Places Known For

significant military


area, Isingiro, twenty kilometers south of the modern center of Mbarara. The suggestion is therefore that these were initially very localized political formations, some of which gradually expanded. Military power was initially realized in terms of numbers. The Buhaya states were all small and do not appear to have had a significant military capability. Karagwe does appear to have had military strength, and this may have been due to its greater population size. Nkore, from its small base


of the operation the fortified positions of Latrun—overlooking the Tel Aviv-Jerusalem highway—and the city of Ramallah were also to be captured. Hadita, near Latrun, was captured by the Israelis at a cost of 9 dead. The main museum for Israel's armored corps is the Yad La-Shiryon in Latrun, which houses one of the largest tank museums in the world. Other significant military museums are the Batei Ha-Osef, in Tel Aviv, the Palmach Museum, and the Beit HaTotchan of artillery in Zikhron Ya'akov. The Israeli Air Force Museum is located at Hatzerim Airbase in the Negev Desert, and the Israeli Clandestine Immigration and Naval Museum, is in Haifa. The MACs were very different from one another, bringing about four unique peacekeeping missions under the head of the UNTSO. Disputes on the Israel Syria Mixed Armistice Commission (ISMAC) centred on the most precious Middle Eastern commodity: water and sovereignty of the DMZ. A Report Dated 12 February 1950 From The Chief Of Staff Of The Truce Supervision Organization In Palestine To The Secretary-General On The Activities Of The Mixed Armistice Commissions UN Security Council Resolution 100 of 27th October 1953 (UN Doc S 3182) Letter dated 25 February 1960 from the representative of Israel to the President of the Security Council (S 4271) 25 February 1960 Contentious issues in the HKJIMAC (Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Israel Mixed Armistice Commission) principally concerned the divided city of Jerusalem, Jerusalem Area And Protection Of The Holy Places UN Doc T 681 1 June 1950 the Israeli Mount Scopus enclave, the Latrun salient (sovereignty of the DMZ), Arab infiltration across the armistice demarcation line and large scale Israeli military incursions into Jordanian territory. Commander E H Hutchison USNR "Violent Truce: A Military Observer Looks at the Arab-Israeli Conflict 1951-1955" The troubles soon bloomed the Infiltration by the displaced Arabs (1948 Palestinian exodus), followed by raids of reprisal and intimidation by the Israelis, soon had the borders crackling with tension. E H Hutchison "Violent Truce" p.xxvi The infiltration by Palestinians was initially unarmed groups crossing to regain possessions, harvest their crops or visit relatives; later infiltrations became armed individuals and then progressing into small retaliatory raids. Israel's Border Wars, 1949-1956: Arab Infiltration, Israeli Retaliation, and the Countdown to the Suez War... By Benny Morris p. 38. As Pasha Glubb (John Bagot Glubb) explained Israel's Border Wars, 1949-1956: Arab Infiltration, Israeli Retaliation, and the Countdown to the Suez War ... By Benny Morris p. 37 :- thumb 250px View of the village (Image:view east 121202c 760.jpg) '''Neve Shalom''' ( , Arabic (Arabic language):كندا حديقة) (also '''Ayalon Park''') Remembering the Americans and Canadians who Fell is a national park stretching over 7,000 dunams, mostly in the West Bank, with a portion in the region that was a no man's land before 1967 and incorporated into Israel in 1967. First autumn crocus blooms in Canada Park It is maintained by the Jewish National Fund of Canada. Canada Park is located west of Jerusalem, to the north of Highway 1 (Highway 1 (Israel)) (Tel Aviv - Jerusalem), between the Latrun intersection and Sha'ar HaGai. Remembering the Americans and Canadians who Fell The park attracts some 300,000 visitors annually. Canada Park – an Israeli haven for picnickers, hikers, cyclists 200px thumb Map of destroyed villages and armistice lines (File:CanadaParkCropped.jpg) All Arab villages in the Latrun salient were razed during the Six Day War on the orders of Israeli general Yitzhak Rabin and over 10,000 inhabitants were expelled. Al-Haq Legal Brief Segev, Tom (Tom Segev) (2006). 1967: Israel, the War and the Year That Transformed the Middle East, Metropolitan Books, pp. 306-309. Oren, 2002, p. 307. Canada Park was established on the lands of two of the Arab villages depopulated at this time: Imwas and Yalo. Al-Haq Legal Brief The inhabitants were granted compensation but not allowed to return. Oren, 2002, p. 307. Imwas, Yalo and Bayt Nuba were demolished as part of strategic plans to widen the Jerusalem Corridor. Right of Remembrance, Haaretz Dayr Ayyub, also on the grounds of the park, had been partly destroyed during the fighting in 1948 and never rebuilt. Morris, 2004, p. xx, village #337. The settlement of Mevo Horon was built on the lands of Bayt Nuba in 1970. Al-Haq Legal Brief Settlements to be included on the Israeli side of the West Bank Barrier include those in or near the Modi'in bloc (Hashmonaim, Matityahu (Matityahu, Mateh Binyamin), Na'ale, Nili (Nili, Mateh Binyamin)), Mevo Horon in the Latrun area, Beit Horon and Giv'on HaHadasha northwest of Jerusalem, and Almon (Almon, Mateh Binyamin) and Kfar Adumim in the Adummim area east of Jerusalem. The son of poultry vendors, he was educated at a religious school. In his teens, after initially joining Ze'ev Jabotinsky's Betar organization, he became a member of all three Jewish underground (underground resistance) military organizations in British Mandatory Palestine (British Mandate of Palestine): Lehi (Lehi (group)) (the "Stern Gang"), Etzel (Irgun), and Haganah (Palmach) that fought the British (United Kingdom) and the Arab populations. He was arrested by the British Mandatory authorities and spend several months in detention at Latrun. With the establishment of Israel, he briefly joined the Israeli Communist party (Maki (historical political party)). He fought in the first three wars: 1948-50, 1956, and 1967. He strongly disagreed with the annexation of the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem and takeover of the West Bank and Gaza Strip by Israel in the aftermath of the Six-Day war. One Hotchkiss H35 ''modifié 39'' tank is on display in the city square in Narvik as a memorial of Battle of Narvik in 1940. A second vehicle in Norway is part of the collection of the ''Panserparken'' at the camp Rena leir. In England the private ''Kevin Wheatcroft Collection'' has bought an exemplar from the Norwegian ''Arquebus Krigshistoriske Museum'' at Rogaland. In France itself the Musée des Blindés at Saumur has a vehicle in a running condition; at the base of ''501 503e RCC'' at Mourmelon-le-Grand a Hotchkiss serves as a monument restored with a Renault R35 turret, fitted with a dummy gun. Another tanks is displayed at Uzice, in Serbia. The Bulgarian National Museum of Military History displays one of the vehicles used by the Bulgarian police forces. At Latrun in Israel the Yad la-Shiryon Museum shows one of the tanks used by the IDF. In Russia the tank museum of Kubinka has a Hotchkiss tank in running condition, captured from ''211. Panzerabteilung'' in the summer of 1944. History The section between Latrun and Jerusalem roughly follows an ancient path connecting Jaffa and Jerusalem. The Jaffa-Jerusalem road was initially paved by the Ottomans (Ottoman Empire) in the 1860s and since then served as the main highway to Jerusalem, favored over more topographically (topography) convenient routes such as Route 443 (Route 443 (Israel)). Express Latrun, Ramla CBS, Bat Yam - Express Latrun, Ramla, Rehovot, Nes Ziona - Express Latrun, Ramla - Express Latrun Junction, Gedera Junction, Givat Washington Junction, Bene Darom Junction -

