; War-related triumphalism spelt doom for the once mighty NSRL thumb Many of the modern improvements of sports events by the DRL NSRL are still in use. Carl Diem's idea: The Olympic fire in Berlin (File:Olympic Fire in Berlin 1936.jpg) thumb Standard of a Gau of the NSRL (File:Reichsbund für Leibesübungen Gaufahne.svg) thumb NSRL Hanging banner (File:NSRBL Hängefahne.svg) The '''Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen''' ('''NSRL'''), more rarely "NSRBL", (meaning: ''National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise''), known as '''Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen''' ('''DRL''') until 1938, was the umbrella organization for sports during the Third Reich. The NSRL was led by the ''Reichssportführer'', who after 1934 was at the same time presiding over the German National Olympic Committee. The NSRL's leaders were Hans von Tschammer und Osten (1933–1943), Arno Breitmeyer (1943–1944) and Karl Ritter von Halt (1944–1945). History Forerunner organizations The 1916 Summer Olympics had been awarded to Berlin, but were canceled because of the duration of World War I. The ''Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Olympische Spiele (Deutsche Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen)'' (DRA or DRAfOS) ''"German Imperial Commission for Olympic Games"'', was the German Olympic Sports organization at that time. In 1917 the "German Imperial Commission for Olympic Games" was renamed Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (:de:Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen) (DRA), (sometimes also DRL or, more rarely, DRAfL) (''"German Imperial Commission for Physical Exercise"''). The name change reflected Germany's protest against the fact that Germany and other Central Powers were being excluded from the "Olympic family" which was dominated by the Entente Powers. Name change The Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen was led by Theodor Lewald and Carl Diem was its Secretary General. Even though it saw itself as the pan-German umbrella organization for sports, the fact is that it did not represent all types of sports and sports associations of Germany. A great number of sport clubs, especially those stemming from industrial workers' background, had not joined the DRA. After the Enabling Act (Enabling Act of 1933), which legally gave Hitler dictatorial control of Germany in March 1933, all sports organizations connected to the Social Democratic Party (History of the Social Democratic Party of Germany), the Communist Party (Communist Party of Germany), and even to the church, were banned. This ban affected especially the sports clubs of industrial workers, most of which were called to split up on their own ''(Selbstauflösung)'' before the first semester of 1933 was over. The more conservative nationalistic and bourgeois clubs were allowed to subsist into the following year. On April 12, 1933 Theodor Lewald gave in to the Nazi authorities and resigned as leader of the German Sports Office after it was revealed his paternal grandmother was Jewish. The History Place; Triumph of Hitler The Nazi minister of the interior Wilhelm Frick, interfered with the process of the election of a new Sports leader and the decision was made by a hurriedly-instituted three-men commission. Thus, in April 1933, Hans von Tschammer und Osten, a figure formerly unknown in German sports, was named ''Reichskommissar für Turnen und Sport'' (Commissioner for Gymnastics and Sports of the Reich). Von Tschammer, however, would keep his predecessor in a high position in the sports body, and years later he would appoint Theodor Lewald as president of the Organizing Committee of the Berlin Olympic Games. Hans von Tschammer und Osten was a SA (Sturmabteilung) group leader and promoter of Nazism. In the name of ''gleichschaltung'' he disbanded the ''Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen'' on May 5, 1933 (officially on May 10). Von Tschammer was then elevated to ''Reichssportführer'' on July 19 and the whole sports sphere in Germany was placed under his power. Sports and propaganda in Nazi Germany: The Aryan ideal The '''Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen''' ('''DRL''') was established on July 27, 1934 as the official Sports governing body of the Third Reich. It would quickly become a formidable system within the German nation. After the DRL's foundation all other German sport associations gradually lost their freedom and were coopted into the DRL as mere units ("Fachämter"). Even the most prestigious ones, like the German Football Association (DFB) lost their independence. Havemann, Nils (2006) ''Fußball unterm Hakenkreuz. Der DFB zwischen Sport, Politik und Kommerz Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung'' 1933-45 Chronik Rückblick mit scheinbaren Analogien und ohne Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit Von Tschammer's goal was to build a formidable Nazi sports body to which all German sports associations would be submitted. His vision was that physical exercise would ''"improve the morale and productivity of German workers"'' as well as making sports a source of national pride for the Germans. Sporting