it easier to attack poorly-defended Portuguese outposts than Spanish ones. The Spanish were simply no longer able to cope with naval threats. In the Dutch–Portuguese War that followed many erstwhile Portuguese possession fell into Dutch hands. Between 1638 and 1640 the Netherlands even came to control part of Brazil's northeast region, with their capital in Recife. The Portuguese won a significant victory in the Second Battle of Guararapes in 1649. By 1654, the Netherlands had surrendered and returned control of all Brazilian land to the Portuguese. Although Dutch colonies (Dutch Empire) in Brazil were wiped out, during the course of the 17th century the Dutch were able to occupy Ceylon, the Cape of Good Hope, and the East Indies, and to take over the trade with Japan at Nagasaki. Portugal's Asiatic territories were reduced to bases at Macau, East Timor and Portuguese India. Admiral van Spilbergen thumb right Vimaladharmasurya I receiving Joris van Spilbergen, 1603 (File:SpilbergenVimala.jpg) In that same year, on the 2 June, the Dutch Admiral Joris van Spilbergen arrived in Ceylon with three ships from the Dutch port of Veere after a 12-month voyage. Visiting Kandy, the seat of King Vimaladharmasuriya I, Spilbergen and the King developed cordial relations. The King’s admiration for his new-found friend was so deep that he began to learn the Dutch language saying ‘Kandy is now Flanders’. They discussed future relations, focussing on possible Dutch military assistance to expel the Portuguese from the coastal areas as well as the trade in cinnamon and pepper. As a token of his friendship, the Dutch Admiral left in the King’s service two versatile and skilled musicians: Erasmus Matsberger and Hans Rempel. Second Fleet and the Massacre at the Batticaloa Beach Shortly after the successful visit of Van Spilbergen, a second Dutch fleet under command of Sebalt de Weert arrived on the island. De Weert was a very skilful commander who discovered the Falkland Islands during the attempt by Dutch Admirals Cordes (Baltazar de Cordes) and Mahu (Jacques Mahu) to find an alternative route to the East Indies through Cape Horn in 1598. After an initial agreement with the King of Kandy, he returned in 1603 to Batticaloa with a fleet of six ships to take part in a joint effort to oust the Portuguese from the island. During his stay he took four passing Portuguese ships but released the Portuguese crews who had surrendered to the Dutch on the promise of quarter. The King was very angered by this action and after a perceived insult to his wife, he ordered his men to kill De Weert and 50 of his unarmed compatriots. First Victory at Batticaloa thumb right 260px Dutch Colombo, based on an engraving of circa 1680 (File:Colombo, after Kip.jpg) After this unhappy event, the Dutch concentrated on organising their trade with the East Indian spice islands. It took more than three decades before the Dutch again undertook action to expel the Portuguese who had arrived some 150 years earlier and were firmly established on the island. After many bloody wars with the Portuguese, King Rajasingha II became convinced that lasting peace with the Portuguese was not possible and he invited the Dutch to force them off the island. At that time the Dutch were still at war with Portugal, which was part of the Spanish Empire. The Dutch Council of the Indies in Batavia (Dutch East India) complied with this request and in 1637 sent four ships to the island under Captain Jan Thijssen Payart who signed a treaty with the King. On 4 January 1638 a decisive sea engagement (Battle of Goa (1638)) took place off the coast of Goa between Portuguese and Dutch naval forces. The Portuguese fleet was decimated following this battle and the victorious Dutch Admiral Adam Westerwolt (1580-1639) decided to attack the Portuguese fort at Batticaloa on Ceylon with a fleet of five ships and 800 men. In coalition with strong Singhalese forces he conquered the fort on the 18th of May, 1638. Five days later, following this victorious conquest, Westerwolt in the name of the States General, Prince Frederik Hendrik (Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange) and the Dutch East India Company agreed a new Treaty with King Rajasingha in his Palace in Batticaloa. The Treaty was a landmark and set the tone for future relations between the Kandyan Kings and the Dutch. Under the Treaty the Dutch were to have a monopoly over all trades except elephants. The forts captured from the Portuguese would be garrisoned by the Dutch or demolished, as the King thought fit. The crucial clause ‘as the King thought fit’ was however only included in the Sinhala and not in the Dutch text of the