Guelders'' was used. Wassenberg itself was given to the Duke of Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) (and later to Jülich (Duchy of Jülich)) as a wedding gift in 1107. The counts of Guelders moved their residence to the castle in Geldern, that was built probably around this date at the crossing of the Niers. The castle and the accompanying medieval settlement were the origin of the present city, and also gave its name to the county and later duchy of Guelders. History In 1104, a young priest by the name of Ailbertus of Antoing founded an Augustinian (Augustinians) abbey in the ''Land of Rode'', near the river Wurm. The abbey was called ''Kloosterrade'', which later became '''s-Hertogenrade'' (in French: ''Rode-le-Duc'' or ''Rolduc''), after the ducal castle that was built across the Wurm. Ailbertus died in 1111 and his bones were later interred in the crypt. In 1136 the land of Rode, including the abbey, fell into the hands of the Duchy of Limburg. Kloosterrade was considered to be their family church. Several dukes of Limburg are buried at Rolduc, such as Walram III (Waleran III of Limburg), whose cenotaph can be found in the nave of the church. During the 12th century and 13th century the abbey flourished. Several other communities were founded by Kloosterrade. In 1250 the abbey owned more than 3,000 hectares of land. History before 1795 Historically, those territories have little in common. The Northern part around Eupen was originally part of the Duchy of Limburg, a dependancy of the Duchy of Brabant, and was latterly owned by the Austrian Habsburgs, as part of the Austrian Netherlands. The Southern part (i.e. more or less what is now the district of Sankt Vith) belonged to the Duchy of Luxembourg. The small village of Manderfeld-Schönberg belonged to the Archbishopric of Trier. Malmedy and Waimes, except the village of Faymonville, were part of the abbatial principality (Imperial Abbey) of Stavelot-Malmedy which was — like Luxembourg and Trier — an Imperial Estate of the Holy Roman Empire. It is said that Philip of Alsace brought the lion flag with him from the Holy land, where in 1177 he supposedly conquered it from a Saracen knight, but this is a myth. The simple fact that the lion appeared on his personal seal since 1163, when he had not yet set one step in the Levant, disproves it. In reality Philip was following a West-European trend. In the same period lions also appeared in the arms of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant), Luxembourg (County, Duchy and Grand Duchy of Luxembourg), Holland (County of Holland), Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) and other territories. It is curious that the lion as a heraldic symbol was mostly used in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire. It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the emperor, who used an eagle (Reichsadler) in his personal arms. In Europe the lion had been a well known figure since Roman times, through works such as the fables of Aesop. After the Battle of Worringen in 1288, the dukes of Brabant also acquired the Duchy of Limburg and the lands of Overmaas (trans-Meuse (Meuse (river))). In 1354 the Joyous Entry (Joyous Entry of 1356), or charter of liberty was granted to the citizens of Brabant by John III (John III, Duke of Brabant).
government had established a strong military base there in order to watch the nearby movements of OLF (Oromo Liberation Front). *Professor Mohammed Hassen also notes another village called by the name Qunburah in Al Futuhul Habash which is a commonly known name in Oromo nomenclature. However, among many places of the Chercher highlands called by the name Qunburah, the Oromo elders do not consider any one as a long standing. But this does not mean there was no place who had this name in ancient times. In fact, one of the places called Qunburah in Chercher highlands is believed to be the offshoot of the ancient Qunburah of Al Futhul Habash. Therefore, a search for that place should continu. *''Harala Ruins'':- around Gelemso, we can find ruins of the ancient buildings of the legendary people of ''Harala'', whom the Oromos narrate as people of great length, extra ordinary strength and superior wealth, but devastated by hunger, epidemic and volcanic eruption because of their extravagance and disbelief. Today, as Professor Urlich Braukamper had described precisely in his book, the remnants of the stone built necropolis, store pits, houses and mosques of the ancient Harala people are observable in all of the of