Hanford, California

work National Weather Service Forecast Office accessdate 2011-11-13 The only significant military base in the region is Naval Air Station Lemoore, a vast air base located


, and gives the credit to Emperor Yeshaq (Yeshaq I of Ethiopia). J. Spencer Trimingham, ''Islam in Ethiopia'' (Oxford: Geoffrey Cumberlege for the University Press, 1952), p. 74 and note explains the discrepancy in the sources; some historians pick one of the two possible dates (e.g. Paul Henze selects 1403 in ''Layers of Time, A History of Ethiopia'' New York: Palgrave, 2000 , p. 67) without even mentioning the problem.) Eskender's most significant military accomplishment was sacking Dakkar, the capital of the Adal Sultanate, in 1478; despite this achievement, as he led his army back home, the larger Adal army under amir Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din overtook them, killing many of his men and taking many prisoners. Eskender was said to have escaped capture only through the assistance of angels, and afterwards he built a church named Debere Meshwa'e, "Place of Sacrifice". Richard Pankhurst, ''The Ethiopian Borderlands'' (Lawrenceville: Red Sea Press, 1997), pp. 121f There is some disagreement over the context of this campaign. One view is presented by James Bruce, who adds that Zasillus, governor of Amhara (Amhara province), had been commanded to mobilize the forces in the south while Eskender himself raised levies from Angot and Tigray (Tigray Province); according to Bruce, Eskender was responding to the predations of Mahfuz of Zeila. Bruce, ''Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile'' (1805 edition), vol. 3, pp. 144f More recent scholars, such as Richard Pankhurst (Richard Pankhurst (academic)), hold that Eskender's sack of Dakkar led to Amir Muhammad to seek peace with the Ethiopians, but he was outmaneuvered by Mahfuz. '''Mahfuz''' (or '''Mohammed''') ( Wikipedia:Zeila Commons:Category:Zeila

