Places Known For

special position


Katsina

, Gazawa, Ingawa, Matazu, Ruma, Kwatarkwashi, Birnin Bakane, Karofi, Maradi, Gwiwa, Kanen Bakashe, e.t.c. The town of ‘Yandoto was located in the western part of Katsina. In the olden days, that part of Katsina was known as ‘Katsina Laka’. ‘Yandoto occupies a special position in the history of Katsina. First, it was the home of Korau, the founder of Korau dynasty. Secondly, it was the home of numerous Islamic scholars. This made it an important centre of Islamic scholarship. Among the famous scholars of ‘Yandoto was Alhaji Mustapha, Malam Abdulrahman and Malam Buhari Na ‘Yandoto who served as one of the Advisers to Sarkin Katsina. The town of Kwatarkwashi was situated in the same geographical region with ‘Yandoto. It was founded during the time of Kumayau. In the pre-Islamic period, Kwatarkwashi was a major centre for the worship of ‘Magiro’ which is an integral part of Hausa traditional religion. Maska is situated in the south western part of Katsina. The area around Maska is blessed with iron ore which is the major raw material for the production of farming tools and weapons. It was also a centre for the production of cotton and indigo. The town became famous in the production of a kind of a fabric popularly called ‘Dan Maska’. Gozaki is located east of Maska. The town was among the largest and best fortified towns in southern Katsina. Like Maska, Gozaki was also an important centre for cotton production. The town of Katsina, popularly called Birnin Katsina is believed to have come into existence towards the end of the 15 th century. From the time of Muhammadu Korau, the town has remained the capital of the Kingdom. In ancient times, a city wall was built around the town to provide security. Similarly, gates were constructed at different locations for easy movement of people. Some of these gates are still major gateways to the city. During the Habe dynasty, a new political structure developed around Katsina kingship. The components of this structure included, kingmakers, palace chiefs, occupational chiefs, town chiefs, war chiefs, e.t.c. At the initial stage, the kingmakers were ‘Yandaka, Durbi, Samri and Gazobi. However, in the course of time, Samri and Gazobi were dropped. The duty of the king makers was to select a new king when the incumbent died or was deposed. The royal regalia consist of a short sword known as Gajere (the short one) which tradition says was the sword which Korau used to slay Sanau. The other two items are the iron pot which is said to belong to Korau, and a large sword known as Bebe (the deaf one), which was captured on the battle field after the great victory against Sarkin Gobir Yakubu in 1795. The other item is the bachelor drum which is beaten by the Galadiman Katsina three times during the coronation of a new king. The palace chiefs were selected mostly from among the royal slaves and the palace guards. Their duty was to help in the day-to-day running of the palace. Among the earliest in this category included Ajiya, Baraya, Turaki and Jakadiya. The first two were in-charge of royal finances and stores, while the other three were responsible for the royal chambers. The slogan of Sarkin Katsina is linked to Korau. The Emir is described as ‘the powerful one’, ‘the son of Korau’, ‘the heir of the powerful one’, ‘the owner of the iron pot’, ‘the wizard of Samri, who slaughtered his host’ and ‘guest of Sanau’. The link of the slogan with Korau was probably because Korau is regarded as the architect of the new political order, out of which the kingdom grew and became a model among Hausa States. It is noteworthy that up to today; this is the official slogan for the Emir of Katsina. The war chiefs were headed by Kauran Katsina. They were responsible for leading the various sections of the army into battle and held command over garrison towns. The Ubandawakin Katsina, Sarkin Karma,Sarkin Baka and Magayaki were responsible for Military organization. Apart from his role as the Commander in-chief of the army, the Kauran Katsina was responsible for the defense of the capital. Other war chiefs included the Marusan Katsina who was the commander of the eastern