Treaty. This later gave rise to much disagreement between the two parties. The same goes for the clause stating that the King would pay any expenses incurred by the Dutch in the war effort against the Portuguese. Slowly but surely the Dutch land and naval forces continued to oust the Portuguese from parts of Ceylon. In February 1640 the Portuguese fort of Negombo, a short distance North of Colombo was captured by Philip Lucasz. Following his sudden death, the command was devolved to the capable Willem Jacobsz Coster (Willem Jacobszoon Coster) who earlier fought under Admiral Westerwolt at the east coast. Against overwhelming odds he attacked the strong fort at Galle. After storming the city on 13 March 1640, he became master of it within a few hours. For the next 18 years Galle would remain the centre of Dutch power in Ceylon. Dutch Ceylon (1640-1796) places
of Tashkent was a significant victory over the Kokand Khanate (Khanate of Kokand), part of which was annexed in 1866. By 1867 Russian forces had captured enough territory to form the Guberniya (Governorate General) of Turkestan, the capital of which was Tashkent. The Bukhara Khanate (Khanate of Bukhara) then lost the crucial Samarkand area to Russian forces in 1868. To avoid alarming Britain, which had strong interests in protecting nearby India, Russia left the Bukhoran territories directly bordering Afghanistan and Persia (Iran) nominally independent. The Central Asian khanates retained a degree of autonomy until 1917. The present city began as a fort in 1732 on the site of another older fortress called '''Eski-Kurgan'''. In 1740, it became the capital of an Uzbek kingdom, the Khanate of Kokand, which reached as far as Kyzylorda to the west and Bishkek to the northeast. Kokand was also the major religious center of the Fergana Valley, boasting more than 300 mosques. He commanded the advanced guard of General Lomakin (Nikolay Lomakin)'s column from Kinderly Bay, in the Caspian Sea, to join General Verevkin, from Orenburg, in the expedition to the Khanate of Khiva in 1874, and, after great suffering on the desert march, took a prominent part in the capture of the Khivan capital. Dressed as a Turkoman (Turkmen people), he intrepidly explored in a hostile country the route from Khiva to Igdy, and also the old bed of the Oxus. In 1875 he was given an important command in the expedition against the Khanate of Kokand under General Konstantin Petrovich Kaufman, showing great capacity in the action of Makram, where he outmanoeuvered a greatly superior force and captured 58 guns, and in a brilliant night attack in the retreat from Andijan, when he routed a large force with a handful of cavalry. * 1862: Faraizi movement fizzled out after the death of Dadu Miyan. Overthrow of the Massina Empire by the Toucouleur Empire. * 1865: Khanate of Kokand liquidated by Russia. * 1869: Jamal al-Din al-Afghani exiled from Afghanistan. He proceeded to Egypt. thumb Ascension Cathedral, Almaty (modern view) (Image:E8476-Almaty-Ascension-Cathedral.jpg) Most of Zhetysu was conquered by the Russian Empire from Kokand (Khanate of Kokand) and the Kazakh Great Horde before the outbreak of the Crimean War, which delayed the southern advance. The two major Russian fortresses and garrisons in the region, Verny and Pishpek (Bishkek), were founded in 1854 on the sites of former Kokandian fortresses on the Steppe frontier. Conquest of Turkestan In 1867, he became Governor-General of Turkestan (Russian Turkestan), and held the post until his death, making himself a name in the expansion of the empire in Central Asia. The Khanate of Kokand north of the Syr Darya had already been annexed to Russia, and the independence of the rest of that country became merely nominal. He accomplished a successful campaign in 1868 against the Emirate of Bukhara, capturing Samarkand and gradually subjugating the whole country. thumb 250px The painter Vasily Vereshchagin (Image:У крепостной стены.jpg) accompanied Kaufmann in his campaigns. In the 14th century much of Central Asia, and many areas beyond it, were conquered by Timur (1336–1405) who is known in the west as Tamerlane. It was during Timur’s reign that the nomadic steppe culture of Central Asia fused with the settled culture of Iran. One of its consequences was an entirely new visual language that glorified Timur and subsequent Timurid rulers. This visual language was also used to articulate their commitment to Islam. A Journey of a Thousand Years Timur's large empire collapsed soon after his death, however. The region then became divided among a series of smaller Khanates, including the Khanate of Khiva , the Khanate of Bukhara, the Khanate of Kokand, and the