align "right" 5 - Vacant align "right" 2 - Total align "right" 371 - colspan "3" Source: ''Provincial Assembly of Punjab''. Retrieved 2014-06-14. Site history The 2-story Assembly Chamber, residential hostels, and expansive lawns cover on the Shahrah-e-Quaid-Azam (the Mall). After it was completed in 1935, the Assembly
-historic times, and the Greek field layout is still largely intact, thanks to continuing maintenance over the years of its dry stone walls. In 2008, the Stari Grad Plain became a UNESCO protected world heritage site. History The area around present day Stari Grad was settled by the neolithic tribes of the Hvar culture who occupied the island between 3500 and 2500 BC, and who traded with other settlements around the Mediterranean
) and the old wooden architecture of its centre (Old Rauma, Vanha Rauma), which is a Unesco world heritage site. History In the 14th century, before being declared as a town, Rauma had a Franciscan monastery and a Catholic church. In 1550, the townsmen of Rauma were ordered to relocate (History of Helsinki) to Helsinki, but this was successfully countered and Rauma could continue its growth. Practically the whole wooden town of Rauma was devastated in the fires of 1640 and 1682. The wooden city centre, which is how large the town was until 1809, has approximately 600 wooden buildings. The neo-renaissance style of many of the houses is a result of prosperity brought on by seafaring. In 1897 Rauma had the largest fleet of sailing boats in Finland, totalling 57 vessels. Goods were mainly exported to Germany, Stockholm and the Baltic states. In the 1890s, Rauma got a teacher's college (a 'seminar'), which was later annexed to the University of Turku. A part of the department of education still exists in Rauma. The name ''Rauma'' comes from the Germanic (Germanic languages) word ''strauma'', meaning "stream". http: www.katajala.net keskiaika suomi kaupungit.html Geography Neighborhoods and suburbs Neighborhoods and suburbs of Rauma include: Tarvonsaari, Merirauma, Uusi-Lahti, Kappelinluhta, Paloahde, Haapasaari (Haapasaari, Rauma), Syvärauma, Kinno (Kinno, Rauma), Kaaro, Luostarinkylä, Impivaara, Äyhö, Uotila, Lajo (Lajo, Rauma), Nikulanmäki, Lensunkallio, Nummi (Nummi, Rauma), Pyynpää, Otanlahti, Pidesluoto, Komppi, Lonsi, Polari (Polari, Rauma), Sampaanala, Paroalho, Kourujärvi, Kortela, Monna, Kourujärvi, Kodisjoki, Lappi (Lappi, Finland). Industry After World War II, Rauma developed into an industrial (Industry) city, the main industries being shipbuilding, paper and pulp (wood pulp) mills, and metal industry. Rauma is also the fifth largest port (harbor) in Finland with almost six million tonnes of shipping per year. Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant is located next to Rauma, in Eurajoki. Near Rauma, there is the static-inverter plant of Fenno-Skan. Transport thumb left Sunset at the port of Rauma 200px (File:Sunset at Port of Rauma.jpg) Rauma is located between Turku and Pori by the national road 8 (E8 (European route E8)). Finnish national road 12 (Highways in Finland) starts from Rauma and it was extended to the port of Rauma in 2008. A railroad connection from Kokemäki is in active freight use, as there is a straight connection to the heavy industry areas and to the port of Rauma. The rail passenger traffic ended in 1988. Satakunnan Liikenne Oy runs the local bus traffic and it has 3 lines in Rauma. - 9. P-Iirot (Pallo-Iirot) Rauma (Rauma, Finland) Pallo-Iirot -
community. Batatu, 1999, p. 24. Bosra has an ancient history and during the Roman (Roman Empire) era it was a prosperous provincial capital. It continued to be administratively important during the Islamic era (Bilad al-Sham), but became gradually less prominent during the Ottoman era. Today, it is a major archaeological site and has been declared by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. History Image:Bosra-Citadel.jpg A view
of military engineering of the 20th century." Robert J. Hanyok, ''Spartans in Darkness''. Washington DC: Center for Cryptographic History, NSA, 2002, p. 94. The city was formerly the capital of a kingdom of the same name. Until the communist (communism) takeover in 1975, it was the royal capital and seat of government of the Kingdom of Laos. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. History It was built in 1560 by King Setthathirath and was under royal patronage during the Kingdom of Laos. Like the royal palace, the wat was placed near the Mekong. In 1880, the Tripitaka library was added and then the drum tower in 1961. This temple, along with Wat Suwannaphumaham, was spared by any damage during the sacking of the city in 1887. This was because the Black Flag (Black Flag Army) Haw (Haw wars) leader, Deo Van Tri, had studied here as a monk in his early life, and used it as his headquarters during the sacking of Luang Phrabang. thumb left 150px Wat Xieng Thong Buddha (Image:Vat Xieng Thong Bouddha.JPG) On one side of the sim, there are several small halls and stupas that contain Buddha images of the period. There is a reclining Buddha sanctuary, which contains a especially rare reclining Buddha that dates from the construction of the temple. In 1931, the image was taken to Paris and displayed at the Paris Exhibition and was kept in Vientiane until 1964, where it returned to Luang Phrabang. In the