, pay, and the widespread use of child labour in these small gold mines, and the method which middlemen, in regional centers like Sikasso and Kayes, purchase and transport gold. Gold collected in the towns is sold on—with almost no regulation or oversight—to larger merchant houses in Bamako or Conakry, and eventually to smelters in Europe. Kids working in African gold mines. AP RUKMINI CALLIMACHI AND BRADLEY S. KLAPPER – Aug 10, 2008. Ecological factors, especially pollution of water by mine tailings, is a major source of concern. * Kidira, Senegal - Mali border * Kayes, Mali * Diamou, Mali Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Tuareg Rebellion, the Army has struggled to maintain its size, despite recent military aid from the United States. It is organised into two tank battalions (T-55, T-54 and T-34 85, tanks, including possibly a light armoured battalion of PT-76's and Type 62 light tanks), May include 35ème régiment blindé in the vicinity of Kati - http: www.malikounda.com nouvelle_voir.php?idNouvelle 10935 four infantry battalions, one Special Forces battalion, one airborne battalion (possibly the 33rd Parachute Infantry Regiment, Djikoroni, in Bamako ), two artillery battalions, one engineer battalion (34th), 2 AD artillery batteries, and one SAM battery. Manpower is provided by two-year selective conscription. Mali apparently has six military regions, according to Jane's World Armies. 1st Military Region and 13th Combined Arms Regiment may be in Gao. State Department, http: www.state.gov documents organization 34329.pdf 3rd Military Region appears to be at Kati. http: www.malikounda.com nouvelle_voir.php?idNouvelle 20217 The 4th Military Region is at Kayes and the 5th Military Region is at Timbuktu . United States European Command, 1 10 Special Forces Group Supports Pan Sahel Initiative, 2004 The 512 Regiment was reported within the 5th Military Region in 2004.On 13 April 2010, Agence France Press reported that French Armed Forces training will be given to the '62nd Motorized Infantry Regiment of the 6th Military Region, based in Sévaré (15 km from Mopti). It consists of three companies of Rapid Intervention (CIR), considered the elite troops of the Malian army.' The Sénégal's headwaters are the Semefé (Semefé River) (Bakoye) and Bafing (Bafing River) rivers which both originate in Guinea; they form a small part of the Guinean-Malian border before coming together at Bafoulabé in Mali. From there, the Senegal river flows west and then north through Talari Gorges near Galougo and over the Gouina Falls, then flows more gently past Kayes, where it receives the Kolinbine. After flowing together with the Karakoro (Karakoro River), it prolongs the former's course along the Mali-Mauritanian border for some tens of kilometers till Bakel (Bakel, Senegal) where it flows together with the Faleme river, which also has its source in Guinea, subsequently runs along a small part of the Guinea-Mali frontier to then trace most of the Senegal-Mali border up to Bakel. The Senegal further flows through semi-arid land in the north of Senegal, forming the border with Mauritania and into the Atlantic (Atlantic Ocean). In Kaedi it accepts the Gorgol (Gorgol River) from Mauritania. Flowing through Bogué (Bogué, Mauritania) it reaches Richard Toll where it is joined by the Ferlo coming from inland Senegal's Lac de Guiers. It passes through Rosso and, approaching its mouth, around the Senegalese island on which the city of Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal) is located, to then turn south. It is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a thin strip of sand called the Langue de Barbarie before it pours into the ocean itself. thumb 250px right This is a Sotrama stand (pronounced so-tram-a). The Sotrama (Taxi van) is what is used as 'public transportation' though many are owned independently. (File:Taxi vans in Bamako.jpg) The Dakar-Niger Railway links Bamako to Dakar via Kati, Négala, Kita and Kayes. The road network links Bamako to Koulikoro, Kati, Kolokani, Ségou and Sikasso. The Bamako-Sénou International Airport is located 15 km from the city and opened to passengers in 1974. Passenger traffic steadily increased in the early 2000s. Government figures revealed 403,380 passengers in 1999, 