Liao dynasty

–Khitan War most significant military defeat in the dynasty's history, but by 1019 they had already assembled another large army to march on Goryeo. At this point both sides realized that they could not defeat each other militarily, so in 1020 King Hyeonjong resumed sending tribute to the Liao, and in 1022 the Liao officially recognized the legitimacy of King Hyeonjong's reign. Goryeo would remain a vassal, and the relationship between Liao and Goryeo would remain peaceful until the end of the Liao dynasty. Twitchett and Tietze (1994), 111-112. The Song dynasty and the Chanyuan Treaty thumb left Zhao Kuangyin, also known as Emperor Taizu of Song, founder of the Song dynasty (File:Song Taizu.jpg) In 951, the Later Zhou emerged, the last of the five short-lived dynasties making up the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The founding emperor of the Later Zhou died in 954 and was succeeded by his adopted son, who would rule with the name Emperor Shizong of Later Zhou. Shizong believed that the Liao dynasty was poised to invade the Zhou, and in 958 he launched a preemptive military campaign against the Liao, aiming to take the sixteen prefectures ceded to the Liao by Emperor Gaozu of Later Jin in 938. Emperor Shizong died in 959, before his army had even met the Liao forces. In 960 the commander-in-chief of the Later Zhou palace guard, Zhao Kuangyin, usurped the throne, then occupied by Emperor Shizong's seven-year-old son, and proclaimed himself the founder of the Song dynasty. Mote (1999), 13-14 and 67-68. Relations between the Liao and the Song were initially peaceful, with the two dynasties exchanging embassies in 974. Mote (1999), 69. Following the collapse of the Tang dynasty, several territories formed small, independent states that were never reunified during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Additionally, several additional territories that were controlled by military governors during the Tang dynasty had fallen under the control of local warlords following the Tang collapse. Rather than focus on reclaiming land from the Liao dynasty, Zhao Kuangyin, who would take the title Emperor Taizu of Song, focused on reclaiming these smaller break-off territories. He would die in 976 having reestablished control over all but one of these territories, the Northern Han kingdom. Despite the Northern Han's status as a protectorate of the Liao dynasty, Emperor Taizu of Song launched an invasion of the kingdom in 976, only months before his death. The Northern Han received assistance from the Liao, and the invasion was repelled. Emperor Taizong of Song, brother of the founding emperor and the second emperor of the Song dynasty, launched a second invasion in 979. The Northern Han again received Liao assistance, but this invasion was successful; the Northern Han crumbled, and the Song were able to assume control of the territory. Emperor Taizong of Song immediately followed this victory with an attempted invasion of the sixteen prefectures, but the unrested and undersupplied Song troops were thoroughly routed by the Liao in the Battle of Gaoliang River. thumb China in year 1111. Clockwise from top: Liao dynasty, Song dynasty, Western Xia dynasty. (File:Song-Liao-Xixia-1111.png) Over the next two decades, the relationship between the Liao and Song continued to deteriorate. The Liao were continuously informed of Song attempts to create military alliances with other groups sharing a border with the Liao, and minor border skirmishes were common. Beginning in 999 Emperor Shengzong of Liao led a series of campaigns against the Song that, while generally successful on the battlefield, failed to secure anything of value from the Song. This changed in 1004 when Emperor Shengzong led a campaign that rapidly worked its way to right outside of the Song capital of Kaifeng by only conquering cities that quickly folded to the Liao army, while avoiding protracted sieges of the cities that resisted heavily. Emperor Zhenzong of Song marched out and met the Liao at Chanyuan, a small city on the Yellow River. In January 1005 the two dynasties signed the Chanyuan Treaty, which stipulated that the Song would give the Liao 200,000 bolts of silk and 100,000 ounces of silver each year, that the two emperors would address each other as equals, that they would finalize the location of their disputed border, and that the two dynasties would resume cordial relations. While the sums (referred to as gifts by the Song and as tributes by the Liao) were later increased to 300,000 bolts of silk and 200,000 ounces of silver per year out of Song fears that the Liao might form a military alliance with the Western Xia, no major wars were fought between the Liao and Song for over a century following the signing of the treaty. Mote (1999), 69-71. By signing the treaty the Song dynasty functionally ceded its claim over the sixteen prefectures. Smith (2006), 377. Imperial infighting Emperor Shengzong died in 1031, leaving behind instructions that named his son Yelü Zongzhen (Emperor Xingzong of Liao) as heir. Yelü Zongzhen, known historically by the name Emperor Xingzong of Liao, became the Emperor of the Liao dynasty at the age of fifteen, and his reign immediately became plagued with courtly infighting. Emperor Xingzong's mother was a low-ranking consort, Nuou Jin, but he was raised by Emperor Shengzong's wife, Empress Ji Dian. Nuou Jin quickly moved to marginalize Ji Dian and her supporters, fabricating a coup and using it to justify exiling Ji Dian and executing most of her supporters in several months of purges. Nuou Jin eventually sent assassins to kill Ji Dian; however, Ji Dian instead committed suicide. Twitchett and Tietze (1994), 114. With her rival for power dead, Nuou Jin declared herself the regent and began personally conducting duties normally within the purview of the emperor. When it became clear that Emperor Xingzong was unhappy with his mother's grab for power, Nuou Jin plotted to replace the emperor with another of her sons, Zhong Yuan, whom Nuou Jin raised herself. Zhong Yuan informed the emperor of their mother's plans, however, and the emperor promptly exiled Nuou Jin. Twitchett and Tietze (1994), 114-116. For the remainder of his reign, Emperor Xingzong