skills were made a criterion for school graduation as well as a necessary qualification for certain jobs and admission to universities. Bruce Campbell, ''The SA Generals and the Rise of Nazism'' Among the controversial measures taken by the Sports Office of the Reich at the time, the staging of the massive Reichssportfest event on Trinity Sunday was a decision that shocked devout Catholics. Kurt Josef Wecker, ''Themenheft Gemeinde 48: Rituale für Fernstehende'' Bergmoser & Höller Verlag, Aachen In 1935 journalist Guido von Mengden, was named public relations officer of the Reich Sports Office. He became the personal advisor and consultant of the ''Reichssportführer'' in 1936. A committed Nazi, von Mengden became the chief editor of '''NS-Sport''', the official organ of the Reich Sports Office. Bernett, Hajo (1976), ''Guido von Mengden "Generalsstabschef" des deutschen Sports'', Verlag Bartels & Wernitz. Other DRL NSRL publications included ''Dietwart'', a sports magazine with excellent illustrations and ''Sport und Staat'' (Sports and State), a massive four-volume Nazi propaganda report on the organized sports activities in the Third Reich. ''Sport und Staat'' was made by Arno Breitmeyer and Hitler's personal photographer Heinrich Hoffmann. This lavishly illustrated work had many pictures and information about the various Nazi organizations, i.e. SA (Sturmabteilung), NSKK (National Socialist Motor Corps), Bund Deutscher Mädel, Hitler Jugend, etc. Printed in 1934 by the publishing house of the German Sports Aid Funds, a branch of the DRL, only volume one and two of a planned series of four volumes were published. 'Sport und Staat The aims of the promotion of sports in the Third Reich included hardening the spirit of every German as well as making German citizens feel that they were part of a wider national purpose. This was in line with the ideals of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, the "Father of physical exercises", who connected the steeling of one's own body to a healthy spirit and promoted the idea of a unified, strong Germany. Turnverein Riesel, History A more controversial aim was the demonstration of Aryan physical superiority (Racial policy of Nazi Germany). Liz Jewitt ''How successful was Nazi propaganda''. Von Tschammer's impressively staged events of sports pageantry not only enhanced the physical activity, but also the nationalism of Germans. Nordic (Nordic race) aesthetic beauty and commitment to Germanic ideals of race (Master race) went hand in hand during the Third Reich, and von Tschammer und Osten implemented a policy of racial exclusion within sports. Athletes of Jewish origin were excluded from participation in relevant sporting events. Von Tschammer's biography 1936 Olympic Games: Zenith of the Nazi Sports Office In 1936 Hans von Tschammer und Osten, as the head of the Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, played a major role in the structure and coordination of the Summer Olympics (1936 Summer Olympics) in Berlin. The Olympic games, the first in history to have live television coverage, provided an ideal setting to showcase the Nazi regime and what Hitler deemed to be his exploits. As Secretary General of the Organizing Committee of the Berlin Olympic Games, Carl Diem, the former secretary of the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (DRA), the forerunner of the DRL NSRL, became the chief organizer of the Berlin Olympic Games. Diem held high posts in the Reichs Sports office even after the Olympics, being named leader of the Foreign Department of the Nationalsocialist Sports Office in 1939 by the ''Reichssportführer''. As such Carl Diem was responsible for the issues of German athletes in foreign countries, as well as for the international affairs of the NSRL. Der "politische Sturm" um Carl Diem als Leiter der Sporthochschule Köln The 1936 Winter Olympics were organized on behalf of the Sports Office of the Third Reich (Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen) (DRL) by Karl Ritter von Halt. Von Halt had been named President of the Committee for the organization of the Fourth Winter Olympics in Garmisch by ''Reichssportführer'' Hans von Tschammer und Osten. Doctrine The HJ were viewed as future "Aryan (Aryan race) supermen" and were indoctrinated in anti-Semitism. One aim was to instill the motivation that would enable HJ members, as soldiers, to fight faithfully for the Third Reich. The HJ put more emphasis on physical (body) and military training than on academic study. Hakim 1995 The ''Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen'' (NSRBL), the umbrella organization promoting and coordinating sport activities in Germany during the Nazi period, had the responsibility of overseeing the physical fitness development programs provided to the German youth. "Hitlerjugend: An In-Depth History." ''axishistory.com''. Retrieved: 1 February 2010. Carl Diem became the secretary of the all-German sports organization Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (:de:Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen) (DRL) the forerunner of the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, the Sports Organ of the Third Reich.