423,506 in 2003, 486,526 in 2004, and 516,000 in 2005. and is predicted to reach over 900,000 by 2015 under a low (4%) yearly growth rate scenario. Composante aéroport Bamako-Sénou, Proposition MCA-Mali (2006) To date this growth rate has been surpassed. Total air traffic the airport increased by 12.4% in 2007 and 14% in 2008. Most of this increase came in passenger transport, with the number of passengers served increasing by 20% in 2007 and 17% in 2008. Twenty-seven airline carriers operated weekly or better at Bamako-Sénou International Airport in the 2007-2008 period. This continued growth was offset by cargo flights' decline of 16.75% in 2007, and 3.93% in 2008. Air traffic at Bamako airport increases by 14% in 2008. PANA press. 2009-01-14 The highest frequency route is on the Bamako-Dakar sector with 29 weekly non-stop connections. Domestic flights also serve Mali's regional capitals Kayes, Mopti, Timbuktu, Sikasso, Gao, and Kidal. Bamako Senou International Airport is managed by Aéroports du Mali (ADM). Its operations are overseen by the Malian Ministry of Equipment and Transports. The Senegal is the only permanent river between southern Morocco and central Senegal. From its source in Guinea, it flows north and west '''Boubacar Traoré''' (born 1942 in Kayes, Mali) is a renowned singer, songwriter, and guitarist. Traoré also goes by the nickname '''Kar Kar''', "the one who dribbles too much" in Bambara (Bambara language), a reference to his soccer playing: "a nickname I got from playing soccer when I was young. People would yell 'Kari, Kari' - dribble, dribble - the name stuck with me". Boubacar Traore Downloads :: calabashmusic.com DATE OF BIRTH 1942 PLACE OF BIRTH Kayes, Mali DATE OF DEATH When French reinforcements to Kayes were delayed, Lamine began a siege of Fort Bakel. However, the siege was soon broken, and Lamine's forces retreated toward the Gambian border, attacking villages in their path. Lt. Col. Joseph Galliéni, the new French military commander for the region, sent more forces in pursuit. On Christmas Day (Christmas), 1886, the French entered Lamine's capital at Diana (Diana, Senegal), though Lamine himself escaped. * Rwanda: The first novel on the Tutsi genocide (Rwandan Genocide) written by a Rwandan, ''Le Feu sous la soutane'' ("The Fire Under The Cassock", Editions L'Esprit Frappeur), by Benjamin Sehene, was published on 1 June 2005. * Mali: the fifth edition of the ''Etonnants Voyageurs'' festival ("Astonishing travellers"), led by Moussa Konaté and Michel Le Bris took place from 7 to 13 February 2005 in Mali, in the capital Bamako and several other cities of the country (Gao, Kidal, Koulikoro, Ségou, Timbuktu, Kayes, Kita (Kita, Mali), Sikasso, Mopti). Part of the manifestation are literary workshops, literary cafés (Coffeehouse (event)) and meetings on various topics: "Culture and commerce: defending cultural diversity" or "Literature and development: new perspectives". Several writers are invited: Kangni Alem (Togo), Florent Koua-Zotti (Benin), Abdourahman Waberi (Djibouti), Abdelkader Djemai (Algeria), Alpha Mandé Diarra (Mali) and Abdoulaye Ascofaré (Mali). In parallel, the second edition of ''Etonnants Scénarios'' ("Astonishing scenarios") was held in Bamako, welcoming professionals of the African cinema. * Senegal: The Goethe Institute (Goethe-Institut) of Senegal organized on 9 and 10 April a colloquium on the oeuvre of the Senegalese writer Aminata Sow Fall, entitled ''Une femme de lettres africaine de dimension internationale'' ("An African female writer of international importance"). In the late 19th century French forces appeared in the region just to the north, establishing bases at Kayes, Kita, Mali, Bafoulabé and eventually at Bamako. Countering the French expansion was the Fula Jihad state (Fula jihads) of which exploded out of neighboring Dinguiray to conquer both the Mandé states surrounding Kouroussa to the northwest and the Bambara to the northeast. To the south, the Wassoulou (Wassoulou Empire) conquest state of Samori Ture appeared, sending his well armed forces against Kouroussa, its neighbors, and the French alike, while the Fouta Djallon state raided the area periodically. The French officer Aimé Olivier, attempting to convince the Timbo Almamate to sign a protectorate, passed