would have to compete for power with his mother, whose supporters still held key postings, and whose influence was so great that she was eventually allowed to return to the capital and undergo a ceremony to symbolically de-exile herself. Zhong Yuan, for his part, would be rewarded for revealing his mother's plot by being given a succession of higher- and higher-ranking positions, culminating with a governorship outside of the capital. Historian Frederick W. Mote explains the importance of this factional infighting and its relation to the Liao dynasty's downfall by stating that it "shows to what extent the succession issue within the imperial clan still was the source of weakness in the leadership of the state. It wasted people, diverted energies, and deflected the attention of the rulers from the tasks of governing." Mote (1999), 200. thumb right 200px The Pagoda of Fogong Temple (File:The Fugong Temple Wooden Pagoda.jpg), built by Emperor Daozong in 1056 at the site of his grandmother's family home. Steinhardt (1997), 20. Emperor Xingzong died in 1055. His eldest son, Yelü Hongji (Emperor Daozong of Liao) (who would later be known by the name Emperor Daozong of Liao), assumed the throne having already gained experience in governing while his father was alive. Unlike his father, Emperor Daozong did not face a succession crisis. While both Ji Dian and Zhong Yuan remained alive, and both had the political influence to interfere with the succession process, neither did. Twitchett and Tietze (1994), 124-125. While Emperor Daozong's reign started off strong, it too was eventually plagued by factional infighting, aggravated by the emperor's own general weakness. The emperor's first major error was in ordering the execution of Xiao A La, a loyal minister and close friend of the emperor, whom the emperor was nonetheless convinced to execute by a rival minister. The 14th-century ''History of Liao'' speculates that had Xiao A La not been killed, two major incidents that came to dominate Emperor Daozong's reign would have been avoided. Twitchett and Tietze (1994), 125. The first of these incidents was a rebellion in 1063, when several high-ranking members of the Yelü clan, led by a grandson of Emperor Shengzong, attempted to assassinate Emperor Daozong while he was on a hunting trip. He was saved with the assistance of troops led by his mother, Empress Dowager Ren Yi, and he retaliated by executing all of the people involved in the plot, as well as their immediate families. Twitchett and Tietze (1994), 128-134. This major change in leadership solidified the power of the chancellor Yelü Yixin and his ally Yelü Renxian, a chancellor and military leader. When Yelü Renxian died in 1072, Yelü Yixin began to view Emperor Daozong's son and heir apparent, Prince Jun, as the only possible threat to Yelü Yixin's power, and set in motion plans to eliminate the prince. He first eliminated Prince Jun's mother, the emperor's wife, by fabricating evidence that she had an affair with a palace musician. Believing Yelü Yixin's trap, Emperor Daozong ordered his wife to commit suicide. Yelü Yixin then fabricated a coup by implicating his own enemies within the court of planning to depose of Emperor Daozong and place Prince Jun on the throne. While the emperor was initially unmoved, Yelü Yixin eventually convinced him to exile his son by creating a false confession. Prince Jun was immediately exiled, at which point Yelü Yixin sent assassins to eliminate the prince and his wife, preventing both the prince from being returned to power and Yelü Yixin's plot from being discovered. Yelü Yixin's treachery was eventually discovered when, in 1079, he attempted to convince the emperor to leave the new heir at the palace during a hunting trip. When other members of the court protested that the young boy would be in mortal peril if left behind with Yelü Yixin, the emperor finally saw through Yelü Yixin. By 1080 Yelü Yixin was stripped of his rank and sent to a low-ranking post outside of the capital. Shortly afterwards he was executed. Twitchett and Tietze (1994), 135. Aside from the machinations of Yelü Yixin, the only other event of note from Emperor Daozong's rule was a war fought between 1092 and 1102 between the Liao and a Mongolian, possibly Tatar tribe, group known as the Zubu. The Zubu were located at the northwest border of Liao territory and had fought several wars with the Liao when the Liao tried to expand in that direction. In 1092 the Liao attacked several other tribes in the northwest, and by 1093 the Zubu attacked the Liao, striking deep into Khitan territory. It took until 1100 for the Liao to capture and kill the Zubu chieftain, and another two years to fight off the remaining Zubu forces. The war against the Zubu was the last successful military campaign waged by the Liao dynasty. Twitchett and Tietze (1994), 138-139. Rise of the Jin and fall of the Liao ) were a Mongolic people that inhabited far-eastern Mongolia, northern Inner Mongolia and northern Manchuria and were recorded from the time of the Northern Wei (386-534) until the rise of the Mongols of Genghis Khan in 1206 when the name "Mongol" and "Tatar" were applied to all the Shiwei tribes. They were closely related to the Khitan people to their south. As a result of pressure from the west, south and south-east they never established unified, semi-sedentarized empires like their neighbors, but remained at the level of a nomadic confederation led by tribal chieftains, alternately submitting to the Turks, the Chinese and the Khitan as the political climate evolved. The Mengwu Shiwei, one of the twenty Shiwei tribes during the Tang dynasty (618-907), were called the Menggu during the Liao dynasty (907-1125) and are generally considered to be the ancestors of the Mongols of Genghis Khan. The ancient Korean pronunciation of Mengwu (蒙兀 蒙瓦) is "Mong-ol". Mongolia is still called "Menggu" in Chinese today. After the fall of Liao, Song court wanted the Sixteen Prefectures as promised. Jin sold the land at a price of 300,000 bolts of silk and 200,000 ounces of silver. This price was considered to be extremely generous because it was the tribute that Song was already paying to the former Liao dynasty annually since the Shanyuan Treaty of 1005 AD.