near compound's eastern gate stands the royal funerary carriage house, where it houses the funeral carriage, which stands 12 metres high and there are various urns for the members of the royal family. A number of restorations have taken place in the twentieth century, included a notable one in whch the French participated. In 1928, when the French Governor General visited Luang Prabang, the King Sisavangvong successfully demanded that the French share in the cost of restoration. Major projects took place in the 1950s and 1960s, when the funerary carriage house was built, and especially in more recent times to repair the damage brought by years of neglect because of wars and neglect. As Luang Prabang has become more accessible to outside world it has become a major attraction for tourist and pilgrims alike. The seasonal changes in temperature and moisture necessitate continual maintenance and refurbishment. Early life He was born in Don Talad, the eldest son of H.H. Brhat Chao Buarabarna Rajadhaniya, Prince of Champasak and by his fourth wife, Princess Sudhisaramuni. He was educated at Wat Liep Monastery Sch. and l'École de droit, Vientiane. He met Mom Bouaphanh and married her in 1943. The couple had six sons and three daughters: Prince Keo Champhonesak na Champassak, Prince Saysanasak na Champassak, Prince Keo Halusak na Champassak, Prince Simoungkhounsak na Champassak, Prince Vannahsak na Champassak, Prince Vongdasak na Champassak, Princess Petchninchindasak na Champassak, Princess Keosondarasak na Champassak and Princes Keomanisak na Champassak. He succeeded on the death of his father as Head of the Princely House of Champassak, June 1946. in the same time, he renounced his rights in order to establish a unified kingdom, the Kingdom of Laos, on 27 August 1946, giving Sisavang Vong the right to rule. He then later became President of the Royal Council in 1948. In 1949, he was appointed as Inspector-General of the Kingdom. Return: 1957-1959 In March 1957, he returned to Vientiane where he received a wild welcome. On 10 April 1957, he travelled to Luang Prabang by car and was received by an enormous crowd of citizens, government officials, and members of the police and the army. On 16 April he paid a courtesy call to King Sisavang Vong and was given back his old title of Oupahat of the Kingdom of Laos. In December 1957 he visited Samneua and Phongsaly where Souphanouvong symbolically offered the return of the Pathet Lao's two regrouping provinces to the Kingdom of Laos. '''Savang''' or '''Sisavang Vatthana''' (full name Samdach Brhat Chao Mavattaha Sri Vitha Lan Xang Hom Khao Phra Rajanachakra Lao Parama Sidha Khattiya Suriya Varman Brhat Maha Sri Savangsa Vadhana) (13 November 1907 − 13 May (''?''), 1978; or perhaps as late as 1984) was the last king (monarch) of the Kingdom of Laos. He ruled from 1959 after his father's death, until his forced abdication in 1975. Savang Vatthana proved unable to manage a country in political turmoil. His rule ended with the takeover by the Pathet Lao in 1975, after which he and his family were sent to a re-education camp by the new government. On October 29, 1959, he informally ascended the throne upon the death of his father. He was, however, never officially crowned and anointed king, deferring his coronation until the cessation of civil war. During his reign, Savang Vatthana visited many countries on diplomatic missions. In March 1963, he toured 13 countries, including the United States, where he stopped at Washington, D.C. to meet with President Kennedy. It was the second stop on a tour of 13 of the nations signatory to the Geneva Pact that guaranteed the "neutrality" of the Kingdom of Laos. The first stop had been Moscow, and the Russians showered gifts, including slick Chaika limousines. He was also accompanied by his Prime Minister, Souvanna Phouma. From the onset of hostilities in South Vietnam and the Kingdom of Laos in the early 1960s, Cambodia's Prince Norodom Sihanouk had maintained a delicate domestic and foreign policy balancing act. Convinced of the inevitable victory of the communists in Southeast Asia and concerned for the future existence of his government, Sihanouk swung toward the left (Left-wing) in the mid-1960s. Arnold Isaacs, Gordon Hardy, MacAlister Brown, et al., ''Pawns of War''. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1987, p. 83. Royalist insurgency Beginning in 1980, the anti-Communist (anti-communism), pro-Royalist (Kingdom of Laos) forces organized under the so-called Lao National Liberation Front '''(LNLF)''' carried out their own insurgency in southern Laos; such of which had been initiated by a series of reasonably successful guerilla warfare attacks upon its seizure of weapons from the militaries of Laos and Vietnam. In 1982, the LNLF succeeded in briefly establishing the '''Royal Lao Democratic Government''' http: books.google.com books?id NgDks1hUjhMC&pg PA603&lpg PA603&dq 1982+royal+%22southern+laos&source bl&ots kWFLFLT-Kd&sig 7MngVkS3bS2AsPE_86ybMjgRb_U&hl en&ei t4YbTPuZAcKB8gby1NyDBA&sa X&oi book_result&ct result&resnum 1&ved 0CBIQ6AEwAA#v onepage&q 1982%20royal%20%22southern%20laos&f false (proclaimed in exile (Government-in-exile) in Bangkok on August 18, 1982 earlier that year) in a collection of southern Lao provinces largely due to support and aid from the People's Republic