-02-16 The small one room school houses became the centre of activity in most areas. Saturday nights were often the social night of the week, when groceries and supplies were purchased. There was often entertainment in the Opera House in the R.D. McNaughton Store. Summer picnics were held in the period between summerfallowing and haying. July 1 in Moosomin was the highlight of the summer for many years, there would be a parade, sports events and refreshments. With the arrival
heritage. The hall built in the community supported regular, theatrical performances and sports events. ref name "
such as sports events, local food, fireworks, and folk dance. There a crafts expo with more than 85 producers with 17 different types of crafts, with a Crafts Contest. Money earned from the event has gone to improving the appearance of the town, such as a burying electric and telephone cables.
Ago It has a country music format (radio format), but also has adult contemporary music during evenings, a free format on Fridays and oldies on Sundays. CKON also broadcasts coverage (Broadcasting of sports events) of home and away games of Cornwall Colts and Akwesasne Wolves hockey teams and of the Akwesasne Lightning lacrosse team. Online and Print Media *''Akwesasne Notes'' http: pages.slic.com mohawkna mnnotes.htm *''Indian Time Newspaper'' http: www.indiantime.net cgi-bin htmlos.cgi cms home.html Attractions * Akwesasne Annual International Pow-wow * Akwesasne Cultural Center * Akwesasne Mohawk Casino * Annual Akwesasne Winter Carnival * Iohahi:io Akwesasne Adult Education Centre * Mohawk International Raceway - formerly known as Frogtown International Speedway; a dirt track racing oval and host of outdoor concerts. * Ronathahon:ni Cultural Centre - formerly known as the Native North American Traveling College ronathahonni.com * Strawberry Music Festival Recent political activism 1969 border crossing dispute In the winter of 1969 Cornwall City Police were confronted by a demonstration by Akwesasro:non at the North Channel Bridge of what is now called the Three Nations Crossing. By blocking traffic on the bridge, Akwesasro:non sought to call attention to their grievance that they were prohibited by Canadian authorities from duty-free passage of personal purchases across the border, a right they claimed was established by the 1794 Jay Treaty "You Are on Indian Land". Curator's comments. National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved 02 December 2009. A film featuring the events of that confrontation, called ''You Are on Indian Land'', was produced by the National Film Board of Canada. 2001 "anti-globalization" direct action The NYC Ya Basta Collective was a group of anti-globalization activists, based primarily in New York City, active from roughly October 2000 through October 2001. Initiated in October 2000 by L. Fantoni and T.F.G. Casper on the heels of the anti-International Monetary Fund World Bank protests in Prague, a collective soon formed and developed its own variation of the ''Tute Bianche'' tactic of the padded bloc. The collective organized several actions and events highlighting the inadequacy of borders, in support of immigrant rights and against racism and racialist hate groups. In April 2001, this collective, along with the Direct Action Network, was active in organizing a US Canada border crossing over the Three Nations Crossing. This event preceded demonstrations surrounding the 3rd Summit of the Americas, a summit (Summit (meeting)) held in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. An estimated 500 anti-globalists, along with a few Akwesasro:non, challenged the legitimacy of the US Canadian border. Although the Collective successfully and peacefully crossed into Cornwall, Ontario, Canada, they never made it to Quebec City. 2009 border crossing dispute On 1 June 2009, Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) border services officers at the Cornwall Port of Entry walked off the job in response to encampments of Akwesasro:non across the road from the customs facility. The latter were protesting Canada's arming of CBSA border services officers. (Akewesasne straddles the boundary of New York and Canada.) Many of the Mohawk men were ironworkers. The women worked at a variety of jobs and created the community for their families. For 50 years, the Mohawk families called their neighborhood "Little Caughnawaga," after the homeland of ''Kahnawake''. Article