with that of the mainly Christian Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. From the Battle of Grunwald onwards the Lipka Tatar light cavalry regiments participated in every significant military campaign of Lithuania and Poland. It is commonly, and erroneously, believed that a Sejm was first disrupted by means of ''liberum veto'' by a Trakai deputy, Władysław Siciński, in 1652. In reality, he only vetoed the continuation of the Sejm's deliberations beyond the statutory time limit. He had, however, set up a dangerous precedent. Over the proceedings of the next few sejms, the veto was still subject to occasional overrulement, but the acceptance of it was gradually extended. It was fewer than 20 years later, in 1669, in Kraków, that the entire Sejm was prematurely disrupted on the strength of the ''liberum veto'' before it had finished its deliberations. This was done by the Kiev deputy, Adam Olizar. The practice spiraled out of control, and in 1688 the Sejm was dissolved before the proceedings had begun or the Marshal of the Sejm was elected. Lithuanian scientific school The Lithuanian scientific school asserts that he was born near Raseiniai in Samogitia. Lietuviškoji tarybinė enciklopedija. 1983 T.1 p.166 The family, which was relatively poor, bore the Ostoja Coat of Arms Tadeusz Nowak "''Kazimierz Siemienowicz, ca.1600-ca.1651''", MON Press, Warsaw 1969, p.182 with military service traditions in the Grand Duchy. In a book dedication, he refers to himself as a ''Lietuvos bajoras'' (Lithuanian nobleman (Lithuanian nobility)). Encyclopedia Lituanica. Boston, 1970-1978, Vol.5 p.147 Wikipedia:Trakai commons:Trakai