frontier while the Gatarin Katsina was in-charge of the north western frontier. The occupational chiefs were responsible for the various trades. Their main duties included the allocation of land and other facilities, maintenance of standards and the collection of taxes, In the late 18 th century, the most outstanding occupations were blacksmithing, cloth weaving and dyeing, leather tanning, wood carving, farming, grain selling , salt trading, building e.t.c. The town chiefs were responsible for the day-to-day running of their respective areas on behalf of Sarkin Katsina. These chiefs could be categorized into three (3) groups. The first group comprised of the heads of the large and established towns like Maska, Gozaki, Kogo, ‘Yandoto, Karofi, ‘Yandaka e.t.c. The chiefs of these towns enjoyed autonomy in running the affairs of their areas. This was because their dynasties and the communities over which they ruled had maintained considerable cohesion for long periods, in some cases going back to the period before the formation of the kingdom. As a result of this, they enjoyed such freedom that the Government officials responsible for supervising them acted more as representatives of Sarkin Katsina rather than supervising Officials. The second group consisted of towns which had a very large immigrant groups. They too enjoyed some form of autonomy. The town chiefs that enjoyed this privilege included the Dambo of Ingawa, the BarebarinKatsina, SarkinSullubawa, Tambari of Illela and Tasar of Tazarawa. The third group consisted of towns whose chiefs enjoyed less autonomy; hence, the central Government exercised much closer control over them. In a town established through the initiative of the Government, the chief was selected from among the royal slaves. However, in towns where there was conflict among the people, the Government made its own choice. But in well-established towns, the views of old people were taken into consideration before the selection of a new chief. The source of finance for the Government was mainly through taxation which was levied on farmers. Other forms of taxes included; Jangali i.e. cattle tax and occupational tax levied on artisans. There was also customs duty collected on highways from caravans coming or passing through the kingdom. This tax was collected by an official of Sarkin Katsina known as ‘Sarkin Tafarki’. The succession to the throne of Katsina was limited to royal princes. During the Habe rule, immediately a successor was chosen, the rites of installation began with the slaughter of a bull, whose blood was used to anoint the new king, and whose hide was used as a burial shroud for the dead one. The selected prince stepped over the corpse of his predecessor, and he was lectured on the heritage and ways of his ancestors. After this, he was dressed in a leather apron and a thick woven cloth, and taken to the house of the senior princes. After seven days, the rite of installation was concluded. This marks the formal accession to the throne, and the new king stayed in the home of Magajiya (Queen Mother) to receive homage and pledges of loyalty from his subjects. Next, the new king traveled out of the capital to a tree shrine where festivities and sacrifices were made. The last part of the rites was the presentation of the sword and pot of Korau, as well as a horse to the new king. During the middle of the 18 th century, a dynastic rivalry broke out between the various ruling Habe and other interest groups. This rivalry is said to have started during the reign of Bawa Dangiwa. Some traditions reported that as a result of this disorder, a civil war broke out in which hundreds of people were killed. Another problem which affected the polity was the conflict between Islam and tradition. For instance, during the reign of Gozo, he was criticized for his policy of supporting the Shariah while at the same time patronizing the worship of sprits. This rendered him vulnerable to his opponents and led to his assassination in the year 1801.-- Climate According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Katsina has a Semi-arid climate, abbreviated "Bsh" on climate maps. Climate Summary for Katsina