through Kouroussa in the 1880s, and at the beginning of the 1890s, French military under Louis Archinard established garrison posts at Kankan and Kouroussa, commanded from a larger post just downstream at Siguiri. Auguste-Louis-Charles Gatelet. Histoire de la conquête du Soudan français (1878-1899). Berger-Levrault, Paris (1901). pp. 146, 184-87 In 1893-1894, Commandant Briquelot set up a post at Kouroussa, as it lay along the main line for French fighting with the forces of Samori to the south. From here French forces raided areas controlled by Samori, even launching raids from here into the British territory of Sierra Leone. Gatelet, 189-191 By 1895, even while fighting with Samori continued, the French had set up a school to train local workers to identify, collect, and prepare wild rubber for French industrial purposes. Kouroussa became a regional center of rubber requisitions (often instituted as a tax in labour), which peaked in the second decade of the 20th century. Gatelet, p. 494. For the colonial era wild rubber collections, see: Emily Lynn Osborn. 'Rubber Fever', Commerce And French Colonial Rule In Upper Guinée, 1890–1913. The Journal of African History (2004), 45: 445-465 Kouroussa was administered as part of the ''Siguiri Cercle'', which also included Kankan. Gatelet, op cit., 506, 509 The highest frequency route is on the Bamako-Dakar sector with 29 weekly non-stop connections. Domestic flights also serve Mali's regional capitals Kayes, Mopti, Timbuktu, Sikasso, Gao, and Kidal.
is in the public domain.'' Recent criticism has surfaced around the working conditions, pay, and the widespread use of child labour in these small gold mines, and the method which middlemen, in regional centers like Sikasso and Kayes, purchase and transport gold. Gold collected in the towns is sold on—with almost no regulation or oversight—to larger merchant houses in Bamako or Conakry, and eventually to smelters in Europe. Kids working in African gold mines. AP RUKMINI CALLIMACHI AND BRADLEY S. KLAPPER – Aug 10, 2008. Ecological factors, especially pollution of water by mine tailings, is a major source of concern. In addition, the continued exploitation of unregulated small scale mining, often by child labourers, supplies a large international gold market in Bamako which feeds into international production. Report on Human Rights Practices 2006: Mali. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (March 6, 2007). ''This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.'' Recent criticism has surfaced around the working conditions, pay, and the widespread use of child labour in these small gold mines, and the method which middlemen, in regional centers like Sikasso and Kayes, purchase and transport gold. Gold collected in the towns is sold on—with almost no regulation or oversight—to larger merchant houses in Bamako or Conakry, and eventually to smelters in Europe. Kids working in African gold mines. AP RUKMINI CALLIMACHI AND BRADLEY S. KLAPPER – Aug 10, 2008. Ecological factors, especially pollution of water by mine tailings, is a major source of concern. Barriers to transport While police control barriers are a common sight on African highways, and while illicit demands for bribes at such stops are common in many countries, the main Malian highway heading south from Bamako to the Burkina Faso border was singled out in late 2008 as the worst in West Africa. A survey by the Observatory of Abnormal Practices (OPA) of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) found the Malian section of this road to have the highest number of police roadblocks with the highest average amount paid in bribes per trip in West Africa. An average of twenty-nine roadblocks, almost 4 for every 100 km, were reported from June to September 2008. The amount paid in bribes in the Mali section (per trip) was CFA F 31,509. While in other nations the customs officials were responsible for most stops, in Mali, gendarmerie (National paramilitary police) and the Police force were found creating the majority of bribe extorting roadblocks. The number of roadblocks on the Bamako-Burkina highway also increased by 12 per cent during the third quarter of 2008, going from 67 to 75. High number of barriers on Ouagadougou-Bamako road. Pana Press. 