about Reaghan Tarbell and her documentary, ''To Brooklyn and Back: A Mohawk Journey'', PBS, 2 November 2009, accessed June 2010 * Agency 30 (Agency 30, Ontario) (06240)—Anishinabe of Wauzhushk Onigum (153), Anishnaabeg of Naongashiing (125), Big Grassy First Nation (124), Buffalo Point First Nation (265), Iskatewizaagegan 39 Independent First Nation (154), Naotkamegwanning First Nation (158), Northwest Angle 33 First Nation (151), Northwest Angle 37 First Nation (152), Obashkaandagaang First Nation (235), Ochiichagwe'babigo'ining First Nation (147), Ojibways of Onigaming First Nation (131), Shoal Lake 40 First Nation (155), Wabaseemoong Independent Nations (150) * Akwesasne 59 (Akwesasne) (06210)—Mohawks of Akwesasne (159) * Alderville First Nation (Alderville First Nation, Ontario) (06211)—Alderville First Nation (160) # Saukkomies (User:Saukkomies), interested in many diverse subjects, but specializing in the earth sciences (including climatology, astronomy, geology, oceanography, and paleontology), and the social sciences (including history, anthropology, sociology, human geography, political science, economics, and archaeology). I have state teaching certificates for secondary schools in both of these subjects, and have published articles in peer reviewed journals. Just ask me for help if you have an article in one of these areas with which you need some assistance. # Parkwells (User:Parkwells), particularly interested in US 19th c. history - migrations, but increasingly interested in colonial history and European-Native American relations of Northeast US and Canada: working on articles on Kahnawake, Akwesasne, Kanesatake # User:CBJVS ~ Victorian era, history of occupations, working class life through history. The Mohawk had left the Akwesasne, Kahnawake, and other reservations to rebuild traditional lives. The land dispute (as Altona residents and government objected to the Mohawk claim of sovereignty) has not been fully settled. Gail Landsman, "Ganienkeh: Symbol and Politics in an Indian White Conflict", ''American Anthropologist'', New Series, Vol. 87, No. 4 (Dec., 1985), pp. 826-839, accessed 27 Feb 2010 The action was related to rising Native American activism, and specific land claims being filed by the nations of the Iroquois, which had been forced to cede their historic lands to the state after the American Revolution, as allies of the British (United Kingdom). Some believe that the 1794 Treaty of Canandaigua give them continuing rights to land in the present-day state. At the same time, the founding of Ganienkeh was related to Mohawk local issues, as some families wanted to leave the reservation environment, which they found had problems with substance abuse, among other issues. Gail Guthrie Valaskakis, ''Indian Country: Essays on Contemporary Native Culture'', Wilfrid Laurier University Press, Waterloo, Ontario: 2005, p.57, accessed 27 Feb 2010 The art form is very much alive today. Examples of contemporary, award-winning quillworkers include Juanita Growing Thunder Fogarty, (Sioux-Assiniboine (Assiniboine people)) artist; Durbin, 279 and 304 Dorothy Brave Eagle (Oglala Lakota) of Denver, Colorado; Melmer, David. "Quillwork: Lakota Style." ''Indian Country Today.'' 22 Sept 2004. Kanatiiosh (Akwesasne Mohawk (Akwesasne)) of St. Regis Mohawk Reservation; Native American Quillwork. ''Native Languages of the Americans.'' 2008 (retrieved 19 Feb 2009) Cathy A. Smith of Galisteo, New Mexico; Roberts, Kathaleen. Native Costume. ''Journal Santa Fe.'' 3 Nov 2008 (retrieved 19 Feb 2009) Leonda Fast Buffalo Horse (Blackfeet) of Browning, Montana; Leonda Fast Buffalo Horse: Quillwork. ''Montana Arts Council.'' (retrieved 19 Feb 2009) and Deborah Magee Sherer (Blackfeet) of Cut Bank, Montana. Horse Capture, 118-119 Students, faculty, and staff join together in two yearly special retreats. In the fall, the entire school takes a two-day retreat to the nearby Arnot Forest. In the spring, students choose from among several possible week-long away or local trips. Some trips go hiking, canoeing, bicycling, or fishing. Local trips often take days during the week to visit nearby museums or film videos about the community. One annual away trip visits the Akwesasne Native American reservation to engage in community service, and another works with the Habitat for Humanity program. Language students have the option of fundraising for a week-long trip to a French- or Spanish-speaking