of China, http: www.jstor.org pss 2644329 which despite being a communist state like Laos, maintained rather hostile relations with Laos (largely due to Laos' staunch alignment with and unequivocal support for Vietnam.). During this time, the Lao government had referred to China's ruling clique as "the direct enemy of the Lao people" and further stated that relations could potentially be improved between itself and Thailand as well as with the United States, but gave no mention of a possibility for diplomatic amends with China. Despite allying itself formally in writing with Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge; also communist) during the Third Congress of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, allegations would surface that the Khmer Rouge (closely allied to China, and vehemently anti-Vietnamese) had also been funding and alloting supplies to the anti-communist Royalist insurgents for use in their insurgency against the government of Laos, while the majority of purported support would be divulged during the forever displaced regime's exile along the Thai (Thailand) border and perhaps to a lesser degree, in Thailand itself during the 1980s. The Royalists had also cooperated and were involved to a limited degree in the attempts to overthrow the Vietnamese-installed puppet regime (Puppet state) of the People's Republic of Kampuchea alongside the Khmer Rouge. During the early 1980s, the Khmer Rouge had largely abandoned (or perhaps halted) communist ideals and were instead focused primarily on exuding Cambodian nationalist (nationalism) fervor and an increase in anti-Vietnamese rhetoric. The insurgents of the LNLF were largely former Royalist government officials who had fled into exile after the Kingdom of Laos' demise in 1975 in the conclusion of the Laotian Civil War and Vietnam War. The LNLF proved successful in recruiting fair numbers of rural militiamen from Champassak (Champasak Province) and Savannaket provinces. Individual units varied from as few as ten men to as many as 50, and all of these operated with little coordination. Operation Barrel Roll was a covert U.S. Air Force 2nd Air Division (later the Seventh Air Force) and U.S. Navy Task Force 77, interdiction (Air interdiction) and close air support campaign conducted in the Kingdom of Laos between 14 December 1964 and 29 March 1973 concurrent with the Vietnam War. The initial purpose of the operation was to serve as a signal to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to cease its support for the insurgency then taking place in the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). The operation became increasingly involved in providing close air support to Royal Lao Armed Forces (Military of Laos), CIA-backed tribal mercenaries, and Thai Army elements in a covert ground war in northern and northeastern Laos.
Revolution centennial year, appeared the book ''Camino por la Mixteca. Un testimonio y documentos para la microhistoria de San Juan Achiutla y la Mixteca Alta en el estado de Oaxaca'' Raúl Ruiz Bautista memoirs. Partially this book without being or pretending to be a site history, came to partially remedy the documents absence about San Juan Achiutla. For it we can retrieve some people and town events after the Mexican Revolution until 21st century first decade. San Juan history and the road Ixtapa - Tlacotepec construction are inseparable, Raúl Ruiz Bautista released his proclamation for their construction and San Juan Achiutla led the project and this road construction with Rutilio Ruiz Hernández to the head. The following are the relevant facts from the 20th century. '''1920''' * In the decade beginning in 1920, due to resources scarcity for families livelihood in San Juan Achiutla, peasants migrated to Río Blanco, Orizaba, Córdoba, Potrero Viejo, Santa Rosa and other places in Veracruz State, Mexico, to find work in the field and in factories, they got job in fabrics and yarns factories and Cervecería Moctezuma, brewery, or in the field collecting coffee, cutting cane or other agricultural work. Returning to the village especially to be on December 27 at the town's feast. Many of them were rooted in those populations for many years, some permanently. * In 1929 it was built and established the first primary school where taught the teacher Rutilio Ruiz Hernández. One of the homes the school occupied was the premise and building called "La sala" owned by Bartolo Ruiz, who provided it for that purpose. This building no longer exists. '''1930''' * In 1935 the elementary school was converted into Rural Federal School Francisco I. Madero, being substituted Rutilio Ruiz Hernández as teacher by the professor Pedro Hernández, graduated from the Normal Rural School. At school existed only until the fourth grade. * In 1936 the young Eliseo Ruiz López was carried by her father Tranquilino Ruiz to Normal Rural School of Cuilapan, near Oaxaca City to study for rural teacher, being the first to come out of San Juan Achiutla to study. So the San Juan Achiutla’s Mayor, in arbitrary way, decided to imprison and submit to penal labour Tranqulino his father with the claim that the boy did not was lose to the Catholic faith and return to the village to serve the municipality and to abandon his studies, which failed. * In 1938 Raúl Ruiz Bautista and Natalio Ramírez Pérez