Khanate of Kashgar. The last steppe empire to emerge was that of the Dzungars who conquered much of East Turkestan and Mongolia. However in a sign of the changed times they proved unable to match the Chinese and were decisively defeated by the forces of Qing Dynasty. In the 18th century the Qing emperors, themselves originally from the far eastern edge of the steppe, campaigned in the west and in Mongolia with the Qianlong Emperor taking control of Xinjiang in 1758. The Mongol threat was overcome and much of Inner Mongolia was annexed to China. The Chinese dominions stretched into the heart of Central Asia and included the Khanate of Kokand, which paid tribute to Peking. Outer Mongolia and Xinjiang did not become provinces of the Chinese empire, but rather were directly administered by the Qing dynasty. The fact that there was no provincial governor meant that the local rulers retained most of their powers and this special status also prevented emigration from the rest of China into the region. Persia also began to expand north, especially under the rule of Nadir Shah who extended Persian dominion far past the Oxus. After his death, however, the Persian empire slowly crumbled and was annexed by Britain and Russia. After the fall of Tashkent to General Cherniaev in 1865, Khodjend (Khujand), Djizak (Jizzakh), and Samarkand fell to the Russians in quick succession over the next three years as the Khanate of Kokand and the Emirate of Bukhara were repeatedly defeated. In 1867 the Governor-Generalship of Russian Turkestan was established under General Konstantin Petrovich Von Kaufman (Von Kaufman), with its headquarters at Tashkent. In 1881-85 the Transcaspian region was annexed in the course of a campaign led by Generals Mikhail Annenkov and Mikhail Skobelev, and Ashkhabad, Merv and Pendjeh all came under Russian control. Russian expansion was halted in 1887 when Russia and Great Britain delineated the northern border of Afghanistan. Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva remained quasi-independent, but were essentially protectorates along the lines of the Princely States of British India. Although the conquest was prompted by almost purely military concerns, in the 1870s and 1880s Turkestan came to play a reasonably important economic role within the Russian Empire. Because of the American Civil War, cotton shot up in price in the 1860s, becoming an increasingly important commodity in the region, although its cultivation was on a much lesser scale than during the Soviet period. The cotton trade led to improvements: the Transcaspian Railway from Krasnovodsk to Samarkand and Tashkent, and the Trans-Aral Railway from Orenburg to Tashkent were constructed. In the long term the development of a cotton monoculture would render Turkestan dependent on food imports from Western Siberia, and the Turkestan-Siberia Railway was already planned when the First World War broke out. Russian rule still remained distant from the local populace, mostly concerning itself with the small minority of Russian inhabitants of the region. The local Muslims were not considered full Russian citizens. They did not have the full privileges of Russians, but nor did they have the same obligations, such as military service. The Tsarist regime left substantial elements of the previous regimes (such as Muslim religious courts) intact, and local self-government at the village level was quite extensive. - 1868 The Khanate of Kokand became a Russian vassal state. - Trying (not always successfully) to prevent repetition of incursions of Afaqi khojas (Ak Tagh) from Kokand (Khanate of Kokand) into Kashgaria, such as those of Jahangir Khoja in the 1820s or Wali Khan (Wali Khan (khoja)) in 1857, Qing government had increased the troops level in Xinjiang to some 50,000. There were both Manchu and Chinese units in the province; the latter, having been recruited mostly in Shaanxi and Gansu, had a heavily Hui (Dungan) component. A large part of the Qing army in Xinjiang was based in the Nine Forts of the Ili Region (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture), but there were also forts with Qing garrisons in most other cities of Xinjiang as well. Career Burhan ad-Din, a Khoja of the White Mountain faction, was the grandfather of Jahangir. There are Uzbek towns in Kyrgyzstan and Tajik towns in Uzbekistan - in the Soviet Union borders were drawn inconsistent with the traditional locations of ethnic populations so that people with historical claims to land would be dependent on the central power, that is Moscow, making them easier to control. Many people in Central Asia believe that they should more appropriately be part of another country.