Moscow Oblast

. In 2010, a joint Russia–US collaboration at Dubna, Moscow Oblast, Russia, claimed to have synthesized six atoms of ununseptium, making it the most recently claimed discovery. Element 117 discovered at Recommendations


By 1996, tensions from the neighboring Rwanda war and genocide had spilled over to Zaire: ''see History of Rwanda''. Rwandan Hutu militia forces (Interahamwe), who had fled Rwanda following the ascension of a Tutsi-led government, had been using Hutu refugees camps in eastern Zaire as a basis for incursion against Rwanda. These Hutu militia forces soon allied with the Zairian armed forces (FAZ) to launch a campaign against Congolese ethnic Tutsis in eastern Zaire. In turn, these Tutsis formed a militia to defend themselves against attacks. When the Zairian government began to escalate its massacres in November 1996, the Tutsi militias erupted in rebellion against Mobutu. The Mobutu era The Regime of '''Marshall Mobutu Sese Seko (Mobutu)''' lasted 32 years (1965–1997), during which all

all military aid shortly after hostilities began, citing a domestic law prohibiting their military from taking part in a civil war. France, in contrast, supported the regime and gave significant military and financial support, thus replacing Belgium as Rwanda's major foreign sponsor. :''This article is about the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire). For the Republic of the Congo (also

Presidio of San Francisco

, which were previously not in evidence on the site. It also restored a historic grass airfield that functioned as a culturally significant military airfield between 1919 and 1936. The park at Crissy Field expanded and widened the recreational opportunities of the existing File:Presidio plaque.jpg thumb California Historical Landmark marker

East Pakistan

and civilisation (Indus Valley civilisation) that includes some of the most ancient cultures (Indus Valley Civilisation). The region was invaded by Mongols, Greeks, Persians, Arabs, and Turks (Turkic peoples) before being invaded by the British Raj in the Eighteenth century. Following independence (Indian Independence), Pakistan has seen the loss of East Pakistan in 1971, repeated military coups, widespread Islamic fundamentalism and significant military

has a long history of settlement, including by the Indus Valley Civilization. The region was invaded by Afghans (History of Afghanistan), Greeks (Ancient Greece), Persians (Persian Empire), Arabs, and was incorporated into British Raj in the 19th century. Since independence, Pakistan has seen both instability, with the loss of East Pakistan, and significant military and economic growth. Pakistan has the seventh-largest armed forces in the world and is a List of countries

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