left the town with the same goal, they were followed by many young people who would be teachers and professionals, employees in other parts of the country or in the United States of America. '''1940''' * On October 17, 1942 the municipality of San Juan Achiutla was established by presidential resolution. * '''On October 28, 1942 the communal property of the community of San Juan Achiutla, of the San Juan Achiutla municipality, were titled by presidential resolution published in the Official Gazette of the Federation on March 3, 1943.''' * The Municipal Palace was built in 1947 being Mayor Mr. Teodoro José. * In August 1949 from San Juan Achiutla Raúl Ruiz Bautista launched its Road Manifesto calling for the towns of the region to the road San Felipe Ixtapa - San Agustín Tlacotepec construction in order to get out of backwardness, poverty and the isolation deprived High Mixteca towns. The Manifesto was endorsed by don Rutilio Ruiz Hernández, who became the leader and road construction organizer in the region while Raul Ruiz would be the negotiator of financial resources and contact with authorities, organizations and politicians in the country's capital, both during the fifteen years that would last its construction. * The Regional Committee For the Ixtapa – Tlacotepec Road was founded in 1949; it organized the towns of this route during the entire period that lasted its construction, Rutilio Ruiz Hernández was named Chairman of this Committee. * On October 15, 1949 the San José de Gracia authorities adhere to the Manifesto, the other towns of the route, Santo Tomás Tecolotitlán, Santa María Ndoayaco, San Sebastián Atoyaquillo, Santo Domingo Huendío and San Agustín Tlacotepec also would in due course, providing and at times to deny their collaboration for the construction. At the beginning the work of the people was loaned free of charge as required by the Mexican Federal Government in their conventions, which provided one-third of its funding. After the first five years in which people worked for free, the workers were paid, though sparsely. * In December 1949 were sent letters to the Roads National Committee General Secretary José Rivera R. To ask resources for the road’s construction and in the same month to the of Communications and Transport Secretary Lic. Agustín García López. '''1950''' * In 1950 at the request of Rutilio Ruiz Hernández from San Juan Achiutla, Chairman of the Regional Committee For the Ixtapa – Tlacotepec Road, several towns sent to the President of the Republic, Miguel Alemán Valdés, written to requesting resources for the road, neither the National Committee or the Secretariat of Communications had responded. * In that same year Rutilio Ruiz Hernández was appointed general organizer of the Indigenous Congress in the Mixtec region. * In January 1951 the Regional Committee For the Ixtapa – Tlacotepec Road requests the Oaxaca State Governor financial resources and his influence before the Federal Government to obtain it. Not importing applications repeated during the construction of the road, never received a satisfactory response from the Government of Oaxaca, only contributed with an amount equivalent to less than half a kilometre, its attention to the project was sent the requests for resources "to the corresponding area" where fell in vacuum. * 1951 San Juan Achiutla and the Mixtec Region were represented by Raúl Ruiz Bautista in the Second National Congress of the Confederation of Indigenous Young People in Mexico City. It was a Congress to try to incorporate indigenous organizations for purely political purposes, as reported Raúl recommending not participates in such organization. * The Regional Committee of Indigenous Youth and Communities was founded in may, 1951 in San Juan Achiutla and designating San Juan Achiutla as the official seat of the Mixtec Regional Congress in the same year. * On May 23, 1951 the Communications and Public Works Ministry orders the layout of the road but directs to the last section, the Huendío - Tlacotepec is not done: '''"still important not to carry out the last segment with Tlacotepec, pursuant to the expressed desire of does not arise on the short road, the vehicles in the region of Chalcatongo and trying to have as a forced via the Tlaxiaco City."''' (Note No. 324-RGB-1947, dossier 441.2 727.2 5-1 folio 15362 signed by Manuel López sailing from Secretary of Communications an Public Works, '''to keep traffic on the long road, by Tlaxiaco''', the path would be a long alley without exit, without connection to Yosondúa and Chalcatongo. * In April 1951 the Regional Committee For the Ixtapa – Tlacotepec Road joins to the Coalition of Mixtec – Oaxacan Towns directed by Dr. Manuel Hernández Hernández, one of the major characters who due to his political position - Federal Deputy - help obtaining federal funds for the construction of the road. * On October 6, 1951 was received in San Felipe Ixtapa the first set of tools and materials by the Federal Government to begin construction of the road, so the work began this month and year. * San Juan Achiutla intervenes by Rutilio Ruiz Hernández in peacemaking, mediation and signing of the agreements of boundaries between San Miguel Achiutla and San Bartolomé Yucuañe, concluded between 1952 and 1953. Raúl Ruiz Bautista was responsible for the follow-up the legal settlement