communication with his tribe for days, and did not return until his clan presumed his death and installed a new Chanyu. 單于久不与其大眾相得，右谷蠡王以為單于死，乃自立為單于。真單于复得其眾，右谷蠡乃去號，复其故位 This was a narrow but critically significant victory for the Han empire. Xiongnu was greatly weakened to the point that they would huddle up into the barren northern Gobi desert (leading to decline of their population), and unable to raid south for the next few decades. The next major Xiongnu invasion (Wu Hu) did not occur until after the Han dynasty collapsed, some 400 years later during the Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty (265-420)). The '''Mongol Rally''' is a car rally (Rallying) that begins in Europe and ends in Ulan Bator, Mongolia. The principal launch is from Goodwood Circuit, United Kingdom, with subsidiary starting points in other European countries. It is described as the "greatest adventure in the world". Whilst originally the rally required competing vehicles to have an engine displacement of less than 1,000cc, this has been increased to 1,200 cc to reflect the increasing difficulty of obtaining a car since the Mongolian government stipulated that all competing vehicles must be less than 10 years old. '''Peace Bridge''' in Mongolia is a bridge built in 1963 in the city centre of Ulan Bator, the capital of Mongolia, with technical and financial assistance from China (People's Republic of China). * In Moldova, the Chişinău-controlled Dubăsari district is split into five pieces, of which two are enclaves within Transnistria. Transnistria is ''de facto'' independent, but not recognized by any UN members. * In Mongolia, the municipality of Ulan Bator is divided into three parts, two of which are enclaves in Töv Province. * In New Zealand, the Kawerau District is an enclave within the Whakatane District. - align center 30px border (File:Flag of Mongolia.svg) '''Mongolia''' Монгол улс (''Mongol uls'') 35px (File:Monggol ulus.svg) (''Mongγol ulus'') Ulaanbaatar (Ulan Bator) align right 1,564,115.75 align right e 2,754,685 (2010 Census) align right 1.75 align center Mongolian tögrög (MNT) align center Mongolian (Mongolian language) Head of State: Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj Head of Government: Sükhbaataryn Batbold - Asashōryū whose real name is Dolgorsuren Dagvadorj and hailing from Ulan Bator (w:Ulan Bator), Mongolia, started the tournament fourteen days earlier with an opening-day win over komusubi Kisenosato. His tournament win creates a new record with yokozuna (w:Yokozuna_(sumo)#Yokozuna) becoming only the fourth man to win 23 Emperors Cups. He now is only one win behind Kitanoumi (24), but a long way from both Chiyonofuji (31) and Taiho (32).
Krasiński title Mary Barton: an historical tale of Poland url http: books.google.com books?id -p4DAAAAYAAJ&pg PA263 accessdate 13 May 2011 year 1846 publisher A.K. Newman and Co. pages 263–264 Between 1594 and 1596 he defeated the Cossack uprisng of Severyn Nalivaiko. In 1607 he defeated the Zebrzydowski's Rebellion in the battle of Guzów. In 1610 he achieved yet another significant victory in the battle of Klushino against the Tsardom of Russia. As an effect of his successful campaign, Żółkiewski seized Moscow and took the tsar Vasiliy Shuyskiy captive during the Dymitriads. He supported the election of Władysław IV Vasa for tsar and the idea of a liberal (Liberalism) personal union between the Commonwealth and the Tsardom of Russia. The Uprising started as the rebellion of the Cossacks, but as other Orthodox Christian classes (peasants, burghers, petty nobility) of the Ukrainian palatinates joined them, the ultimate aim became a creation of Ukrainian (Ukraine) autonomous state (Cossack Hetmanate). Н. Яковенко. «Нариси Історії України: З найдавніших часів до кінця XVIII ст.». — К.1997. — § 1. Козацька революція 1648-1657 рр. The Uprising succeeded in ending the Polish influence over those Cossack lands that were eventually taken by the Tsardom of Russia . These events, along with internal conflicts and hostilities with Sweden and Russia, resulted in severely diminished Polish power during this period (referred to in Polish (Poland) history as The Deluge (The Deluge (Polish history))). Life Born Prince (Knyaz) Vasily Ivanovich Shuisky, he was descended from sovereign