of scientific and technological research to public and private institutions. * To provide scientific-technical services to the General State Administration and public and private institutions. * To boost the creation of technologically-based entities and companies. * To help create entities with the ability to oversee the transfer and evaluation of technology. * To train researchers. * To train experts by means of highly specialised courses. * To promote scientific culture in society. * To manage scientific-technical facilities to be used by the scientific research and technological development system. * To participate in international organs and bodies, as requested by the Ministry of Education and Science (the CSIC state agency currently belongs to the Ministry of Science and Innovation). * To participate in national organs and bodies, as requested by the Ministry of Education and Science (the CSIC state agency currently belongs to the Ministry of Science and Innovation). * To participate in designing and implementing the scientific and technological policies of the Ministry of Education and Science (the CSIC state agency currently belongs to the Ministry of Science and Innovation). * To collaborate with other national and international institutions in the promotion and transfer of science and technology, as well as in the creation and development of scientific and technological research centres, institutes and units. * To collaborate with universities in scientific research and technological development activities and in postgraduate education. * To inform, attend and advise public and private entities on science and technology issues. * To train experts in science and technology management. * To collaborate in updating the science and technology knowledge skills of non-university teachers. * To support the execution of the sectorial policies defined by the General State Administration, by preparing technical studies or through applied research activities. * Any other scientific promotion and technological research actions assigned to it by applicable legislation or as commissioned by the Government. Scientific-technical areas Its multidisciplinary and multisectorial nature means CSIC covers all fields of knowledge. Its activity is organised around eight scientific-technical areas: * Area 1. humanities and social sciences Area 2. biology and biomedicine Area 3. natural resources Area 4. agricultural sciences Area 5. physical science and technologies Area 6. materials science and technology Area 7. food science and technology Area 8. chemical science and technology facilities CSIC provides services to the entire scientific community through management of the Singular Scientific and Technological Infrastructures (ICTS) recognised by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation: these are unique or exceptional facilities involving relatively high investment and maintenance costs in relation to R&D investment budgets in their field. The whole science community and society at large can have access to them, which is justified by their importance and strategic nature, and for this reason they receive each year many national as well as foreign researchers. The importance and scientific and social repercussion of these large facilities is recognised and supported by the European Union. CSIC administers the following Spanish ICTS: * Calar Alto Astronomical Observatory Doñana Reserve - Biological Station Hespérides Ocean Research Vessel Juan Carlos I Antarctic Base Sarmiento de Gamboa Ocean Research Vessel The Integrated Micro and Nanofabrication Clean Room at the Microelectronics Institute of Barcelona the Spanish part of two large European facilities: * European Synchrotron Radiation Facility * Max von Laue-Paul Langevin Institute centres CSIC has a number of specialised research centres carrying out research in several fields: * Centro Andaluz de Biología del Desarrollo (CABD), Sevilla. * Centro Andaluz de Biología Molecular y Medicina Regenerativa ('''CABIMER'''), Sevilla. * Centro de Acústica Aplicada y Evaluación no Destructiva (CAEND), Madrid. * Centro de Automática y Robótica (CAR), Madrid. * Centro de Astrobiología (CAB), Madrid. * Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa (CBM), Madrid. * Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales (CCHS), Madrid. * Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales (CCMA), Madrid. * Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS), Murcia. * Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Blanes (CEAB), Girona. * Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM), San Sebastián). * Centro de Física Miguel Antonio Catalán (CFMAC , Madrid * Centro de Investigación Cardiovascular (CIC), Barcelona. * Centro de Investigación en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnología (CINN) (Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Research Center), Asturias. * Centro de Investigación en Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, (CIN2), Barcelona. * Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Pascual Vila (CID), Barcelona. * Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB), Madrid. * Centro de Investigaciones Científicas Isla de la Cartuja (CICIC), Sevilla. * Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificación (CIDE), Valencia (Valencia, Spain). * Centro de Química Orgánica Lora Tamayo (CENQUIOR), Madrid. * Centro de Seguridad y Durabilidad Estructural de Materiales, (CISDEM), Madrid. * Centro de Tecnologías Físicas Leonardo Torres Quevedo (CETEF), Madrid. * Centro Mediterráneo de Investigaciones Marinas y Ambientales (CMIMA), Barcelona. * Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Sevilla. * Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB), Madrid. * Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM), Madrid. * Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (CNM), Barcelona. * Consorcio CSIC-IRTA-UAB Centre de Recerca Agrigenomica, (CRAG), Barcelona. * Escuela de Estudios Árabes (EEAA), Granada. * Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos (EEHA), Sevilla. * Escuela Española de Historia y Arqueología (EEHAR), Roma (Rome) Italia. * Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD), Sevilla. * Estación Experimental Aula Dei (EEAD), Zaragoza. * Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas (EEZA) Almería. * Estación Experimental del Zaidín (EEZ) Granada. * Estación Experimental La Mayora (EELM) Málaga. * Institución Milá y Fontanals (IMF) Barcelona. * Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (IACT), Granada. * Instituto Botánico de Barcelona (IBB), Barcelona. * Instituto Cajal (IC), Madrid. * Instituto de Lengua, Literatura y Antropología (ILLA), Madrid. * Instituto de Acuicultura de Torre de la Sal (IATS), Castellón (provincia de Castellón). * Instituto de Acústica (IA), Madrid. * Instituto Agricultura Sostenible (IAS), Córdoba (Córdoba (España)). * Instituto de Agrobiotecnología ( IDAB), Navarra. * Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA), Valencia. * Instituto de Análisis Económico (IAE), Barcelona. * Instituto de Arqueología (IAM), Mérida (Mérida (España)). * Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA), Granada. * Instituto de Astronomía y Geodesia (IAG), Granada. * Instituto de Automática Industrial (IAI), Madrid. * Instituto de Biología Evolutiva (IBE), Barcelona. * Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas Eduardo Primo Yúfera (IBMCP), Valencia. * Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer de Salamanca (IBMCC), Salamanca. * Instituto de Biología Molecular de Barcelona IBMB), Barcelona. * Instituto de Biología Molecular Eladio Viñuela (IBMEV), Madrid. * Instituto de Biología y Genética Molecular (IBGM), Valladolid. * Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBIS). * Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia (IBV), Valencia. * Instituto de Biomedicina y Biotecnología de Cantabria (IBBTEC) * Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis (IBVF) * Instituto de Carboquímica (ICB) * Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica (ICP) * Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV) * Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA) * Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (ICMAB) * Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM) * Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (ICMS) * Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos y Nutrición (ICTAN) * Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros (ICTP) * Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias (ICA) * Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja (IETCC) * Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume Almera (ICTJA) * Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (ICVV), Logroño * Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (ICE) * Instituto de Ciencias del Patrimonio (Incipit), Santiago de Compostela. * Instituto de Ciencias del Mar (ICM) * Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucía (ICMAN) * Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas (ICMAT) * Instituto de Diagnóstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua (IDAEA) * Instituto de Economía, Geografía y Demografía (IEGD) * Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM) * Instituto de Estudios Documentales sobre Ciencia y Tecnología (IEDCYT) * Instituto de Estudios Gallegos Padre Sarmiento (IEGPS) * Instituto de Estudios Islámicos y del Oriente Próximo (IEIOP) * Instituto de Estudios Sociales Avanzados (IESA) * Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales (IFI) * Instituto de Filosofía (IFS) * Instituto de Física Aplicada (IFA) * Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC) * Instituto de Física de Cantabria (IFCA) * Instituto de Física Fundamental (IFF) * Instituto de Física Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos (IFISC) * Instituto de Física Teórica (IFTE) * Instituto de Ganadería de Montaña (IGM) * Instituto de Geología Económica (IGE) * Instituto de Gestión de la Innovación y del Conocimiento (INGENIO) * Instituto de Historia (IH) * Instituto de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia López Piñero (IHCD) * Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación (CIAL) * Instituto de Investigación en Inteligencia Artificial (IIIA) * Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (IREC) * Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia (IIAG) * Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols (IIB) * Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas de Barcelona (IIBB) * Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (IIM) * Instituto de la Grasa (IG) * Instituto de Lenguas y Culturas del Mediterráneo y Oriente Próximo (ILC) * Instituto de Microbiología Bioquímica (IMB) * Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM) * Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (IMN-CNM) * Instituto de Microelectrónica de Sevilla (IMS-CNM) * Instituto de Neurociencias (IN) * Instituto de Óptica Daza de Valdés (IO) * Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina López Neyra (IPBLN) * Instituto de Políticas y Bienes públicos (IPP) * Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA) * Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiología (IPNA) * Instituto de Química Avanzada de Cataluña (IQAC) * Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano (IQFR) * Instituto de Química Médica (IQM) * Instituto de Química Orgánica General (IQOG) * Instituto de Recursos Naturales (IRN) * Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca (IRNASA) * Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología Sevilla (IRNAS) * Instituto de Robótica e Informática Industrial (IRII) * Instituto de Tecnología Química (ITQ) * Instituto del Frío (IF) * Instituto Mediterráneo de Estudios Avanzados (IMEDEA) * Instituto Nacional del Carbón (INCAR) * Instituto Pirenáico de Ecología (IPE) * Laboratorio de Investigación en Tecnología de la Combustión (LITEC) * Misión Biológica de Galicia (MBG) * Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN) * Observatorio de Física Cósmica del Ebro (OE) * Real Jardín Botánico (Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid) (RJB) * Unidad de Biofísica (UBF) * Unidad de Tecnología Marina (UTM) Literature * Carlos Martinez Alonso: ''Re-founding the Spanish National Research Council: New Methods, New Culture'', in: Max-Planck-Forum 7 : Perspectives of Research - Identification and Implementation of Research Topics by Organizations (Ringberg-Symposium Mai 2006), S. 59-70, ISSN 1438-8715 References División provisional del territorio español de 27 de Enero de 1822, the text of the proposed 1822 territorial division of Spain, Instituto de Historia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC, Spanish National Research Council). Accessed online 2010-01-03. during the ''Trienio Liberal''. The Province of Játiva was revoked with the return to absolutism (Absolute monarchy) in 1823.
, copper, magnesium, gold, marble, titanium, and marl resources. Fushun is known as "the capital of coal". The main coal and oil shale company is Fushun Mining Group, which produces about 6 million tons of coal per year, mainly blending coking coal and steam coal.
of seven retorting units with 20 retorts in each unit, for a total 140 sets of Fushun type retorts.
on Russian stamp.jpg thumb 170px Leonid Kvasnikov on Russian stamp '''Leonid Romanovich Kvasnikov''' (2 June 1905 – 15 October 1993) Graduated with honors from the Moscow Institute of Chemical Machine-Building in 1934 and worked as an engineer in a chemical plant for several years in the Tula (Tula Oblast) region. Continued postgraduate engineering studies and joined the KGB in 1938 as a specialist in scientific-technical intelligence. Beginning in 1939 he was the section head
of RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences) *Institute for Monitoring Climatic and Ecological Systems Siberian Branch of RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences) *Republican Scientific-Technical Center at ISPMS SB RAS (Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS) *Institute of Atmospheric Optics Siberian Branch of RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences) *High Current Electronics Institute Siberian Branch of RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences) *Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS *Tomsk Institute of Cables A large number of educational institutions in the city have contributed to making Tomsk a major center for Russia's IT industry. Tomsk was one of the first cities in Russia to gain access to the Internet, which became available in the early 1990s owing to grants received by universities and scientific cooperation. Culture thumb Tomsk Museum for Regional Studies and the Organ Hall of the