05 01 2009. * '''Joint Military School''' at Koulikoro (:fr:École militaire interarmes de Koulikoro) * '''Alioune Blondin Beye Peacekeeping Training School at Bamako (:fr:École de maintien de la paix Alioune Blondin Beye de Bamako) Since Mauritania negotiated a boundary dispute with Mali in 1963, ties between the two countries have been mostly cordial. Handloff, Robert E. "Relations with Other African States". In ''Mauritania: A Country Study'' (Robert E. Handloff, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (June 1988). ''This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.'' Mali and Mauritania have cooperated on several development projects, such as the OMVS and a plan to improve roads between Nouakchott and Bamako. This cooperation somewhat lessened Mali's dependence on Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. Although relations were warm with other black African states, since 1965 the orientation of Mauritania's foreign policy has been geared towards relations with North African countries. Russia has an embassy in Bamako, and Mali has an embassy in Moscow (Embassy of Mali in Moscow). The water in the Niger River basin is partially regulated through dams. In Mali the Sélingué Dam on the Sankarani River is mainly used for hydropower, but also permits irrigation. Two diversion dams, one at Sotuba just downstream of Bamako, and one at Markala, just downstream of Ségou, are used to irrigate about 54,000 hectares. In Nigeria the Kainji Dam and the Jebba dam are used to generate hydropower. Six people were killed during the 1988 race, three participants and three local residents. In one incident, Baye Sibi, a 10-year-old Malian girl, was killed by a racer while she crossed a road. A film crew's vehicle killed a mother and daughter in Mauritania on the last day of the race. The race participants killed, in three separate crashes, were a Dutch navigator on the DAF Trucks team, a French privateer (privateer (motorsport)), and a French rider (motorcycle). Racers were also blamed for starting a wildfire that caused a panic on a train running between Dakar and Bamako, where three more people were killed. Commons:Category:Bamako Wikipedia:Bamako Dmoz:Regional Africa Mali Localities Bamako
Top remains popular because it is the shortest route from Chitral to Peshawar. The other way would be down the Kunar River to Jalalabad through hostile Afghan (Afghanistan) Territory or the much longer route across Shandur Top to Gilgit. thumb 270px The Bimaran casket, with the Buddha, surrounded by Brahma (Buddhism) (Image:BimaranCasket2.JPG) (left) and Śakra (right). British Museum. The '''Bimaran casket''' is a small gold reliquary for Buddhist relics that was found inside the stupa no.2 at Bimaran, near Jalalabad in eastern Afghanistan. The remainder of Habibullah's party journeyed south-east to Jalalabad, and on February 21, 1919 reached that city, whereupon Nasrullah immediately declared himself Emir, supported by Habibullah's first son Inayatullah (Inayatullah Khan). Afghanistan 1919-1928: Sources in the India Office Records right thumb Walnut forest in Arslanbob (File:Walnut forest in Arslanbab.jpg) Arslanbob is reached from Jalalabad via Bazar-Korgon. Kyzylunkyur is Wikipedia:Jalalabad Commons:Category:Jalalabad
the famous Juan Bautista de Anza Las Californias Expediton from "mainland New Spain to the "new to them" Alta California. They passed through the range en-route to the Needles area and onwards inland, traveling in peace with the local indigenous people west of the river. In the early 1900s Wyatt Earp spent his last winters here working small gold and copper mining claims, starting around 1906. The nearby townsite of Earp, California on and near those claims
with fear. At dusk, the Crown Prince sent a eunuch with a small gold box, personally sealed by the Crown Prince, to be delivered to Consort Chen. When Consort Chen saw it, she, believing that there was poison inside, was very fearful, and did not dare to open it. Only after the eunuch urged her did she open it. Instead, the box contained several ''tongxin'' knots (同心結, a decoration showing love) . Her ladies in waiting were relieved and became happy, stating to each other, "Finally, death
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