Places Known For

strong influence


, Chibhali, Punchhi (Poonchi), Jhelumi, Mirpuri. Pahari literally translates as 'mountain' referring to a string of divergent dialects, some of which may be separate languages. Lexical similarity 76% to 83% among varieties called 'Pahari', 'Potwari', and some called 'Hindko' in Mansehra, Muzaffarabad, and Jammu. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. ; Hindko : Classified under Lahnda languages by many linguists but has a strong

influence by Punjabi dialects as well. Hindko dialect is spoken in north west Pakistani Punjab and North-West Frontier Province (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) mainly this dialect is spoken in districts of Peshawar, Attock, Nowshehra, , Some parts of Chakwal, Rawalpindi, Hazara Pakistan regions, Mansehra, Balakot, Abbottabad and Murree and the lower half of Neelum Districtmirpur District saraialamgir and Muzafarabad. Image:Abbottabad NWFP2.svg thumb


with a strong influence of the Kingdom of Pamplona, established in the year 824. However, it would be in 1023 when Sancho VI (Sancho VI William of Gascony) Duke of Gascony would name Guillaume Fort as first Viscount of Soule. His descendants would inherit the title for around two centuries. The Viscounts of Soule had their base in the fortress of Mauléon (Mauléon-Licharre), a strategic region that controlled the pass from Aquitaine to the Iberian peninsula. The viscounts of Soule take advantage of their territory. Despite being small in size, it held a strategic position between the Kingdom of Navarre to the south and the Duchy of Aquitaine to the north. In the year 1152 Eleanor of Aquitaine married Henry II of England, thus the Duchy of Aquitaine joins the Crown of England. In 1261, after ten years of conflict, the last viscount of Soule, Auger III, surrenders the castle of Mauléon to Edward I of England, and as a result the territory of Soule is administrated by the crown of England. It is now when the current network of roads between the Souletin villages is constructed. Soule under English rule The English Soule was under direct authority of the Duke of Aquitaine, who was as well the King of England. Soule is rather unimportant and as a result the control over the territory is delegated to a lord, who keeps the castle of Mauléon and recollects the taxes. The lord of Soule had fourteen captains; from them only one was English, the rest were either natives or Gascons. The ex-viscount Auger III allies with the Kingdom of Navarre, and taking advantage of the war between Philip IV (Philip IV of France), king of Navarre, and Edward I of England, retakes his fortress at Mauléon in 1295, but he is forced to hand it back after Aquitaine is formally declared English is 1303. The Hundred Years' War kept Soule isolated from the exterior for many years. Finally, in 1449, an army led by Gaston IV (Gaston IV, Count of Foix), the Count of Foix and Viscount of Béarn, takes possession of the castle in the name of the French king. It is the end of the English presence in Soule. Modern Period Soule under French rule thumb 250px Church of Musculdy Muskildi (File:Église de Musculdy.jpg) In the mid 15th century, Soule finally recognizes the King of France (Kingdom of France) as his own, with the Basque district becoming the smallest province and exclave of the kingdom and the most distant from the centre of power, Paris. It came to be surrounded by the sovereign Kingdom of Navarre on the south and west and the independent principality of Viscounty of Béarn (Béarn) on the east. In 1511, King Francis I of France urged the Souletins to set down their institutional and legal framework (Fuero#Basque and Pyrenean fueros) on paper, which they did in Bearnese (Bearnese dialect), the administrative written language up to that point. In 1539, an amendment to their region specific laws went on to be written in French, the new official language as decreed by King Francis I. Despite numbering more than fifty towns and villages, Soule was populated by less than 4,000 people. The only town was Mauléon (Mauléon-Licharre), with a population totalling less than 350 people. As of 1512, given its proximity to France and its particular geographic situation surrounded by the Kingdom of Navarre-Bearn and the recently invaded Navarre (Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre) to the south, Soule got trapped in the political, religious and military manoeuvres derived from its shaky position, with the French Wars of Religion affecting the province tremendously. The end of home rule thumb 250px The pastoral of Soule sinks its roots in the Middle Ages (File:Mendiague1.jpg) thumb 250px Bela Street in Mauléon (1910) (File:Mauléon - Rue Béla (1910).jpg) The province of Soule relied largely on the commons set on the highlands and lowlands of the valley for the use of local farmers and shepherds. However, they were also coveted by local and alien lords with estate grants on Soule. By the mid 17th century and in the context of the Treaty of the Pyrenees, anger spread