Philharmonic (File:Tomsk Lenin 75.jpg) thumb Example of wood carving in Tomsk wooden architecture (File:Shishkov House Window Carving.jpg) Tomsk has many local cultural institutions including several drama theaters as well as a children's theater and a puppet theater. Major concert venues in the city include the Conservatory Concert hall and the Tomsk Palace of Sport. The city also has cultural centers dedicated to German (Germany), Polish (Poland) and Tatar languages and culture. One of the city's prominent theaters was destroyed in an act of terrorism in 1905. The Korolevsky Theater (built in 1884–85) was being used by a group of communist revolutionaries when the theater was attacked and set on fire by members of the Black Hundred, a hard-line nationalist organization. Those who escaped the flames were gunned down by Black Hundred members waiting outside the theater. Estimates put the number of casualties between 200 and 1000. There are a number of museums in Tomsk devoted to various subjects, most notably art, local history and wood carving. There is also a Museum of Oppression, housed in a former KGB dungeon. Tomsk State University has a number of small museums with exhibits on archaeology, paleontology, zoology, as well as a herbarium and a botanical garden As in many other cities in the former Soviet Union, the revolutionary government destroyed a number of old churches in the city including two that had existed since the 17th century. However, Tomsk managed to save some of its churches by transforming them into machine shops, warehouses, archives, and even residential buildings. Since the end of the communist era some of the churches have been renovated and returned to their congregations. Tomsk is well known for its intricate "gingerbread" decoration of traditional wooden houses in the area. However, the number of old homes in this style is decreasing due to redevelopment or some of them catching fire, as the structures have little to no fire protection. Trud (Labor) Stadium (Trud Stadium (Tomsk)), in central Tomsk is the base for matches with the FC Tom Tomsk, the city's professional soccer club. The team's 2004 promotion to the Russian Premier League gave local fans a chance to see some of the nation's best teams play at the city's own stadium. Tomsk has many local media outlets including the ''TV2 (TV2 (Tomsk))'' television station, the radio stations ''Radio Siberia'' and ''Echo of Moscow in Tomsk (Echo of Moscow)'' along with several newspapers (''Tomskii Vestnik, Tomskaya Nedelya, Krasnoye Znamya'' and ''Vechernii Tomsk''). In April 2006 Tomsk received international media attention as the venue of a major summit on economic cooperation, held in the city between Russian President (President of Russia) Vladimir Putin and German Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (Federal Republic)) Angela Merkel. Tomsk was the name given by children's author Elizabeth Beresford to one of her fictional characters The Wombles, all of whom are named after places. Notable people thumb A satirical monument to Anton Chekhov (File:Anton Chekhov in Tomsk.jpg), who made an unfavorable mention (Anton Chekhov#Sakhalin) of Tomsk in his diaries while traveling through the city on his way to Sakhalin Wikipedia:Tomsk Commons:Category:Tomsk
in downtown Taganrog, but they were thrown back by Don Cossacks and a volunteer corps. The '''Beriev Aircraft Company''', The Russian denomination is ''Таганрогский авиационный научно-технический комплекс им. Г. М. Бериева» (ТАНТК им. Г. М. Бериева), ''or, in the magazines'' ТАНТК им. Бериева'' - '''«Beriev Taganrog Aviation Scientific Technical Complex»''', according to the traditional designation, which barely evolved since the Soviet era
' class "sortable" + ''Industries of employment, from the 2011 National Household Survey'' !Industry !People employed - Agriculture and other resource-based industries 325 - Construction 1,880 - Manufacturing 1,400 - Wholesale trade 1,510 - Retail trade 2,225 - Finance, insurance, real estate 2,210 - Health and Social Services 1,405 - Educational Services 1,765 - Professional, scientific, technical 1,925 The top private sector employers in Whitchurch–Stouffville in 2009 were: Cf. Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville, Annual Report 2009, 2; also S. Bolan, "100 Jobs Created Last Year in Stouffville, ''Stouffville Sun Tribune'' (Jun 17, 2011). *Teva Canada, pharmaceutical manufacturing: 310 employees Cf. "Jobs, expansion coming to Stouffville drug plant," ''Stouffville Sun-Tribune'', July 14, 2011; Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville, For Business: Overview, Sept. 2012. *Parkview Services for Seniors, 250 employees *Strategic Information Technology, computer and communications equipment and supplies: 160 employees *K-Line Group, electrical power generation: 120 employees *Ontario SPCA, 120 employees *Hanson, concrete pipe manufacturing: 105 employees *King Cole Ducks Processing: 100 employees *Stock Transportation Ltd., school and employee bus transportation *Tam-Kal, sheet-metal manufacturing for HVAC industry *Wal-Mart Supercentre Whitchurch–Stouffville is York Region's largest "mineral aggregate (Construction Aggregate) resource area;" these gravel sites and designated resource areas are located north and south of Bloomington Road (York Regional Road 40), and all lie within the boundaries of the Oak Ridges Moraine. York Region Official Plan, Map: Mineral Aggregate Resource Areas (December 2009). Under the Oak Ridges Moraine Conservation Act (2001), future aggregate resource operations must meet stringent review and approval standards. Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing,Oak Ridges Moraine Conservation Plan: Land Use Planning. In 2001, 20,406 acres (8,258 hectares) of land in Whitchurch–Stouffville was dedicated to farming; 45% of the farms were between 10 and '''Vaughan:''' CFU758 90.7 (CFU758) group6 Halton Region (Regional Municipality of Halton) - Whitchurch–Stouffville Wayne Emmerson - '''Ballantrae, Ontario''' (2011 population (Canada 2011 Census) 1,382) is a hamlet (hamlet (place)) in the Town of Whitchurch–Stouffville (Whitchurch–Stouffville). Named for the village of Ballantrae in South Ayrshire, Scotland, the community is centred around the intersection of Aurora Road (York Regional Road 15) and Highway 48 (Highway 48 (Ontario)). The hamlet was first settled in the early 19th century, and by 1895 it had a population of 300. Cf. a thorough account of Ballantrae's history in Jean Barkey et al., Whitchurch Township (Erin, ON: Boston Mills, 1993), 87-90. See also the detailed 1878 map, Township of Whitchurch, ''Illustrated historical atlas of the county of York and the township of West Gwillimbury & town of Bradford in the county of Simcoe, Ont.'' (Toronto: Miles & Co., 1878). The town was located on the edge of the vast lumber industry centred in the hamlet of Vivian (Vivian, Ontario); a spur-line of the Toronto and Nipissing Railway built in 1877 ran through Ballantrae from Stouffville (Whitchurch-Stouffville) to Jackson's Point (Jackson's Point, Ontario) on Lake Simcoe. In the early 20th century, Ballantrae's population declined dramatically due to large-scale deforestation and the erosion of the thin soil of northern Whitchurch Township into virtual sand deserts. Barkey et al., Whitchurch Township, 89; 30f. In 1910, its population was 250; cf. Province of Ontario, Gazatteer and Directory, 1910-1911 (Ingersoll: Union, 1910), p. 46. With the passage of the Reforestation Act (1911), the process of reclaiming these areas slowly began. The Vivian Forest, a large conservation area on the edge of Ballantrae, was established in 1924 for this purpose.
telecommunications networks to retrieve news and scientific, technical, economic, and cultural information from international sources. Cartography thumb An early Western-Han (202 BCE – CE 9) silk (File:Western Han Mawangdui Silk Map.JPG) map found in tomb 3 of Mawangdui, depicting the Kingdom of Changsha and Kingdom of Nanyue in southern China (note: the south direction is oriented at the top, north at the bottom). * Li Yan (Li Yan (Three Kingdoms)) (d. 234) * Sun Jian, governor of Changsha (d. 191) * Yuan Shu, younger half-brother of Yuan Shao (d. 199) The Chinese engaged in large-scale production for overseas export by at least the time of the Tang. This was proven by the discovery of the Belitung shipwreck, a silt-preserved shipwrecked Arabian dhow in the Gaspar Strait near Belitung, which had 63,000 pieces of Tang ceramics, silver, and gold (including a Changsha bowl inscribed with a date: "16th day of the seventh month of the second year of the Baoli reign", or 826 AD, roughly confirmed by radiocarbon dating of star anise at the wreck).
of South Africa military of Apartheid South Africa. Cuba-Namibia Joint Commission Meeting Kicks off in Havana, Radio Habana, Cuba, 5 July 2005 Since independence, Namibia and Cuba have held joint meetings every two years for Economic, Scientific-Technical and Commercial Cooperation. In 2005, it was reported that 1,460 Cuban professionals had worked in Namibia, including 208 in 2005
Commission Meeting Kicks off in Havana , Radio Habana, Cuba, 5 July 2005 Since independence, Namibia and Cuba have held joint meetings every two years for Economic, Scientific-Technical and Commercial Cooperation. In 2005, it was reported that 1,460 Cuban professionals had worked in Namibia, including 208 in 2005. With this African-centred stance, Nigeria readily sent troops to the Congo (Congo Crisis) at the behest of the United Nations
