, sketch by Juliusz Kossak. Eventually the Commonwealth Sejm voted to raise the funds necessary to resume large scale military operations. Sigismund's and Władysław's final attempt to gain the throne was a new campaign launched on 6 April 1617. Władysław was the nominal commander, but it was hetman Chodkiewicz who had actual control over the army. In October, the towns of Dorogobuzh (''Дорогобуж'', ''Drohobuż'', ''Drohobycz'') and Vyazma (''Вязьма'', ''Wiaźma'') surrendered quickly
Allan and Eddy out of the province, but also by cowing those that remained, often by requiring people to make pledges to the Crown. Clarke (#Clarke), pp. 206–208 Some unrest continued for the remainder of the war (e.g., the Battle at Miramichi (Miramichi, New Brunswick)), although no further large scale military threat occurred. The most significant attempt occurred in the summer of 1777, when John Allan was authorized by Congress to take
has suffered through the large-scale military constructions of the 19th century and also by the Germans during the World War II occupation, who left the remains at Les Pourciaux unrecognisable as dolmens. A cist survives near Fort Tourgis, and Longis Common has remains of an Iron Age site. There are traces of Roman occupation ''A Visitor's Guide to Guernsey, Alderney and Sark", Victor Coysh, 1983 ISBN 0-86190-084-7 including a fort, built in the late 300s, at commons:Alderney - Aurigny
in the foreground. In the 19th century, industry arrived in Herm with the establishment of granite quarries to serve the large scale military fortifications undertaken in the islands. The island was let to tenants by the Crown and was generally off-limits to visitors. When Prince Blücher (Evelyn Princess Blücher) leased the island from the British government during the First World War (World War I), he introduced a colony of wallabies (Wallaby) to the island. Blücher, Evelyn
, Ramla, Lod, Rosh HaAyin, Ness Ziona and Rehovot, as well as many smaller towns (local councils). * 5 The outer ring includes the cities Tayibe, Netanya, Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut, Ashdod , as well as many smaller towns (local councils). '''Operation ''Defensive Shield''''' ( , ''Mivtza Homat Magen'', lit. "Operation Defensive Wall") was a large-scale military operation conducted by the Israel
attempted to resist this tide and maintain the integrity of the Portuguese empire. By 1970, the anti-guerrilla war in Africa was consuming an important part of the Portuguese budget and there was no sign of a final solution in sight. This year was marked by a large-scale military operation in northern Mozambique, the Gordian Knot Operation, which displaced the FRELIMO's bases and destroyed much of the guerrillas' military capacity. At a military level, a part of Guinea-Bissau was de facto independent since 1973, but the capital and the major towns were still under Portuguese control. In Angola and Mozambique, independence movements were only active in a few remote countryside areas from where the Portuguese Army had retreated. However, their impending presence and the fact that they wouldn't go away dominated public anxiety. Throughout the war period Portugal had to deal with increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by most of the international community. A leftist military coup in Lisbon on 24 April 1974 by the ''Movimento das Forças Armadas'' (MFA), overthrow the Estado Novo (Estado Novo (Portugal)) regime headed by Prime-Minister Marcelo Caetano. History The city was founded in 1687 by Portugal as a fortified port and trading center. In 1942 it became the capital of Portuguese Guinea. After the declaration of independence by the anti-colonial guerrillas of PAIGC, in 1973, the capital of the ''de facto'' independent territories was declared to be Madina do Boe, but Bissau remained as the capital of the Portuguese-occupied regions, and the ''de jure'' capital of the entire Portuguese Guinea. When Portugal recognized the independence of Guinea-Bissau and pulled out in 1974 due to the military coup of April 25 (Carnation Revolution) in Lisbon, the two territories merged and Bissau became the capital of the new independent state. The city is known for its annual carnival. thumb upright left Monument du 22 Novembre 1970, Conakry Monument du 22 Novembre 1970 (File:Conakry-1970momunent.JPG) commemorating the victims of the 1970 Portuguese invasion In 1970, conflict between Portuguese forces and the PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde) in neighbouring Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea-Bissau) spilled into the Republic of Guinea when a group of 350 Portuguese troops and Guinean