Federation of Malaya

for at least 8 of 12 years in the Federation of Malaya before the application was made # Lived in the Federation of Malaya for at least 15 of 20 years before the application was made In both cases (via naturalisation), applications must be well-behaved, swear allegiance and clarify their reasons for living in the federation, and are fluent in either the Malay or the English language. The Federation of Malaya, through its constitution, guarantees the rights and special position of the Malay people as well as rights, powers and sovereignty of the Malay rulers in their respective states. Persekutuan Tanah Melayu Ditubuhkan Separation of powers of the federal and state governments The federation agreement (Perjanjian Persekutuan) set the powers of the federal and state governments. Financial matters must be handled by the respective states. The Sultan was given full power on religious issues and Malay customs. Foreign policy and defence continued to be administered by the British government. The federation agreement was made the Constitution of the Federation of Malaya and officially declared on 1 February 1948. Perlembagaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu Diumumkan The Federation of Malaya Legislative Council The Federation of Malaya Legislative Council (Federal Legislative Council) held its first meeting in the Tuanku Abdul Rahman Hall, Kuala Lumpur in 1948. It was opened by the British High Commissioner Sir Edward Gent. Attendees included the British Minister of State for Colonial Affairs, Lord Listowel. The membership of the Council was structured to include: * the British High Commissioner (as President); * 3 ''ex officio'' members (namely the Chief Secretary, the Financial Secretary, and the Attorney General); * 11 "State and Settlement Members" (the President of the Council of State of each Malay state, and a member elected by each of the Settlement Councils) * 11 official members; and * 34 appointed "unofficial" members. The unofficial members were required to be either Federation citizens or British subjects. In 1948 the ethnic composition of the Council was made up as follows: * 28 Malay representatives, including all the Chief Ministers, * 14 Chinese representatives, * 6 Indian representatives, and * 14 Europeans (the ''ex officio'' and official members). Dato' Onn Jaafar stressed at the first meeting that the citizens of the Federation of Malaya did not want the interference of external powers in the affairs of the Federation; the Chinese representative Dr Ong Chong Keng asserted that the Chinese people would be loyal to the Federation of Malaya. At this first Council meeting, several minor committees were formed: * the Standing Committee on Finance; * the Election Committee; and * the Committee of Privileges. The first session passed the Kuala Lumpur City Bill, the Transfer of Power Bill, and the Loan and Debt Bill. The First Conference of the Federation of Malaya Legislative Council Registration of PKMM rejected In 1950, the Federation of Malaya Government rejected the registration of the Malay Nationalist Party of Malaya (Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya, PKMM) as a legitimate political party. PKMM had two wings, namely Angkatan Pemuda Insaf and Angkatan Wanita Sedar. Initially, PKMM did not have communist leanings. After Mokhtaruddin Lasso was elected as the first PKMM president in October 1946, this party was influenced with communism. The Young Malays Union (Kesatuan Melayu Muda, KMM) merged with PKMM, and Dr Burhanuddin al-Helmy became the second PKMM president. Dr Burhanuddin led PKMM toward the formation of Melayu Raya (Greater Indonesia), a merger of Indonesia and Malaya (British Malaya). In December 1947, Ishak Haji Mohamed became the third PKMM president and PKMM switched from communism to nationalism. PKMM tended against UMNO and colonisation. PKKM established the Pusat Tenaga Rakyat (PUTERA), a conglomeration of radical Malay Political Parties and then merged with the All-Malaya Council of Joint Action (AMCJA) which thoroughly opposed the 1948 Federation Agreement for the foundation of the Federation of Malaya. PKMM accused officials selected in the Federation of Malaya of being "puppets" of the "Colonial Office". For PKMM, there was no basis in "preparing Malaya as a democratic government". Rejection of the registration of the Malay Nationalist Party of Malaya Demographics class "wikitable" + Federation of Malaya Population ''Annual Report on the Federation of Malaya: 1951'' in C.C. Chin and Karl Hack, ''Dialogues with Chin Peng'' pp. 380, 81. - ! Ethnic Group ! colspan "2" 1948 ! colspan "2" 1951 - ! Malay align "right" were formed and an HQ to complete that regiment. When "C" Squadron concluded their tour of duty they came back to Southern Rhodesia and the unit was disbanded. Political career After the 1963 Singapore state elections (Singapore general election, 1963) held shortly after Singapore merged with Malaya (Federation of Malaya), Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia, it emerged that the Singapore UMNO branch had been terribly defeated by the ruling People's Action Party (PAP). Albar then travelled to Singapore to address the Malays, and denounced Malay PAP leaders such as Othman Wok as traitors to the Malay race and UnIslamic.