after one in Gabon against President Léon M'ba in February 1964. After receiving word of the coup from the country's vice president, officials in Paris sent paratroopers to Gabon in a matter of hours and M'Ba was quickly restored to power. The Agency of the Francophonie is the main operator of the cultural, scientific, technical, economic and legal cooperation programs decided at the Summits. It is also the legal seat of the Secretary General and is used by him as an administrative support. The agency also contributes to the development of the French language and to the promotion of the diverse languages and cultures of its members, while encouraging mutual understanding between them and the Francophonie. For this reason, it is a place of exchange and dialogue. The Agency's headquarters are in Paris and it has three regional branches in Libreville, Gabon; Lomé, Togo; and Hanoi, Vietnam. Organisation internationale de la Francophonie''Accessed 05 May 2011.'' The '''Adamawa–Ubangi languages''' are a formerly postulated family of languages spoken in Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and South Sudan, by a total of about 12 million people. The family was established by Joseph Greenberg in ''The Languages of Africa'' under the name '''Adamawa–Eastern''' as a primary branch of the Niger–Congo (Niger–Congo languages) family, and itself divided in two branches, Adamawa (Adamawa languages) (''e.g.'' Niellim (Niellim language)) and Ubangian (Ubangian languages) (''e.g.'' Ngbandi (Ngbandi language), on which the creole (Creole language) Sango (Sango language) is based). The closest affiliation of the Adamawa languages is widely believed to be with the Gur languages, and the unity of both the Gur and the Adamawa branch is frequently questioned. The linguist (linguistics) Roger Blench replaced Adamawa–Ubangi with a Savannas (Savanna languages) family, which includes Gur, Ubangian, and the various branches of Adamawa as primary nodes. Dimmendaal (2008) doubts that Ubangian is a subfamily of Niger–Congo at all, preferring to view it as unrelated until proven otherwise. At the end of the 19th century, French colonial authorities began to worry about the growing power of the Mouride brotherhood and its potential to resist French colonialism. Bamba, who had converted various kings and their followers, could probably have raised an army against the French had he wanted. Fearful of his power, the French sentenced Bamba to exile in Gabon (1895–1902) and later Mauritania (1903–1907). However, Bamba's exile fueled legends about his miraculous ability to survive torture, deprivation, and attempted executions, and thousands more flocked to his organization. For example, on the ship to Gabon, forbidden from praying, Bamba is said to have broken his leg-irons, lept overboard into the ocean, and prayed on a prayer rug that miraculously appeared on the surface of the water. In addition, when the French put him in a furnace, he is said to have simply sat down and had tea with the Prophet Muhammad. In a den of hungry lions, it is said the lions slept beside him. - Gabon National Assembly of Gabon - '''A.I. Shlyakhter''' is a Russian physicist who noted that the existence of the natural nuclear fission reactor at Oklo in Gabon gave evidence that the physical fine-structure constant α has changed less than 10 −17 per year over the last two billion years. This idea was developed further by Freeman Dyson. Africa thumb left Jean Ping (File:Jean Ping 080202-F-1644L-081 0YWDF.jpg) the Deputy Prime Minister of Gabon who has a Chinese (Chinese people) father and a black Gabonese mother was elected as Chairperson of the Commission of the African Union on February 1, 2008. thumb left Jerry John Rawlings, the ex-President of Ghana (File:Jerry Rawlings 2.jpg) is the son of a Scottish (Scottish people) father and a black Ghanaian mother. thumb Insigna of the Free French Forces in the Far East (French Indochina (File:Insigna of the Free French Forces in the Far East Langlade Mission.jpg)), Langlade Mission. After the fall of France in 1940, the French colonies (French colonial empire) of Cameroun and French Equatorial Africa (except for Gabon) joined the Free French while the remainder sided with the Vichy Regime. With the addition of French African colonies came a large number of African colonial troops. From July-November 1940, Free French forces fought French troops loyal to Vichy France during the West African Campaign (West Africa Campaign (World War II)). The outcome of this campaign was mixed with the Vichy French claiming victory at the Battle of Dakar and the Free French claiming victory at the Battle of Gabon. The French West African colonies remained Vichy French and the French Equatorial African colonies, now including Gabon, remained Free French. -style "background-color:#CCFFCC" 19 November 10, 2011 Libreville, Gabon Commons:Category:Gabon WikiPedia:Gabon Dmoz:Regional Africa Gabon
journal last Qian first Jialin last2 Wang first2 Jianqiu last3 Li first3 Shuyuan title Oil Shale Development in China journal Oil Shale. A Scientific-Technical Journal publisher Estonian Academy Publishers volume 20 issue 3 pages 356–359 year 2003 url http: www.kirj.ee public oilshale 9_qian_2003_3s.pdf format PDF issn 0208-189X accessdate 2007-06-16 The '''Estonian Football Association''' ('''EJL''') (