dissidents landed near Conakry, attacked the city (Portuguese invasion of Guinea, 1970), and freed 26 Portuguese prisoners of war held by the PAIGC before retreating, failing to overthrow the government or kill the PAIGC leadership. However, the first regular parachute unit was only created in 1955, by the Portuguese Air Force, as the Parachute ''Caçadores'' Battailon. This unit adopted the green beret, which has become, since then, the principal emblem of the Portuguese paratroopers. The Battailon was expanded to a Regiment and additional parachute battailons were created in the Portuguese overseas territories of Angola (Portuguese Angola), Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) and Guinea (Portuguese Guinea). These units were actively engaged in the Portuguese Colonial War, from 1961 to 1975, being involved both in airborne and air assault operations. In addition to the regular units of paratroopers, in Mozambique were also created the Parachute Special Groups (Special Groups (Portugal)), composed of African irregular troops who wore a maroon beret. In France, the heritage of ''slave name'' from the French and Europeans slave trade can be found in the West Indies (Roots), Haiti. In the 15th century, the rivers of Guinea and Cape Verde islands (Cape Verde) were among the first in Africa explored by the Portuguese. In 1446, Portugal claimed Portuguese Guinea(what is today Guinea-Bissau), but few posts had been established before 1600. In 1630, the Portuguese were settled and governed the territory. Cacheu had become one of the main centers of the (slave trade (Maafa)), which declined in the 19th century. Beyond the ''Comandos'', the Portuguese Armed (Portuguese Armed Forces) and Security Forces used several other commando type forces in the Colonial War in Angola, Mozambique and Guinea (Portuguese Guinea), like the ''Caçadores Especiais'' (Special Operations Troops Centre) (Special Hunters) of the Portuguese Army, the ''Caçadores Paraquedistas'' (Parachute Troops School) (Parachute Hunters) of the Portuguese Air Force, the ''Fuzileiros Especiais'' (Portuguese Marine Corps) (Special Marines) of the Portuguese Navy, the ''Flechas'' (Arrows) of the International and State Defense Police (PIDE) and the ''Grupos Especiais'' (Special Groups (Portugal)) (Special Groups) of the Government of Mozambique. History The Casamance was subject to both French and Portuguese colonial efforts before a border was negotiated in 1888 between the French colony of Senegal and Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea-Bissau) to the south. Portugal lost possession of Casamance, then the commercial hub of its colony Nova Colônia do Sacramento, Uruguay (1680-1777)
Kaúlza de Arriaga (General), O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MOÇAMBIQUE E A PROMOÇÃO DAS SUAS POPULAÇÕES - SITUAÇÃO EM 1974, Kaúlza de Arriaga's published works and texts As part of this redevelopment program, construction of the Cahora Bassa Dam began in 1969 in the Overseas Province of Mozambique (the official designation of Portuguese Mozambique by then). This particular project became intrinsically linked with Portugal's concerns over security in the overseas colonies. The Portuguese government viewed the construction of the dam as testimony to Portugal’s “civilising mission” Allen Isaacman. ''Portuguese Colonial Intervention, Regional Conflict and Post-Colonial Amnesia: Cahora Bassa Dam, Mozambique 1965–2002'', cornell.edu. Retrieved on March 10, 2007 and intended for the dam to reaffirm Mozambican belief in the strength and security of the Portuguese colonial government. The 1960s, however, were crisis years for Portugal. Guerrilla movements (Portuguese Colonial War) emerged in the Portuguese African overseas territories of Angola (Portuguese Angola), Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) and Guinea (Portuguese Guinea) that aimed at liberating those territories from "the last colonial empire". Fighting three guerrilla movements for more than a decade proved to be enormously draining for a small, poor country in terms of labor and financial resources. At the same time, social changes brought about by urbanization, emigration, the growth of the working class, and the emergence of a sizable middle class put new pressures on the political system to liberalize. Instead, Salazar increased repression, and the regime became even more rigid and ossified (Wiktionary:ossified).
WikiPedia:South Ossetia commons:South Ossetia
to the east of modern Benin, was the most significant large-scale military force in the region and it would regularly conduct raids and exact tribute from the coastal kingdoms and the tribal regions.