princes of Nizhny Novgorod and a 20th generation male line descendant of the Varangian prince Rurik. He was one of the leading boyars of Tsardom of Russia during the reigns of Feodor I (Feodor I of Russia) and Boris Godunov. In all the court intrigues of the Time of Troubles, Vasily and his younger brother Dmitry Shuisky usually acted together and fought as one. The '''Russo-Swedish War of 1656–1658''' was fought by Russia and Sweden as a theater of the Second Northern War. It took place during a pause in the contemporary Russo-Polish War (1654-1667) as a consequence of the Truce of Vilna. Despite initial successes, Tsar Alexis of Russia failed to secure his principal objective—to revise the Treaty of Stolbovo, which had stripped Russia (Tsardom of Russia) of the Baltic coast at the close of the Ingrian War. * Though this was not the most noble person who had ever set foot in the establishment (an honor that would have to go to Peter, or — who knows? — Solomon), he was unquestionable the best-dressed, and identifiable, from a thousand yards, as a courtier… “Frightfully sorry to intrude,” said the courtier, “but word has reached the Household that an important Man (w:Peter I of Russia) has come to London ''incognito''. … From Muscovy (w:Tsardom of Russia), ‘tis said … The Lady of said Household (w:Anne of Great Britain) is deathly ill. On her behalf, I have come to greet the said Gentleman, and to observe the requisite formalities.” Daniel nodded out the window toward the melee. “As we say in Boston: ''get in line.''” ** “Confrontations in a Tavern”
Baryatinsky had captured the legendary Chechen rebel leader Shamil in 1859, the army resumed the expansion into Central Asia that had begun under Nicholas I (Nicholas I of Russia). The capture of Tashkent was a significant victory over the Kokand Khanate (Khanate of Kokand), part of which was annexed in 1866. By 1867 Russian forces had captured enough territory to form the Guberniya (Governorate General) of Turkestan, the capital of which was Tashkent. The Bukhara Khanate (Khanate of Bukhara) then lost the crucial Samarkand area to Russian forces in 1868. To avoid alarming Britain, which had strong interests in protecting nearby India, Russia left the Bukhoran territories directly bordering Afghanistan and Persia (Iran) nominally independent. The Central Asian khanates retained a degree of autonomy until 1917. The Ghaznavids moved their capital from Ghazni to Lahore in modern Pakistan, which they turned into another centre of Islamic culture. Under Ghaznavids, poets and scholars from Kashgar, Bukhara, Samarkand, Baghdad, Nishapur, Amol and Ghazni congregated in Lahore. Thus, the Persian language and Persianate culture was brought deep into India Ikram, S. M. 1964. Muslim Civilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press and carried further in the 13th century. Seljuqs won a decisive battle with the Ghaznavids then swept into Khurasan; they brought Persianate culture westward into western Persia, Iraq, Anatolia, and Syria. Iran proper along with Central Asia became a heartland of Persian language and culture. Commons:Category:Samarkand Wikipedia:Samarkand
Tibet emerged in the 7th century as a unified empire (Tibetan Empire), but it soon divided into a variety of territories. The bulk of western and central Tibet were often at least nominally unified under a series of Tibetan governments in Lhasa, Shigatse, or nearby locations; these governments were at various times under Mongol and Chinese overlordship. The eastern regions of Kham and Amdo often maintained a more decentralized indigenous political structure, being divided among a number of small principalities and tribal groups, while also often falling more directly under Chinese rule; most of this area was eventually incorporated into the Chinese provinces of Sichuan and Qinghai. Following the collapse (Xinhai revolution) of the Qing dynasty in 1912, Qing soldiers were disarmed and escorted out of Tibet. The region declared its independence (:wikisource:Proclamation of Independence of Tibet) in 1913. The region maintained its autonomy until 1951 when, following a military conflict (Battle of Chamdo), Tibet was incorporated into the People's Republic of China and the previous Tibetan government was abolished in 1959.