Malayan Union

Rahman (1986). ''Political Awakening'', p. 31. Pelanduk Publications. ISBN 967-978-135-6. Early career In 1946, the British formed the Malayan Union, a polity seen as infringing on the special position of the Malays and the Malay Rulers. Ismail's family was heavily involved in the anti-Malayan Union campaign led by the United Malays National Organization (UMNO). After the successful campaign led to the replacement of the Malayan Union with the Federation of Malaya, Ismail was appointed to the Johor state legislative assembly by Dato' Onn Ja'afar, the Chief Minister of Johor. Ismail was also offered a seat on the Federal Legislative Council by Onn, but on the condition that Ismail join UMNO. Ismail refused, insisting that he would only join UMNO if it committed itself to fighting for Malayan independence. "Malayan Union brings Ismail to the crossroads", pp. 10–12. (Jan. 1, 2007). ''New Straits Times''. In the Johor state legislative assembly, his very first action was to declare his opposition to the UMNO-supported federation, which he considered in contravention of the Johor state constitution. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay Kingdoms present in the area which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire. The first British territories were known as the Straits Settlements, whose establishment was followed by the Malay kingdoms becoming British protectorates. The territories on Peninsular Malaysia were first unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore on 16 September 1963, with ''si'' being added to give the new country the name Malaysia. However, less than two years later in 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation. Since independence, Malaysia has had one of the best economic records in Asia, with GDP growing an average 6.5% for almost 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism, commerce and medical tourism. id isbn 9789812304575 Popular support for independence increased after Malaya was reconquered by Allied Forces. Civil Administration Civil administration was restored on the 1 April 1946 and from the same date the Board of Commissioners of Currency Malaya was reconstituted by the authority or Ordinance No.4 of 1946 in Singapore and Ordinance No.5 of 1946 in the Malayan Union. The Board continued to operate in the same way as before the Japanese occupation (Japanese occupation of Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak). '''British Malaya''' loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British (United Kingdom) control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown. Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a single unified administration. Instead, British Malaya comprised the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States. Within a year after World War II, the loose administration of British Malaya was finally consolidated with the formation of the Malayan Union on 1 April 1946. Singapore however was not included and was considered a crown colony by itself. The new Union was greeted with strong opposition from the local Malays. The opposition revolved around two issues: loose citizenship requirements and reduction in the Malay rulers' power. Due to the pressure exerted, the Union was replaced with the Federation of Malaya on 31 January 1948. The Federation achieved independence on 31 August 1957. All Malayan states later formed a larger federation called Malaysia on 16 September 1963 together with Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo. Diplomatic career He was the first appointed Governor of the Malayan Union, Sir Edward also became the first Colonial Administrator to discuss openly to form a better government for the future of Malaya, where later the Federation of Malaya was established. He was an instrumental figure in the formation of the Malayan Union which was established on 1 April 1946 in Kuala Lumpur, and the first Governor of the Malayan Union. He remained in office until his death. When Malaysia achieved independence (Merdeka) from the United Kingdom, his widow Lady Gent, together with Lady Gurney, were invited to the ceremony as guests of honour. Summary This is a photo of a Malay protest against the formation of the Malayan Union, linked to the issue of ''ketuanan Melayu''. Its use is contended to be fair use for the purposes of articles on the English Wikipedia related to opposition of the Malayan Union because the image is sufficiently low-resolution as to avoid major detriment to the copyright owner's profits; and because it is a historical image of great significance that cannot be duplicated with a free replacement.


Schutzstaffel

Office, the SS Head Office, and also Department VII of the Reich Main Security Office (Science and Research) whose duties were to confiscate valuable items from Jewish libraries. The ''Eichmann Sonderkommando'' was attached to the Security Police and the SD in terms of provisioning and manpower, but maintained a special position in the SS due to its direct role in the deportation of Jews to the death camps as part of the Final Solution. thumb right Crematorium operation being demonstrated at Dachau concentration camp Dachau (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H26996, KZ Dachau, Verbrennungsofen.jpg), the first concentration camp established in 1933 The term "Sonderkommando" was also used to describe the teams of Jewish prisoners who were forced to work in gas chambers and crematoria, receiving special privileges and above-average treatment, before then being murdered themselves. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. '''Otto Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann)''' (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi (w:Nazi) and ''SS (w:Schutzstaffel)-Obersturmbannführer (w:Obersturmbannführer)'' (Lieutenant Colonel). Due to his organizational talents and ideological reliability, he was tasked by ''Obergruppenführer (w:Obergruppenführer)'' Reinhard Heydrich (w:Reinhard Heydrich) to facilitate and manage the logistics of mass deportation to ghettos and extermination camps in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe and worked under Ernst Kaltenbrunner until the end of the war. He was captured by Israeli Mossad (w:Mossad) agents in Argentina and indicted by Israeli court on fifteen criminal charges, including charges of crimes against humanity (w:crimes against humanity) and war crimes (w:war crimes). He was convicted and hanged. '''Otto Skorzeny (w:Otto Skorzeny)''' (June 12, 1908 – July 7, 1975) was an Austrian SS (w:Schutzstaffel)-''Standartenführer (w:Standartenführer)'' (colonel) in the German (w:Germany) Waffen-SS (w:Waffen-SS) during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front (w:Eastern Front (WWII)), he was chosen as the field commander to carry out the rescue mission (w:Gran Sasso raid) that freed the deposed Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from captivity. Skorzeny was also the leader of Operation Greif (w:Operation Greif), in which German soldiers were to infiltrate through enemy lines, using their opponents' language, uniforms, and customs. At the end of the war, Skorzeny was involved with the Werwolf guerrilla movement (w:Werwolf) and the ODESSA (w:ODESSA) network where he would serve as Spanish coordinator. thumb right Christian Wirth (File:Wirth, Christian.jpg) '''Christian Wirth (w:Christian Wirth)''' (24 November 1885 — 26 May 1944) was a German (w:Germany) policeman and SS (w:Schutzstaffel) officer who was one of the leading architects of the program to exterminate the Jewish people of Poland (w:History of the Jews in Poland), known as Operation Reinhard (w:Operation Reinhard). His nicknames included '''Christian the Terrible''' and '''The Wild Christian'''. 27-year-old Robin Parkircher arrived in Israel (w:Israel) today to apologize to Holocaust (w:Holocaust) survivors for his grandfather's behavior. Parkircher's grandfather was an SS (w:Schutzstaffel) guard in a Nazi (w:Nazi) concentration camp (w:concentration camp) near Bremen (w:Bremen (city)), Germany (w:Germany), where over eight hundred women were incarcerated. In an interview, Parkircher told Israeli Yediot Aharonot (w:Yedioth Ahronoth) newspaper that years after his grandfather passed away, Parkircher found a picture of him wearing an SS uniform (w:uniform). After inquiring with his grandmother, he discovered about his grandfather's service as a camp guard.