of the conflict in the Supreme Court of Justice in Mexico City at the request of Salvador Montes in representation of San Miguel Achiutla. * In January 1953 through Rutilio Ruiz Hernández proposed to the National Indigenous Institute (INI, now National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples) the establishment of an Indigenous Coordinating Centre in the Mixteca Alta, postulating as headquarters to San Miguel Achiutla. Such a centre was established in Tlaxiaco due to the community of San Miguel slow response to the INI. thumb Ixtapa-Tlacotepec road reaches San Juan ''Ñuu Ndecu'', Achiutla (File:07 Camino bajando.jpg) * On May 3, 1953, the ''Vanguardia Progresista de San Juan Achiutla en el Distrito Federal'', headed by Raúl Ruiz Bautista and other hard achiutlenses that would work to support their town with economic resources and materials for education and infrastructure, as well as for the annual Patron Saint festivities. * In May 1954 Alfonso Caso, National Indigenous Institute general director visits the Mixteca Alta and decides to support the construction of the road. * In August 1956 the Progressive Avant-garde of San Juan Achiutla in the Federal District identifies and invited 56 migrant achiutlenses in the State of Veracruz, to integrate an autonomous organization similar to the Progressive Avant-garde in the region of Río Blanco and surrounding cities and towns, and systematically raise funds and send them to the municipality as a support for the town’s development of public works and community services. Those, instigated by traditional leaders focused on supporting only the religious festivals, didn’t accept. * On October 12, 1956 was open the telephone network in San Miguel Tixá and San Juan Achiutla was also connected to the telephone service. * In that year, after repeated requests from the Regional Committee For the Ixtapa - Tlacotepec Road, would begin the pay of a basic wage to workers in the road, residents of the towns, as came doing it free for nearly five years, as required (the provision of free labor by towns) by the National Committee on Community roads in their conventions. * In 1958 it was built the Post Office and telephone at San Juan Achiutla, same year in which started the construction of the first basketball court in the town (of rammed earth) both with the economic support of the Progressive Avant-Garde of San Juan Achiutla in Mexico City. This organization processed before the Ministry of Public Education the backboards and goals donation. '''1960''' * In 1961 begins the potable water system construction and its introduction in this town, for which the municipality requested and obtained financial backing from Vanguardia Progresista. Installs the first electricity generator in the town. Builds the first potable water tank in El Calvario spot. Desiderio López José presided the municipality then. thumb San Juan Achiutla's ancient classrooms (demolished in January 2011) (File:12 Aulas SJA.jpg) thumb Same view in January 2011 without the old classrooms. San Juan Achiutla's historical, cultural and architectural heritage destruction (File:Destrucción de Antiguas Aulas en San Juan Achiutla.jpg) * October 26, 1961, through the Vanguardia Progresista intermediary and personally Raúl Ruiz Bautista before the Public Education Ministry, Francisco I. Madero primary school receives a substantial provision of furniture and materials: highlighted 125 chair desks, one vertical file, three desks, a microscope, a typewriter, a national flag, three basketball balls and six national heroes portraits, which today it may seem insignificant, but that it was not for a rural primary school at the time. * In 1962 was held in San Juan Achiutla first meeting Educational Area School Number 18. In November of that year there was a conflict between the priest attending to celebrate mass at San Juan and the Regional Committee For the Ixtapa – Tlacotepec Road, because tool and machinery for construction were temporarily stored in the parish of the town. * On March 18, 1963 Dr. Alfonso Caso, the Indigenous National Institute Chairman visited San Juan Achiutla with Dr. Manuel Hernández Hernández to inaugurate the way Ixtapa - Tlacotepec after 15 years Manifesto launching for its construction. It was also the formal opening ceremony of the drinking water system, electricity generator and the repaired school classrooms (classrooms that were demolished “to expand the garden” between the Church and the municipal Palace in February 2011, actually is a machinery parking lot). In that year was built the Monument to the Flag. * In December 1963, for the San Juan Achiutla's feast, Vanguardia Progresiva de San Juan Achiutla in Mexico City, on the initiative of Jesús A. Ruiz Sanchez, made the gift of the first turntable and sound system to the municipality of San Juan Achiutla. * In June 1964 the Education Ministry gives 35 chair desks for the elementary school. * In August 1965 the music band was reorganized and was acquired two saxophones to reinforced it. * In November 1965, school census, attending primary school 130 boys and 135 girls, there were six teachers (in 2011 the actual population of the town did not reach the 200 people). Took inventory of the resources of primary school. Classrooms were again repaired. * On November 19, 1965 was held in Mexico City a tribute for Ixtapa - Tlacotepec road construction to Dr. Alfonso Caso, Dr, Manuel Hernández Hernández, Eng. Miguel García Cruz (absent in the event), Dr. Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrán and Eng. Adrián Breña Garduño. Don Rutilio Ruiz Hernández was awarded with a gold medal. The speech was in charge of Raúl Ruiz Bautista. * Wednesday, June 7, 1967, ''Carteles del Sur'', a news paper of Oaxaca City published a María del Refugio G. de Alva article entitled ''El Camino de don Rutilio'' (Don Rutilio's road) where extensively was portrayed the leader's struggle for the road. * In 1969 the construction of the electric network was initiated in San Juan Achiutla. '''1970''' * In 1971 the dam for agricultural irrigation Las Lajas was built in the course of the river ''Los Sabinos''. * In 1975, was built the second drinking water tank in ''El Jazmin'' spot. * In 1977 Raúl Ruiz Bautista wrote to the State of Oaxaca Governor, general Eliseo Jiménez Ruiz, to return the buses run by the road Ixtapa - Tlacotepec from the Mexico City and Oaxaca City to Chalcatongo de Hidalgo, which already operated and were suspended, being that the short route to Tlacotepec and Yosondúa. He also asked for paving the road. It has not returned to have regular runs of buses on this route. * The third tank of drinking water in the ''El Moral'' spot was built in 1978. * The rural clinic under the programme IMSS - COPLAMAR, was built in 1979 when municipal president was Mr. Juan Santos. thumb San Juan Achiutla's street (File:11 Mujeres en la calle SJA.jpg) '''1980''' * In 1980 the Federal Secondary School Eng. Alfonso Martínez Berges was established in San Juan Achiutla. * In 1984, the first public telephone service Telmex was installed. * On July 26, 1986 Raúl Ruiz Bautista wrote twice to the then Senator Heladio Ramírez López, already elected Oaxaca's Governor, suggested him to include in his Government's actions plan the road Ixtapa - Tlacotepec paving, and the Colegio Nacional de Educación Profesional Técnica (Conalep) creation in San Juan Achiutla, the drainage introduction, a market and a municipal house construction as well as the cooperative industry for the exploitation of limestone and other construction materials creation to create sources of employment and entrench the inhabitants of the Mixteca on their land. He returned to writing in May 1988 insisting on these subjects and the introduction of public passenger transport. There were no results. * Between 1988 and 1989 are rebuilt the three domes of the Church of St. John the Evangelist. '''1990''' * The fourth drinking water tank was built in San Pedro neighbourhood in 1991. * On 25 January 1993 Raúl Ruiz Bautista wrote to Diodoro Carrasco Altamirano Governor of the State requesting the necessary expansion and paving of the Ixtapa - Tlacotepec road. thumb San Juan Evangelista church in San Juan Achiutla (File:10 Iglesia de SJA.jpg) * The Mixteco Towns Union, chaired by Professor Neftalí Ruiz Sánchez, San Juan Achiutla's Mayor, was created in 1993 who scheduled in its work programme the expansion and paving of the road Ixtapa - Tlacotepec. * On 5 November 1993, Professor Neftalí Ruiz Sánchez summarizes that he has sent two separate letters, one to the President of the Republic, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, other to the Oaxaca’s Governor and to the Planning Development Committee of the State of Oaxaca (Coplades) requesting the roads extension and paving, without any result. In February 1994 he wrote to the Secretary of Communications and Transport and the Governor of Oaxaca, with zero results. * On 2 February 1995, the route Ixtapa - Tlacotepec mayors headed by Neftalí Ruiz Sánchez wrote to the President of the Republic, Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León asking the road paving. * In the same year was in service the fifth drinking water tank in ''El Ocote'' spot. * Between 1996 and 1998 were built a channel, two barriers and four reservoirs for irrigation water storage, being President Juan Pablo López. '''2000''' thumb San Juan Achiutla's Francisco I. Madero primary school nowadays (File:Escuela Fco I Madero San Juan Achiutla Oaxaca México.jpg) * 2004 the Instituto de Estudios de Bachillerato del Estado de Oaxaca (IEBO) campus 126 "Achiutla" was established among San Juan Achiutla, San Miguel Achiutla and San Sebastián Atoyaquillo, in order to provide to several towns educational service. It has three classrooms and seven computers in 2010 with Internet service. * In 2008 began the delivery of public Internet services in San Juan Achiutla in private establishing "The Grandfather's House". '''2010''' * Starts the streets paved and construction of sidewalks on the main street of the village. * In September, 2010 in the National Commission for development of indigenous Peoples in Mexico City and in December of that same year in San Juan Achiutla and Tlaxiaco, is presented the book ''Camino por la Mixteca. Un testimonio y documentos para la microhistoria de San Juan Achiutla y la Mixteca Alta del Estado de Oaxaca''. Raúl Ruiz Bautista Memoirs. * The old classrooms of elementary school in San Juan Achiutla, ancient “adobe” constructions and part of the town cultural heritage were demolished, the ground is used as machinery parking lot. This was a cultural heritage destruction