like fire among common Souletins at the aristocracy's takeover of lands and the curtailment of their legal and institutional sovereignty. In 1661, a widespread rebellion erupted (History of the Basque people#Navarre divided and home rule) led by the priest Bernard Goihenetche 'Matalaz', but was harshly suppressed by an army sent over from Gascony. Still Soule managed to retain many native laws and institutions, with its representatives attending the Parliament of Navarre-Béarn (Kingdom of Navarre#Independent Navarre north of the Pyrenees) (six deputies, two for each estate). The representatives of Soule in the Assembly of the Third Estate turned National Assembly (National Assembly (French Revolution)) held in Paris (1790) voted against the suppression of the French provinces (Provinces of France) and the establishment of a new administrative arrangement that wiped out the existence of their native order, giving way to the ''départément'' system (French department#History). Attempts by the Basque deputies in Paris (French Basque Country) to create a Basque department failed, their districts merged with Béarn among protests of the Basque representatives, and even Soule was divided into two cantons. After the end of the First Carlist War in Spain and the relocation of customs to the Pyrenees from the Ebro (1841), trade with Navarre (Kingdom of Navarre#Later history and the end of the fueros) collapsed. In the late 19th century, the establishment of espadrille factories in Mauleón (Mauléon-Licharre) made up for the decay of economic life and emigration, with a number of inhabitants in Navarre and Aragón pouring in and being recruited on the workforce. Geography thumb right 250px Soule is a very mountainous territory. (File:Sainte-Engrâce vue générale.jpg) Soule is located in the northern basin of the western Pyrenees, and is the smallest of the Basque region (Basque Country (greater region)). It is surrounded by Lower Navarre on the west, Navarre on the south, Béarn on the east and north. Along with Labourd and Lower Navarre, it forms the Northern Basque Country, also known as French Basque Country or ''Pays basque''. Its entire territory extends around the axis provided by the river Saison (Saison (river)), known in Basque as Uhaitza, that flows from south to north until it joins the river Oloron (Gave d'Oloron), that works as a border between Soule and Béarn. Soule includes three geographical regions: the lowlands at north on a territory known as ''Pettara'' or Lower Soule, a forest region known as ''Arbaila'' and the highlands at south, in a region named ''Basabürüa'' with a highest peak at 2,017 meters at the Pic d'Orhy. Orography thumb right 250px The river Saison or Ühaitza. (File:SaisonSoule.jpg) Soule's orography divides into three regions: the northern lowlands, made up by extensive plains; the central region, which is fairly hilly and the southern highlands, which are part of the northwestern Pyrenees, with altitudes reaching up to 2,017 meters above sea level at the Pic d'Orhy. In the Pyrenees, from west to east, the first peak is the Pic d'Orhy, above 2,000 meters and the fourth highest peak in the Basque Country after Iror Errege Maia (Mesa de los Tres Reyes) and Euzkarre among others, all of them in Navarre. Also in the highlands are located the Otsogorrigaina (1,922 m) and Sardekagaina (1,893 m), which are the second and third highest mountains in Soule. In total, there exist more than 20 peaks higher than 1,000 m. Hydrography The river Saison (Saison (river)) (known as Ühaitza in Souletin Basque) is the main river of Soule. It is 60 km long and originates at Licq, in the highlands region. Smaller rivers rising at the Pyrenees join the Saison before it converges with the river Oloron, together flowing into the river Adour. Climate The oceanic climate of Soule is generally warm and humid. The highlands and Pyrenees experience an alpine climate. Demography Soule is the province with the lowest population density of the Northern Basque Country, with 17 people per square kilometer. Soule has experienced a significant population decline since the 19th century; many people have emigrated to larger cities and regions outside the province, such as Labourd, Béarn and Paris. In the last century, Soule has lost more than three quarters of its population, which has caused the need for different municipalities to be merged in order to assure the maintenance of public services. Largest cities class "toc" cellpadding 0 cellspacing 0 width 35% style "float:left; text-align:center;clear:all; margin-left:10px; font-size:95%;" !bgcolor green colspan 8 style "color:white;" Most populated communes -bgcolor #efefef !width 4% Position !width 86% Name !width 10% Inhabitants - 1st '''Mauléon-Licharre''' (''Maule-Lextarre'') 3,347 - 2nd '''Chéraute''' (''Sohüta'') 1,104 - 3rd '''Barcus''' (''Barkoxe'') 774 - 4th '''Viodos-Abense-de-Bas''' (''Bildoze-Onizepea'') 743 - 5th '''Tardets-Sorholus''' (''Atharratze-Sorholüze'') 590 - ), is the Basque dialect (Basque dialects) spoken in Soule, France.