Baryatinsky had captured the legendary Chechen rebel leader Shamil in 1859, the army resumed the expansion into Central Asia that had begun under Nicholas I (Nicholas I of Russia). The capture of Tashkent was a significant victory over the Kokand Khanate (Khanate of Kokand), part of which was annexed in 1866. By 1867 Russian forces had captured enough territory to form the Guberniya (Governorate General) of Turkestan, the capital of which was Tashkent. The Khanate of Bukhara
resources for the partisans, many of whom had lost their homes and entire life's savings in the war. Viewed as enemies of the state, starved of resources, and with a vocal faction advocating armed resistance against the Soviets and their Polish proxies, WiN was far from efficient. A significant victory for the NKVD and the newly created Polish secret police, Urząd Bezpieczeństwa, came in the second half of 1945, when they managed to convince several leaders of AK and WiN that they truly wanted to offer amnesty to AK members. In a few months they managed to gain information about vast numbers of AK WiN resources and people. By the time the (imprisoned) AK and WiN leaders realised their mistake, the organizations had been crippled with thousands of their members having been arrested. WiN was finally disbanded in 1952. By 1947 a colonel of the communist forces declared that "Terrorist and political underground has ceased to be a threatening force, although there are still men of the forests" that need to be dealt with. thumb 250px left The show trial of 16 leaders of Polish wartime underground movement (including Home Army and civil authorities) convicted of "drawing up plans for military action against the U.S.S.R.", Moscow, June 1945. The leaders were invited to help organize the new Polish Government of National Unity in March 1945 and immediately captured by NKVD. Despite the court's conspicuous leniency, only two were still alive six years later. (Image:Moscow Trial 1945.jpg) The persecution of AK was only part of the repressions under Stalinism in Poland. In the period of 1944-1956, approximately 2 million people were arrested, over 20,000, including the hero of Auschwitz, Witold Pilecki, were executed or murdered in communist prisons, and 6 million Polish citizens (i.e. every third adult Pole) were classified as a ''reactionary or criminal element'' and subject to invigilation by state agencies. Most soldiers of the Home Army were captured by the NKVD or UB (Urzad Bezpieczenstwa) political police. They were interrogated and imprisoned on various charges like fascism. Michał Zając, ''Warsaw Uprising: 5 pm, 1 August 1944'', Retrieved on 4 July 2007. Many of them were sent to Gulags, executed or "disappeared." For example between 1944 and 1956 all members of Batalion Zośka unit who took part in Warsaw Uprising was closed in communist jail. Żołnierze Batalionu Armii Krajowej "Zośka" represjonowani w latach 1944-1956," Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2008, ISBN 978-83-60464-92-2 In 1956 an amnesty released 35,000 former AK soldiers from prisons: for the crime of fighting for their homeland they had spent sometimes over 10 years in prisons. Even at this time however, some partisans remained in the countryside, unwilling or simply unable to rejoin the community; they became known as the ''cursed soldiers''. Stanisław Marchewka "Ryba" was killed in 1957, and the last AK partisan, Józef Franczak "Lalek," was killed in 1963 – almost 2 decades after World War II ended. It was only four years later, in 1967, that Adam Boryczka, a soldier of AK and a member of the elite, Britain-trained Cichociemny ("The Silent and Hidden") intelligence and support group, was released from prison. Until the end of the People's Republic of Poland AK soldiers remained under investigation by the secret police, and it was only in 1989, after the fall of communism, that the sentences of AK soldiers were finally declared invalid and annulled by the Polish courts. Many monuments to Armia Krajowa have been erected in modern Poland, and there are many museum exhibitions such as the Armia Krajowa Museum in Kraków and the Warsaw Uprising Museum in Warsaw. The Polish Home Army Museum (Polish Home Army Museum, Orchard Lake, Michigan) is located in Orchard Lake, Michigan (Orchard Lake Village, Michigan), United States. With the Eastern Front (Eastern Front (World War II)) entering Polish territories in 1944, AK established an uneasy truce with the Soviets. Even then, the main forces of the Red Army and the NKVD conducted operations