Nazareth

in Nazareth since the 1st century. Some of them were prominent early Christians. Among those named in the New Testament are his mother (Mary, mother of Jesus) and four of his brothers: James (James the Just), Simeon (Simeon of Jerusalem), Joseph (Joses) and Jude (Jude, brother of Jesus). According to the Gospels, some of the family were opposed (Rejection of Jesus) to the mission and religion of Jesus. The relatives of Jesus were accorded a special position within the early church, as displayed by the leadership of James in Jerusalem. Taylor (1993). Pg 224. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1914, a tradition dating back to the 8th century identifies Cana with the modern Arab town of Kafr Kanna, about 7 km northeast of Nazareth, Israel. Catholic encyclopedia: Cana Recent scholars have suggested alternatives, including the ruined village of Kenet-el-Jalil (also known as Khirbet Kana), about 9 km further north, and Ain Kana, which is closer to Nazareth and considered by some to be a better candidate on etymological grounds. While the village of Qana, in southern Lebanon, is considered an unlikely candidate for the location, many local Lebanese Christians believe the village to be the correct site. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1914, a tradition dating back to the 8th century identifies Cana with the modern Arab town of Kafr Kanna, about 7 km northeast of Nazareth, Israel. Catholic encyclopedia: Cana Recent scholars have suggested alternatives, including the ruined village of Kenet-el-Jalil (also known as Khirbet Kana), about 9 km further north, and Ain Kana, which is closer to Nazareth and considered by some to be a better candidate on etymological grounds. While the village of Qana, in southern Lebanon, is considered an unlikely candidate for the location, many local Lebanese Christians believe the village to be the correct site. The '''Seraya''' is an historical building in Nazareth, Israel. Built around 1740, it has been home to a church, a mosque and Nazareth city government. As of 2010, it was not in use. It was built by Arab leader Daher el-Omar during the rule of the Ottoman Empire in Palestine. http: www.nazarethinfo.org show_item.asp?levelId 63720&itemType 0 Tulkarem is at the crossroads of three historically important arteries: A road which runs north from the Latrun area along the edge of the plain to Mount Carmel (Mount Carmel, Israel), Mount Tabor, Mount Gilboa, Nazareth and the Galilee and the Golan Heights, a road which winds northward along the outer tier of hills from the Ajalon valley to the Jezreel Valley, and a road that rises from the Mediterranean Sea at modern-day Netanya east to Nablus. In the past it was a junction of the coastal railroad from north of Haifa to Cairo and a branch of the narrow gauge Hejaz railway to Damascus. The '''Holy Land''' is a term used in Judeo-Christian tradition to refer to the holy sites of the Levant — especially Shiloh (Shiloh (Biblical)), Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth — but is also often used to refer to the Levant (and historical Canaan) as a whole. Note that this term in Islam refers not only to the Levant, but to the Arabian region of Hijaz where the holy cities of Mecca and Medina are located. Notes * WikiPedia:Nazareth Dmoz:Regional Middle_East Israel Localities Nazareth commons:Nazareth