Hararghe highlands. Their mysterious legends reach as far as Karayu in the west and Jijjiga in the east. Places of cultural importance *''Oda Bultum'' :- one of the five Oda or traditional meeting places where the Oromo (Oromo people) used to meet to end one ''luba'' or 8-year period of the Gadaa system and begin a new one. It is 25 km to the east of Gelemso. አዲስ አድማስ ጋዜጣ፣ ሰኔ 27፣ 2001፣ ‹‹ኦዳ ቡልቱም በሐረርጌ›› *'' Halaya Buchuro'' :- A deep gorge where the Oromos in ancient times, used to throw and execute (in to the chasm) criminals who were found guilty of intentional killing (of innocent people). Places noted for Islamic history and culture *''Sheikh Omar Mosque and Sufi Compound'':- found at the heart of Gelemso. The mosque is to the west of a Sufi compound called ''Hadra'' አዲስ አድማስ ጋዜጣ፣ ሐምሌ 11፣ 2001፣ የጥበብ ሸማኔዎች (ሱፊዎች በሐረርጌ) which hosts the celebration of the birth day of the Prophet (Mawlid), making the town one of the main places in Ethiopia marked with such a festive. The ''Hadra'' has many quarters of different uses, with ''Beytul Hadra'' (the house of presence) as a focus. The compound of ''Hadra'' is also a home of a big mausoleum in which the tomb of ''Sheikh Omar'' (the founder of ''Hadra'') is found. *''Aw-Seid Shrine'' which is traditionally identified with the ancient ''Galma Usso'', of which the name ''Gelemso'' was derived. There is no surviving remnant of the 13th-century mosque by now. The current shrine dates only from the late 19th century. *''Aw-Sherif Hill'' :- where, according to oral history, the Muslim saint ''Aw-Sherif'' had lived some 300 years ago. *''The Mosque of Sheikh Ali Jami'':- located 10 km east of Gelemso, where a saint ''Sheikh Ali'' had lived and preached Islam after he returned from the city of Harar where he attended his higher education. His mosque is encircled by a ''galma'' and a mausoleum that contains his tomb. Important Christian sites *''Medihane Alem Church'':- An Orthodox Christian Church aged about 60 years. *''Saint Michael Catholic Church'':- Built by the Italian colonists in the late 1930s. It is the tallest man made erection in the town, which is visible as far as 30 km due its strategic position, and commonly called ''Mana Dheeraa'' meaning ''the tallest house''. It had served as a church, then as prison, and now it hosts a primary school. Notable persons from Gelemso Gelemso has been associated with many imminent figures. Its notable personalities include the following: *''Sheikh Ali Jami Guutoo'' : - commonly called '' Qallicha'' by the Oromos, not only for his origin from ''Warra Qallu'' Oromo clan, but also for his high priesthood in the Chercher plateau. His descendents are still called ''Qalicha'' or ''Qalittii''- meaning '' the respected one'' (Qallitti is for female), It is said that the first man to preach Islam peacefully and openly (without any sanction ) in the land of ''Chercher'' was this Sheikh Ali Jami, so that he became one of the key figures in the Islamization of the Ittu Oromo. Sheikh Ali is considered a great saint and most of the people of the ''Chercher highlands'' usually refer to him as ''Aw Ali''. *Sheikh Umar Aliye :- popularly known as Gelemsiyyi. He was another key figure in the Islamization of the Ittu Oromo and a father of Mohammed Zakir Meyra and many more heroes and scholars. Perhaps, he is the most widely known scholar, activist and important Islam figure in the region. In fact, he is well known for his dedication for Islam and its teaching throughout the country. He is also the most noted figure in the transmission of the Qadiriyyah Sufi brother-hood ( Tariqa ), which he introduced to the Harar Oromos with Sheikh Mohammed Harar, his close friend with whom he returned from Wallo after the completion of higher education. Hussein Ahmed ''HARAR-WALLO RELATIONS REVISITED: HISTORICAL, RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL DIMENSIONS'', African Study Monographs, Kyoto University, March 2010, p. 111-117 *Ahmad Taqi Sheikh Mohammed Rashid (well known as Hundee) (1942? – September 6, 1974): He was an Oromo nationalist known with his comrade Elemo Kiltu as the first true fighters since they launched the first armed struggle for the Oromo (Oromo people) causes under an organization that bears the name of their people (i.e. ''Oromo''). They died together on September 5 1974 at the historic Battle of Tiro and now honored as martyrs by the three major Oromo political organizations; OLF (Oromo Liberation Front), OPDO and IFLO. Hundee the hero immortalized by Ali Birra's songs. *Mohammed Zakir Meyra (1949 -1977): Also known as Mohammed-Zakir Sheikh Umar Aliye or well known as simply Meyra):- He is a son of the well respected Gelemsiyyi (see above). He was considered by the people around Gelemso as an heir to Elemo and Ahmad Taqi. While he was only in his 20s, he marched to Somalia leading a group of youth with whom he used to discuss the national agenda. He returned as a commander of brigade that included in addition to his fellow Oromo youths, some West Somali Liberation Front (WSLF) fighters who claimed ''giving support to the Oromo brothers''. His brigade had effectively destroyed the Dergue army in Boke (Boke (woreda)) and Darolebo woreda. But he felt furious on the mischievous act of the WSLF fighters when they start to install the flag of Somali Republic on the freed lands. He fought them as equal as he was fighting the Dergue. The fight between the two forces continued until the winter months of 1977. And finally, Meyra was martyred on the Battle of Kurfa Roqa, 30 km south of Boke town. *Umar Bakkalcha (1953? - 1980) was one of the early Oromo nationalists and martyrs well-remembered in the Chercher highlands of Harerghe especially for the heroic speeches he made at his death spot. His name had been Umar Sheikh Mohammed Rabi, but the people usually refer to him as “Umar Bakkalcha” or simply “Bakkalcha” (the downfall star). Bakkalcha was enlightened in the Oromo National struggle from the very beginning. He had a good understanding of the quests of the Oromo causes far before many people. However, the most brainstorming incident that took him to decide giving up all of his belongings for the Oromo causes was the heroic death of the well known Oromo patriots and guerilla leaders called Elemo Killtu (Hassen Ibrahim) and Hundee (or Ahmad Taqi Sheikh Muhammed Rashid). *Sheikh Muhammad Rashid Bilal :- father of Ahmad Taqi, well known as a teacher of many of the latter sheikhs and, a protector of local knowledge and oral history. He was primarily a source of most of the historical data concerning the ancient history and culture of the Oromos of the Chercher highlands that appear today in many books (the information is disseminated either directly by him, or through his disciples). *Sheikh Mohammed Rashad Abdulle a graduate of Al-Azhar University who translated Qur'an into the Oromo. (For the detail of his life and work, click on his name.) *Abuna Berhane Eyesus, the current Patriarch of the Ethiopian Catholic Church. He is originally from Anchar woreda, but raised up in Gelemso in his early ages. *Gelemso and its vicinity had produced many scholars which include Dr. Ashagre Yigletu of the Dergue, Dr. Bayan Asoba of OLF (Oromo Liberation Front), Artist Garbi Ahmed Nurie (Pianist, live in Toronto, Canada), Artist Adnan (singer) and Fozia Amin, member of the Central committee of OPDO and Human Rights Commissioner in the Federal Government of Ethiopia. The city produced many doctors, engineers, teachers, lawyers, nurses, pharmacists, and many other professions. Notable administrators *Dejene Gizaw - The municipal mayor of Gelemso acknowledged for the foundation he laid in the modesty of the town in the 1960s. Category:Populated places in the Oromia Region
(Category:Ulyanovsk) Category:Simbirsk Governorate Category:Populated places on the Volga Category:Populated places established in 1648 Category:Vladimir Lenin Early life and activism Alexander Kerensky was born in Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk) on the Volga River into the family of a secondary school principal. His father, Fyodor Kerensky, was a teacher. His mother, Nadezhda Adler, was the daughter of a nobleman, Alexander Adler, head of the Topographical Bureau of the Kazan Military District. Her mother, Nadezhda Kalmykova
) cabildo '' (town council). The first municipal officers were appointed by Governor de Neve, and subsequent ones elected by the settlers, the ''vecinos pobladores (Vecino)'' (the settling resident townspeople). Since the government of Las Californias had a strong military orientation in this early phase of colonization, the civilian ''cabildo'' was originally supervised by a ''comisionado'' (commissioner) appointed by the ''comandante (Commandant (rank))'' (commander) of the Presidio of Santa Barbara, who was charged with making sure the ''alcalde'' (municipal magistrate) and ''regidores'' (council members) carried out their duties correctly. The first recorded ''alcalde'' was José Vanegas, who served for the years 1786 and 1796. Vanegas was first listed as an "Indian" (Indigenous peoples of the Americas) in the original 1781 ''padrón'' (register) but then as a Mestizo in the 1790 census. Unfortunately the records of the Spanish-era ''cabildo'' were lost and the relevant parts of the Provincial archives burned in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, so the surviving list of ''alcaldes'' is incomplete. Caughey, John and LaRee Caughey. ''Los Angeles: Biography of a City''. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977), 74-75. ISBN 0-520-03410-4. The next few ''alcaldes'' reflected the mixed population of the small settlement: José Sinova, a Criollo (Criollo (people)), 1789; Mariano de la Luz Verdugo (Jose Maria Verdugo#Mariano Verdugo), a Criollo, 1790; and Juan Francisco Reyes, a Mulatto, 1793. Among the first ''regidores'' were Felipe Santiago García (a Criollo) and Manuel Camero (a Mulatto in the 1781 ''padrón'', and a Mestizo in 1790 census). In judicial affairs, both military and civil cases were appealed to the Audiencia of Guadalajara (Real Audiencia of Guadalajara). Bancroft, Hubert Howe (Hubert Howe Bancroft). ''The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft. Vol. XVIII (The History of California, vol. 1, 1542-1800)'' (San Francisco: The History Company Publishers, 1886), 337 and 461-462.
of constructing a great edifice stretching between the Caucasus Mountains and the Great Eastern Sea." Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian (Christianity) faith in the Caucasus. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description of the sack of Derbent (Third Perso-Turkic War) by the hordes of Tong Yabghu of the Western Turkic Khaganate in 627. His successor, wikipedia:Derbent commons:Derbent
terrifying encounter with the ghost of Yu Ji (Gan Ji), a venerable magician whom he had falsely accused and executed in jealousy. However, his younger brother Sun Quan, who succeeds him, proves to be a capable and charismatic ruler. Sun, assisted by skilled advisors Zhou Yu and Zhang Zhao, inspires hidden talents such as Lu Su to join his service, and builds up a strong military force. During the Three Kingdoms period (220 – 280), the "cross-joint dome"
Cao Rui. He killed the Eastern Wu delegates but some of them fled to Goguryeo. Eastern Wu attempted to ally with Goguryeo to launch a pincer attack on Gongsun, but Goguryeo eventually sided with Cao Wei as well. Cao Rui's reign was viewed in many different ways throughout Chinese history. He was an emperor who was known to have been a strong military strategist and a good leader astute in commissioning capable officials. At the same time, he was personally a supporter of arts. However, he devoted much resources into building palaces and ancestral temples, and his reign saw the stalemate between his empire, Shu Han, and Eastern Wu become more entrenched. His building projects and his desire to have many concubines (who numbered in the thousands) greatly exhausted the imperial treasury. On his deathbed, he entrusted his son Cao Fang to the regency of Cao Shuang and Sima Yi -- a fatal mistake for his clan, as Cao Shuang monopolized power and governed incompetently, eventually drawing a violent reaction from Sima, who overthrew him in a coup d'etat and became in control of the Cao Wei government, eventually allowing his grandson Sima Yan to usurp the Wei throne. In 232, Gongsun Yuan's repeated communicated with and sales of horses to Eastern Wu angered Cao Rui, who ordered his generals Tian Yu and Wang Xiong (王雄) to attack Liaodong against Jiang Ji (蔣濟)'s advice; the attacks were not successful, although Tian was able to intercept the Eastern Wu horse-buying fleet and destroy it. After the incident, although Gongsun formally maintained vassalage to Cao Wei, the relationship was damaged. Deposal by Sima Shi In 252, Sima Shi led a campaign against Eastern Wu, whose founding emperor Sun Quan had recently died, and the current ruler Sun Liang was under Zhuge Ke's regency. Although Sima was defeated, he maintained himself well by publicly admitting his faults and promoting the generals who advised him against the campaign. In 253, Sima defeated Zhuge Ke in a major battle and established a reputation in the military. was a military general of Eastern Wu during the late Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history (History of China). Although an active general with high rank, he was known to desire wealth and treasure, and to dress himself in a gaudy fashion. It was said that he would kill wealthy officials or soldiers in order to confiscate their wealth for his own.