municipal action. * In the 2010-2011 the number of pupils attending primary school is 27, secondary school 31, and Achiutla IEBO pre college level is 84. Total 142 students in the locality, taking into account the Achiutla IEBO attend not only students from San Juan but also joined 12 students from the Guadalupe Hidalgo's IEBO which was closed due to students' lack), of San Miguel Achiutla, San Sebastián Atoyaquillo and other villages. As more above has been said, in 1965 when only primary school worked, it had 285 students, more than double that the total in 2011. thumb ''Tortillas'' and ''zapotes'' sellers in San Juan Achiutla (File:Venta de Tortillas y Zapotes.jpg) * Until 2011 the road Ixtapa - Tlacotepec ranging from Ixtapa to San Juan Achiutla (town called and led its construction) remains without be paved, meanwhile long route the "obligated" Tlaxiaco pass, was paved long time ago. * In July, 2011, as a result and in follow-up to the Raúl Ruiz Bautista´s work, was published in ''Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre'', the first article on San Juan Achiutla, who initiates the recovery of identity and cultural and historical memory of the place, its inhabitants, migrants and their descendants, many of them Mixtec born in other parts of the country and abroad. In January 2012, the English translation was published in ''Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia''. Cultural and historical heritage There are as goods of cultural and historical heritage of San Juan Achiutla: * Achiutla Pre-Hispanic site and San Miguel Arcángel Dominican Convent, for have been the pre-Hispanic City of Achiutla the place that gave birth to San Miguel Achiutla as to San Juan Achiutla, none in the original space although San Miguel behind the original site. * St. John the Evangelist Church. * 18th-century oil paintings collection in the St. John the Evangelist Church. thumb San Juan Achiutla's jail (File:14 Carcel SJA.jpg) * "El chorrito" drinking water box * The prison and the municipal buildings adjacent to it. * The Municipal Palace * The kiosk in the front garden at City Hall. * The monument to the flag. * The book ''Camino por la Mixteca. Un testimonio y documentos para la microhistoria de San Juan Achiutla y la Mixteca Alta en el estado de Oaxaca''. Raúl Ruiz Bautista, published in 2010 and graded as high relevance by the library of the Congress of the United States. Cultural traditions The Mixtec culture, to which San Juan Achiutla and the achiutlecos belong, is a living culture, says Ronald Spores on the subject: :After the independence war the language ''ñu savi (Ñuu Dzaui)'' speakers retained their ethnic identity, their customs, and managed to adapt to the circumstances of the new country, initially in the Mixteca and eventually beyond: in Puebla, the central valleys, the North and Northwest Mexico; at present, can be found Mixtec everywhere in North America. This group tenacity and adaptability for more than 3,000 years deserves everyone's attention. thumb San Juan Achiutla's kiosk (File:13 Kiosco SJA.jpg) :The Mixtec culture has developed and maintained for more than three millennia in a vast region which covers a territory of 40 000 km2, which extends from South of Puebla to the Pacific coast and the Valley of Oaxaca to the East of Guerrero. The Mixteca region comprises three ecological zones: '''the High Mixteca ―escenario of the development of the main towns of this culture―,''' the Low Mixteca ―o Ñuiñe ("Tierra Caliente") — and the Mixteca de la Costa. :We must remember that the Mixtec culture did not disappear with the conquest, during the colonial period, or in the 19th and 20th centuries radical national transformations. It exists today in the Mixteca, everywhere in Mexico and anywhere in the world where the Mixtecs have reached in its vast adaptation diaspora. Many have left the Mixteca, but their hearts, thoughts and feelings remain on their land and their tradition. :As reflected in ''La Canción Mixteca'' (a lyric) among multiple ethnic groups that form the Mexican Republic, perhaps the nation more sentimental, nostalgic and loyal to its roots is the ''ñu savi'', the Mixtec nation. Following ancient cultural traditions are preserved in San Juan Achiutla: * The ''tequio'', which is obligatory work as contribution to the town public works and services, that allows the people and the municipality to be clean and healthy place in an exemplary fashion. * The ''gueza (guelaguetza, give to receive)'' which is mutual support mainly in supplies or in cash between neighbors and relatives that bring to those who have a celebration, feast or compromise, such as weddings, baptisms, funerals or ''mayordomías''. The ''gueza'' reception is a solemn ceremony in which small speeches are addressed to deliver and receive the contributions, being a usual commitment to spontaneously to reciprocate the help at the moment in which the counterpart need it. * The ''mayordomía'' which is the responsibility of an individual for the celebration of the Patron Saint San Juan fest, this custom however is of great economic burden for those who assume it. * The ''posadas'' are the festivities during eight days leading up to Christmas. Consist of put the ''nacimiento'', give Posada to the pilgrims, with images of the pilgrims Mary and Joseph in a procession calling the