Etruscan civilization

From the 8th century BC, Phoenicians founded several cities and strongholds on south west of Sardinia; Tharros, Bithia, Sulcis, Nora and Karalis (Cagliari). The Phoenicians came originally from what is now Lebanon and founded a vast trading network in the Mediterranean. They settled along the south western coasts. Sardinia had a special position because it was central in the Western Mediterranean between Carthage, Spain, the Rhone river and the Etruscan civilization area. The mining area around Iglesias was important for the metals lead and zinc. The cities were founded on strategic points, often peninsulas or islands near estuaries, easy to defend and natural harbours. After the Phoenicians, the Carthagianians took over control in that part of the Mediterranean, around 550 BC. They expanded their influence to the eastern and southern coast from Bosa to Karalis, consolidating a large number of Phoenician colonies (Phoenician colonies#Phoenician colonies) all over the western Mediterranean under one empire for the first time. The cities were administered by plenipotentiaries called ''Sufetes'', which stressed the growing of grain and cereals. Roman Republic * The former Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) King of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, who has been exiled by the Romans in 508 BC, and his ally Lars Porsena, the King of Clusium, are defeated by the new Roman Republic army in the Battle of Lake Regillus, near Frascati. The outcome of this battle establishes Roman supremacy over the Latins. * Carthage and Rome make a treaty whereby Roman ships undertake not to trade to the west of Carthage while the Carthaginians undertake not to interfere in Latin politics. Roman Republic * Marcus Furius Camillus is made dictator by the Romans (Roman Republic). Camillus finally destroys the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) city of Veii in southern Etruria as the town falls to Roman forces after what is said to be a 10 year siege. The capture of Veii and its surrounding territories marks the first major expansion of Rome which doubles its territory after this victory. * The Romans introduce pay for their army. For more than two decades, Romulus wages wars and expands Rome's territory. He subdues Fidenae, which has seized Roman provisions during a famine, and founds a Roman colony there. Then he subdues the Crustumini, who have murdered Roman colonists in their territory. The Etruscans (Etruscan civilization) of Veii protest the presence of a Roman garrison at Fidenae, and demand the return of the town to its citizens. When Romulus refuses, they confront him in battle and are defeated. They agree to a hundred year truce and surrender fifty noble hostages: Romulus celebrates his third and last triumph. Pre-Roman times The area of what is now Salerno has been continuously settled since pre-historical (prehistory) times, although the first certain signs of human presence date to the period between the 9th and 6th centuries BC. We know the Oscan-Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) city of '''''Irna''''' (founded in the 6th century BC), situated across the Irno river, in today's Salernitan quarter of Fratte. This settlement represented an important base for Etruscan trade with the Greek colonies of Posidonia (Paestum) and Elea (Velia). It was occupied by the Samnites around the 5th century BC as consequence of the Battle of Cumae (474 BC) as part of the Syracusan Sphere of influence. The origins of the Italian history can be traced back to the 9th century BC, when earliest accounts date the presence of Italic tribes (Ancient Italic peoples) in present-day central Italy. Linguistically, they were divided into Oscans, Umbrians and Latins. Later the Latin culture became dominant, as Rome (History of Rome) emerged as a powerful city-state around 350 BC. Other pre-Roman civilizations include Magna Graecia in Southern Italy and the Etruscan civilization, which flourished between 900 and 150 BC in the central section of the peninsula. The topic of the "League of Etruria" is covered in Freeman, pages 562-565. The league in northern Italy is mentioned in Livy, Book V, Section 33. The passage also identifies the Raetii (Raetia) as a remnant of the 12 cities "beyond the Apennines (Apennine Mountains)." The Campanian Etruscans are mentioned (among many sources) by Polybius, (II.17). The entire subject with complete ancient sources in footnotes was worked up by George Dennis in his ''Introduction.'' In the LacusCurtius transcription, the references in Dennis's footnotes link to the texts in English or Latin; the reader may also find the English of some of them on WikiSource or other Internet sites. As the work has already been done by Dennis and Thayer, the complete work-up is not repeated here. The Etruscan civilization flourished in central Italy after 800 BC. The origins of the Etruscans are lost in prehistory. The main hypotheses are that they are indigenous, probably stemming from the Villanovan culture, or that they are the result of invasion from the north or the Near East. A more recent study has suggested a Near Eastern origin. History The location of the city was already occupied in the 8th century BC, and neighbouring Pizzo in the Bronze Age. Nepet then became Roman (Ancient Rome) before 386 BC, when Livy speaks of it and Sutrium as the keys of Etruria. In that year it was surrendered to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization)s and recovered by the Romans, who beheaded the authors of its surrender. It became a colony in 383 BC. It was among the twelve Latin colonies that refused further help to Rome in 209 BC. After the Social War (Social War (91–88 BC)) it became a municipium. It is hardly mentioned in imperial times, except as a station on the road (Via Amerina) which diverged from the Via Cassia near the modern Settevene and ran to Amelia and Todi. Ancient Grecian (Pottery of ancient Greece) and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) ceramics are renowned for their figurative painting, especially in the black-figure (Black-figure pottery) and red-figure (Red-figure pottery) styles. Moulded Greek terracotta figurines, especially those from Tanagra (Tanagra figurine), were small figures, often religious but later including many of everyday genre figures, apparently used purely for decoration. History Records in Italian courts of an investigation indicate that the krater was looted (Looted art) from an Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) tomb in the Greppe Sant'Angelo near Cerveteri in December 1971. The krater was sold to the Metropolitan Museum of Art by Robert Hecht Jr., an American antiquities dealer living in Rome, for US$ (United States dollar)1.2 million on November 10, 1972. Hecht, who is