against the AK partisans, including during or directly after the Polish Operation Tempest, which was designed by the Poles to be a joint Polish-Soviet action against the retreating Germans and to establish Polish claims to those territories. AK helped Soviet units with scouting or organizing uprisings and helping to liberate various cities (ex. Operation Ostra Brama, Lwów Uprising), only to find that immediately afterwards AK troops were arrested, imprisoned – or even executed. Unknown to the Poles, Joseph Stalin's aim to ensure that an independent Poland would never reemerge in the postwar period made the Operation Tempest idea fatally flawed from the beginning. In the Soviet occupation zone, thousands of youths were arrested as "Werwolfs". , in the area patrolled by the 97th Unit of Soviet Border Troops, 471 people had crossed the border illegally from the districts of Hlyboka, Hertsa, Putila, and Storozhynets. The zone assigned to this unit extended from the border to about 7.5 km south of Chernivtsi. * Kakha Bendukidze, former Russian (Russians) businessman, currently working in the administration of President Mikheil Saakashvili. * Lavrenti Beria, head of the NKVD (the predecessor to the KGB), supervisor and one of the initiators of the Soviet Union's Nuclear Project * Giga Bokeria, Georgian (Georgia (country)) political leader With the onset of the Second World War, he was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, (the Soviet secret police) and on 14 June 1941, was in the Sosva prison camp, and was sentenced to death but died before the execution at Sosva, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia (see Gulag)) Medvedev was born in Bryansk in a steelworker's family. During the Russian Civil War he joined the Red Army and in 1920 he joined the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Between 1920 and 1935 worked in the Cheka, OGPU and the NKVD in Soviet Ukraine (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). Great Purge Uborevich was arrested during the Great Purge of the Red Army. In May 1937, Uborevich was tried by the NKVD in an event known as the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization. He was executed in June 1937 and posthumously rehabilitated (Rehabilitation (Soviet)) in 1957. ''Superman: Red Son'' In Mark Millar's ''Superman: Red Son'', Martha and her husband are anti-communist protesters in the Soviet Union. They are executed by the NKVD under Commissar Pyotr Roslov (Pete Ross), which leads to their son vowing to overthrow the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Until recently his true date of death was not officially known. Soviet sources such as the ''Soviet Encyclopedia'' stated that he died in 1943 during the German occupation (Reichskommissariat Ukraine). Recently, it has become known that Kucherenko was arrested and after a period of 8 months of prolonged torture was finally shot by the NKVD in 1937. His body was buried in a mass grave on the territory of the KGB recreational facility in the area of Piatykhatky on the outskirts of Kharkiv. Soon after the German forces were pushed out of the city, Filipkowski was invited to a conference with Michał Rola-Żymierski and arrested by the Soviet NKVD in Zhytomir on August 3, 1944; at the same time most of his soldiers were also arrested and sent to Soviet prisons - or had to flee back to German-held part of Poland. Filipkowski was held in a number of Soviet prisons, including the prison in Kiev, a Smersh camp of the 1st Ukrainian Front, and NKVD camps in Kharkov, Ryazan, Dyagilev, Gryazovets and Brest (Brest, Belarus). In November 1947 he was handed over to the Ministry of Public Security of Poland in Biała Podlaska, interrogated and set free. However, soon afterwards his younger son Andrzej (b. 1925), also a former soldier of the Home Army, was arrested by the Communists and was held in prisons until the destalinization thaw of 1956. * In the NKVD (w:NKVD) as it was now in 1936 , Stalin (w:Stalin) had a powerful and experienced instrument. At its head stood Yagoda (w:Genrikh Yagoda). His deputy in security matters was Stalin’s crony Agranov (w:Yakov Agranov), who had finished his special operations at Leningrad and handed over that city to the dreadful Sakovsky, who is said to have boasted that if he had Karl Marx to interrogate he would soon make him confess that he was agent of Bismark (Otto von Bismark). ** Robert Conquest (w:Robert Conquest) (1990, 2000), The Great Terror: A Reassessment (40th Anniversary Edition) Oxford University Press p. 81.