Inn to the house inhabitants, who give after prayers and doubts, they offer to the pilgrims and the procession hot drinks, ''tamales'', collations, gifts, breaking ''piñatas'', pray the Rosary. * The ''pastorela'' of the town, staging Christmas performed with volunteer actors of the town prior to Christmas. * The ''danza del guajolote'' (Turkey dance), in which the salient mayordomo delivered a turkey as a gift through dancers to the new ''mayordomo''. * The ''música de viento'' (wind music band) of both religious and social present at every party. * The pre-Hispanic legend of ''El flechador del sol'' which Achiutla is mentioned. Bibliography * '''Ruiz Bautista. Raúl.''' ''Camino por la Mixteca. Un testimonio y documentos para la microhistoria de San Juan Achiutla y la Mixteca Alta en el estado de Oaxaca'' Mexico 2010, 295 pp. ISBN 978 - 607-00-3376-6 http: lccn.loc.gov 2010538507 * '''Pérez Ortiz, Alfoso.''' ''Pueblo en llamas, la inobediencia de los mixtecos de Achiutla en el siglo XVI.'' Thesis for the degree of m.a. in history. Universidad Nacional Autónoma Mexico. 2009. * '''Diguet. Léon''', ''Contribution a l'Etude geographique du mexique précolombien. Le Mixtecapan'' Journal de la Société des américanistes de Paris. Nouvelle series. Tome III. Au sige de la Société. 61, Rue de Buffon, 61. France 1906. * '''Hermann Lejarazu. Manuel A.''' ''Códice Yucunama. Edición facsimilar, interpretación y Análisis.'' Centre for Research and Higher Studies in Social Anthropology. CIESAS. Mexico. 1st Edition, Mexico, 2009. ISBN 978-607-486-042-9 * '''Jansen, Maarten and Pérez Jiménez, Gabina Aurora'''. ''Paisajes sagrados: códices y arqueología de Ñuu Dzaui.'' Itineraries Vol. 8 2008 ISSN paper version: 1507-7241, University of Warsaw. Iberian and Latin American Studies Institute. Oboźna 8, 00-927 Warsaw. * '''Maarten E.R.G.N. Jansen''' ''Huisi Tacu'', volume II. CEOLA. Incidentele Publicaties 24. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Leuven University. Belgium. * '''Spores. Ronald''', ''La Mixteca y los mixtecos. 3,000 años de adaptación cultural''. Arqueología Mexicana. Bi-Monthly Magazine, March–April 2008. Volume XV, number 90. México. * '''San Juan Achiutla's Municipality''', in ''Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México'' National Institute for Federalism and Municipal Development, Interior Ministry, Mexico. * '''San Juan Achiutla's Municipality''' ''Plan Municipal de Desarrollo de San Juan Achiutla 2008 - 2010''. External links * Book's review "Camino por la Mixteca" * Book: Camino por la Mixteca. Un testimonio y documentos para la microhistoria de San Juan Achiutla y la Mixteca Alta en el estado de Oaxaca. Memorias. Raúl Ruiz Bautista. * León Diguet's book ''Contribution a l'etude geographique du mexique précolombien. Le Mixtecapan" * Códice Yucunama. Edición facsimilar, interpretación y Análisis * Biblioteca Burgoa de la Universidad Autónoma Benito Juárez de Oaxaca. Joyas Bibliográficas. Note about Fray Benito Hernández and its ''Catecismo en Lengua Mixteca''. * Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México, Oaxaca References Category:Municipalities of Oaxaca Category:Populated places in Oaxaca In pre-Columbian times, the Mixtec were one of the major civilizations of Mesoamerica. Important ancient centres of the Mixtec include the ancient capital of Tilantongo, as well as the sites of Achiutla (San Juan Achiutla), Cuilapan, Huajuapan (Huamelulpan (archaeological site)), Mitla, Tlaxiaco, Tututepec, Juxtlahuaca, and Yucuñudahui. The Mixtec also made major constructions at the ancient city of Monte Albán (which had originated as a Zapotec (Zapotec civilization) city before the Mixtec gained control of it). The work of Mixtec artisans who produced work in stone (Rock (geology)), wood, and metal were well regarded throughout ancient Mesoamerica. - 175 San Juan Achiutla San Juan Achiutla Tlaxiaco (Tlaxiaco District, Oaxaca) - - 175 San Juan Achiutla San Juan Achiutla Tlaxiaco (Tlaxiaco District, Oaxaca) -
square mile (530,000 km 2 ) area purchased by the Earl of Selkirk from the Hudson's Bay Company. City of selkirk Web site - History retrieved August 4, 2008 The first settlers of the Red River Colony arrived in 1813. Although the settlers negotiated a treaty with the Salteaux Indians of the area, the commercial rivalry between the Hudson's Bay Company
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status is recognised internationally, and form a UNESCO World Heritage site. History The city was founded by Celts, who named it Lugos after the Celtic god of light, oaths, and the arts. It remained a small town of little repute until the Middle Ages when it became a seat of pilgrimage. This was because the cathedral would show the Blessed Sacrament to the public 24 hours a day. The roman walls which give the city its famewere built between 263 and 276 AD to defend the then Roman
occupation of Hong Kong during World War II in 1941. In memory of this vessel, the British named the Royal Naval station in Hong Kong "HMS Tamar (HMS Tamar (shore station))". The British garrison pre-handover (Transfer of the sovereignty of Hong Kong) was stationed at the "Prince of Wales Building", within the base, and which is part of the site. History The Hong Kong branch was established in 1933 in Ho Man Tin. Initially, only primary school education