currently on trial for allegations of trafficking in illicit antiquities, claimed to have acquired the krater from Dikran Sarrafian, a Lebanese (Lebanon) dealer, whose family had been in possession of the piece since 1920. Evidence suggests that Hecht may have purchased the krater in 1972 from Giacomo Medici (Giacomo Medici (art dealer)), an Italian dealer who was convicted of selling stolen art in 2005. Hecht denies the charges. Euphronios Krater Returned - Art - New York Times History Orbetello was an ancient Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) settlement, which in 280 BC passed under the control of the Romans (ancient Rome), who had founded their colony of Cosa (near the modern Ansedonia). It is thought that there was already a Villanovan (Villanova culture) settlement at the confluence of the Mugnone with the River Arno between the 10th and the 8th century BC. Between the 7th and 6th centuries BC Etruscans (Etruscan civilization) had discovered and used the ford of the Arno near this confluence, closer to the hills of the North and South. A bridge or a ferry was probably constructed here, about ten metres away from the current Ponte Vecchio, but closer to the ford itself. The Etruscans, however, preferred not to build cities on the plain for reasons of defence and instead settled about six kilometres away on a hill. This settlement was a precursor of the fortified centre of Vipsul (today's Fiesole), which was later connected by road to all the major Etruscan centres of Emilia (Emilia (region of Italy)) to the North and Lazio to the South. Luca Mandelli, a historian of the 17th century, ascribes its foundation to settlers from the Greek city of Tegea, in the Peloponnese. In the late 19th century Giacomo Racioppi attributed its foundation to Oscan-Sabellian tribes driven out from their lands as a result of the expansion of the Etruscan civilization. Lately they say '''Tegianum''' was built by Lucanians early in the 4th century BC, and later was a municipal town of Lucania, made into a colony by Emperor Nero. The '''Battle of the Cremera''' was fought between the Roman Republic and the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) city of Veii, in 477 BC (276 AUC). Archaeological excavations have brought to light Gaulish, Gallo-Roman and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) remains. In the outskirts of the village there are ruins of a fortification, probably of Lombard (Lombards) origin. The '''Tampa Museum of Art''' is located in downtown (Downtown Tampa) Tampa (Tampa, Florida), Florida. It exhibits 20th-century fine art, as well as Greek (Art in Ancient Greece), Roman (Ancient Rome), and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) antiquities. The museum was founded in 1979 and debuted an innovative new building in 2010 on the banks of Hillsborough River (Hillsborough River (Florida)) just north of its original site. The current location is part of Tampa's Riverwalk (Tampa Riverwalk) and the Waterfront Arts District along with the Glazer Children's Museum and the Florida Museum of Photographic Arts and includes a gift shop and SONO Cafe, a restaurant operated by Mise En Place. However, the main focus of the galleries is on arts, craft and wares, including exhibits on: Irish coins and currency, silverware, furniture, folklife and costumes, ceramics, glassware, etc. Included are artifacts such as Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) vases, gauntlets worn by King William (William III of England) at Battle of the Boyne, a life belt and oar salvaged from the wreck of the RMS Lusitania and a pocket book carried by Wolfe Tone whilst imprisoned in the Barracks. (''See above''). Claudius had particular affinities with Lugdunum (Lyon). He was born there, and it housed the Imperial cult centre: as both Emperor and a "native" of the city, he was probably seen as its patron. He made the inscribed speech before the Roman Senate in 48 AD. It was a proposal to allow monied, landed citizens from further Gaul to enter the Senatorial class, and thus the Senate itself (Roman Senate), once they had reached the necessary level of wealth. His argument evoked the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) origins of his own family, the Claudius (gens) (gens Claudia), and the recent promotion to senatorial rank of men from Gallia Narbonensis. Europe In Europe, bronze mirrors from the Bronze Age have been discovered from various places, including Britain (Great Britain) and Italy. A notable example includes the Birdlip mirror. Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) mirrors were produced from between the 6th and 2nd centuries BCE. Celtic mirrors in Britain (Prehistoric Britain) were produced up until the Roman (Roman Empire) conquest. Origin The trumpet is found in many early civilizations and therefore makes it difficult to discern when and where the long, straight trumpet design found in the salpinx originated. References to the salpinx are found frequently in Greek literature and art. Early descriptions of the sound of the salpinx can be found in Homer’s ''Iliad'' (9th or 8th century BC), however, this Archaic (Ancient_Greece#Archaic_period) reference is more unique and frequent references are not found until the Classical period (Classical Greece). Homer, ''Iliad,'' 18. 219. McKinnon Similar instruments can be found in Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, though the salpinx is most closely related to the Egyptian version. References to the salpinx in classical literature include mention of the instrument as ''tyrrhene'' Aeschylus, ''Eumenides'', 458 BC. ''O herald, make proclaim, bid all men come. Then let the shrill blast of the Tyrrhene trump, Fulfilled with mortal breath, thro' the wide air Peal a loud summons, bidding all men heed.'' a derivative of ''Tyrrhenoi'', an exonym often employed by the Greeks as an allusion to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) people. Bronze instruments were important among the Etruscans and as a people they were held in high regard by the Greeks for their musical contributions. The salpinx as an Etruscan invention is thus supported by the Greeks and various descriptions can be found among the authors Aeschylus, Pollux (Julius Pollux), and Sophocles. It is likely that the salpinx was introduced to the Greeks in some way through the Etruscans, however, scattered references to the salpinx prior to Greek contact with the Etruscans, as well as the myriad salpinx type instruments described by Eustathius of Thessalonia Nikos Xanthoulis, "The Salpinx in Greek Antiquity," ''International Trumpet Guild Journal', October 2006, 41 , suggests some small level of uncertainty in regard to whether or not the instrument came to the Greeks directly from the Etruscans or through some intermediary source.