Duchy of Courland and Semigallia

in this area. The next Duke, Friedrich Wilhelm Kettler, was only six years old when he succeeded in 1698, and he was under the regency (regent) of his uncle Ferdinand — a Polish general. During this time the Great Northern War (1700–21) began between Sweden and Russia with its allies — the Commonwealth, Saxony and Denmark. As a result of the war, Russia took control of the central part of Latvia starting in 1710. In Courland, Russia also had such a strong influence that its

Airdrie, Alberta

(Category:Airdrie, Alberta) Category:Cities in Alberta Amongst those of British origins, the Scots (Scottish Canadian) have had a particularly strong influence on place-names, with the names of many cities and towns including Calgary, Airdrie (Airdrie, Alberta), Canmore (Canmore, Alberta), and Banff (Banff, Alberta) having Scottish (Scottish place names in Canada) origins. * Airdrie (Airdrie, Alberta), Alberta, Canada *


Municipalidad de Alajuela, December 2007 * Directorios de Costa Rica - Alajuela Wikipedia:Alajuela Dmoz:Regional Central America Costa Rica Alajuela Province Localities Alajuela

Edmonton Capital Region

their ancestral homes. The traditional cultures of their ancestors, shaped by nature, still exert a strong influence on them, from spirituality to political attitudes. National Aboriginal Day is a day of recognition of the cultures and contributions of the First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada. The day was first celebrated in 1996, after it was proclaimed that year, by then Governor General of Canada Roméo LeBlanc, to be celebrated on June 21


; Canada Wire and Cable was purchased by Alcatel in 1991, and the operations relocated to Markham in 1996, with the location being converted to a shopping centre. Pitfield, p 46. The plant had expanded through the years and been a major influence in Leaside, employing over 2700 workers at its peak. It had also been a strong influence over the community in other ways, investing in the community in various ways, including the construction of a water main in 1918. Pitfield, p.42 East York merged with five other municipalities and a regional government in 1998 to form the new City of Toronto (merger (politics)#Canada). Politics thumb 200px left View of Millwood Road south to the Leaside Viaduct (now known as the Leaside Bridge or Millwood Bridge) in 1928 (Image:LeasideMillwoodBridge.jpg) The first town council for Leaside was elected on May 8, 1913. The council had five members: Randolph McRae, who served as the mayor, and Harvey Fitzsimmons, Laurence Boulton, George Saunders and Archibald McRae who served as aldermen. All were acclaim (Acclamation)ed in the election, all were members of the Canadian Northern Railway. From 1954 to 1966, Leaside had its own mayor. There were four individuals who held this post - Howard T. Burrell (1954–1955); Charles H. Hiscott (1956–1961); Lloyd M. Dickinson (1962); Beth Nealson (1963–1966). '''Leaside High School''' is a school of between 900 and 1000 pupils in central-east Toronto at the corner of Eglinton (Eglinton Avenue) and Bayview (Bayview Avenue) Avenues. Established in 1945, the school is part of the Leaside community of East York.


these areas of German colonization are among the wealthiest parts of Brazil, with the lowest levels of unemployment found in the country, and still retain a strong influence from German culture. The German Brazilian areas form, today, a Brazilian region with its own


please give a reliable and up to date source for this assertion. date November 2010 and illiteracy found in the country, and still retain a strong influence from German culture. The German Brazilian areas form, today, a Brazilian region with its own character, made up of towns and large concentrations of residents around the church, commerce and school. These rural villages


a source of income for the youth. The Dawa sect has a strong influence in Kidal, while the Wahabi movement has been reported to been steadily growing in Timbuktu. The country's traditional approach to Islam is relatively moderate, as reflected in the ancient manuscripts from the former University of Timbuktu. Location Ségou is situated 240 km from Bamako, on the Niger River and has a surface area of 64 947 km². The region has frontiers with Burkina Faso

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