country. group3 '''Adjacent communities''' list3 '''Acton Vale (Acton Vale, Quebec):''' CFID 103.7 (CFID-FM) • '''Akwesasne:''' CKON 97.3 (CKON-FM) • '''Châteauguay''': CHAI 101.9 (CHAI-FM) • '''Joliette''': CJLM 103.5 (CJLM-FM) • '''Kahnawake''': CKKI 89.9 (CKKI-FM) • CKRK 103.7 (CKRK-FM) • '''Lachute''': CJLA 104.9 (CJLA-FM) • '''Laval (Laval, Quebec)''': CJLV 1570 (CJLV) • CFGL 105.7 (CFGL-FM) • '''Longueuil''': CHMP 98.5 (CHMP-FM) • CHAA 103.3 (CHAA-FM) • '''Saint-Constant (Saint-Constant, Quebec)''': CJMS 1040 (CJMS) • '''Saint-Hyacinthe (Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec)''': CFEI 106.5 (CFEI-FM) • '''Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu''': CFZZ 104.1 (CFZZ-FM) • '''Saint-Jérôme (Saint-Jérôme, Quebec)''': CIME 103.9 (CIME-FM) • '''Salaberry-de-Valleyfield''': CKOD 103.1 (CKOD-FM) • '''Vaudreuil-Dorion''': CJVD 100.1 (CJVD-FM) group4 Adjacent markets *Akwesasne - Mohawk (Mohawk nation) Quebec (Indian reserve) Cacouna - Maliseet April, 2001, this collective, along with the Direct Action Network , was active in organizing, after invitation, a US Canada border crossing over the Seaway International Bridge, in cooperation with the Akwesasne Mohawk Warrior (Mohawk nation) society, at the St Regis (St. Regis Mohawk Reservation) Mohawk reservation, leading up to the anti-FTAA protests in Quebec City, Quebec. An estimated 500 anti-globalists, along with a few Mohawk Warriors, challenged the legitimacy of the US Canadian border. The collective never made it to Quebec. He was born in Shodack in Rensselaer County, New York in 1796 and came to Cornwall (Cornwall, Ontario) with his parents in 1800. In 1806, he settled on Mohawk (Mohawk nation) land at St. Regis (Akwesasne); he became fluent in the language and became an interpreter in the Indian Department. He served during the War of 1812, becoming lieutenant of the St Regis Company of Indian Warriors in 1814. In 1832, he became superintendent at St Regis. Chesley created some controversy in 1835 when he arranged for a schoolmaster to teach there without consulting the Roman Catholic Church. In 1841, he represented Cornwall in the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada. He opposed the developed of the Beauharnois Canal which led to some land at St Regis being submerged. He retired from the Indian Department in 1859, having served several times as acting superintendent-general, and returned to Cornwall. In 1860, he was elected mayor of the city. He later moved to Ottawa; in 1872, he became a member of an Anglican (Church of England) society which promoted education for native people. He died at Ottawa in 1880. * Canada: ** St. Regis (St. Regis Mohawk Reservation), Quebec: Part of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River, it is attached by land to the St. Regis Mohawk Reservation in New York State; road access to the rest of Canada is only available through New York State. ** Campobello Island, New Brunswick can be reached by road only by driving through the United States, across the border bridge. Connection with the rest of Canada is by ferry.
year thousands of Israelis participate in Yokneam's annual walking event which began in 1991. In 2013 there were 35,000 participants. The event takes place in the Spring, with a short route of 6 km and a longer route of 11 km through the hills and valleys that surround Yokneam. The 2014 walking event is scheduled for April 17, 2014. ref
Ресторан «Злата Прага» url email address Mashinostroiteley (Машиностроителей), 59а lat long directions phone +7 836 2723163 hours price content Czech and international cuisine, selected wines. Drink *
:: publisher Ansan.iansan.net date accessdate 2013-06-14 * Marronniergongwon Park Sports Large and small stadium is be founded from 1990s. 2010년 기준 안산시의 체육 시설들 Many major sports events in Ansan take place at the Ansan Wa~ Stadium. http
for the town are located there. The facility also has available for private rental the Alexandria Room for weddings, parties and recitals; and smaller meeting rooms that can be reserved by community groups. A gymnasium is used for community sports events, as well as private parties, and art or craft shows. The Edmond Town hall is notable for its cinema. The theater shows popular films shortly after they leave mainstream theaters. It is the only $2 film theater in Connecticut. It is a popular spot
the other sports events in the city is the Lefkoşa Open tennis tournament.