Kosovo


Slovenia

) in the country. This gives it a special position in the European social, economic and cultural integration and restructuring. Commons:Category:Slovenia WikiPedia:Slovenia Dmoz:Regional Europe Slovenia


Northern Ireland

and others to his Nobel event, but not President Halonen. Presidentti Halosta ei kutsuttu Ahtisaaren Nobel-juhliin. Helsingin Sanomat FitzGerald's policy towards Northern Ireland, however, brought him into confrontation with the Roman Catholic church, whose "special position" in the Republic had until the Referendum (Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland)of December 1972 been enshrined in the Constitution (Constitution of Ireland). FitzGerald in 1973 met Cardinal Secretary of State Agostino Casaroli and proposed to further modify the Republic's Constitution to remove laws with overtly Catholic foundations, such as the bans on divorce and contraception, as well as to relax the public stigmas in Northern Ireland towards mixed religious marriages and integrated education. Casaroli at first seemed receptive, and the Government formally submitted the proposal to the Vatican (Holy See). FitzGerald's vision caused great consternation among the church's hierarchy, however, and in 1977 Pope Paul VI personally met with FitzGerald to tell him that "Ireland was a catholic country — perhaps the only one left — and it should stay that way. Laws should not be changed in any way that would make the country less catholic." WikiPedia:Northern Ireland Dmoz:Regional Europe United Kingdom Northern Ireland commons:Northern Ireland


German Empire

from the German Empire; the crisis of June 1905 was resolved at the Algeciras Conference in Spain in 1906, which formalized France's "special position" and entrusted policing of Morocco jointly to France and Spain. The Agadir Crisis provoked by the Germans, increased tensions between European powers. The Treaty of Fez (signed on March 30, 1912) made Morocco a protectorate of France. By the same treaty, Spain assumed the role of protecting power over the northern and southern Saharan zones on November 27 that year. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS :'''George''': By Gum, this is interesting! I always loved history. The Battle of Hastings (w:Battle of Hastings), Henry VIII (w:Henry VIII of England) and his six knives (w:Wives of Henry VIII) and all that! :'''Blackadder''': You see, Baldrick, in order to prevent a war in Europe, two super blocs developed: us, the French and the Russians on one side (w:Allies of World War I); and the Germans and Austro-Hungary on the other (w:German Empire). The idea was to have two vast, opposing armies, each acting as the other's deterrent (w:Causes of World War I#Arms Race). That way, there could never be a war. :'''Baldrick''': Except, well, this is sort of a war, isn't it? First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995.


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