Places Known For

religious works


OF BIRTH Drohobych, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union, now Ukraine DATE OF DEATH Rabbi '''Yekusiel Yehuda Teitelbaum''' (1808–1883), known as the ''Yetev Lev'', was a Hasidic (Hasidic Judaism) ''Rebbe'' in Austria-Hungary. He was the son of Rabbi Eliezer Nison Teitelbaum, rabbi of Drubitsh (Drohobych), who was the son of the ''Yismach Moshe'' (Rabbi Moshe Teitelbaum; famous Orthodox (Orthodox Judaism) rabbis are sometimes known by the titles of their religious

works) of Ujhel (Sátoraljaújhely), Hungary. He was to become the grandfather of Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum, the rebbe of Satmar (Satmar (Hasidic dynasty)) who migrated to the United States after the Holocaust. Born near Drohobych, Galicia (Galicia (Central Europe)) into a peasant family. Between 1912 and 1914 he studied at the Higher School of Agriculture in Vienna. With the outbreak of the First World War, Melnyk served as an officer in the Austro-Hungarian army


active in community and religious works in various nations of the South Pacific, including Fiji. He has worked and pastored in Lautoka (1960-1966); Beqa (1966); Levuka (1967); Labasa (1968-1973), the Solomon Islands (1971, as a missionary), Dreketi(1968-1972), and Caubati (1974-1977). During this time, he worked as senior lecturer at the South Pacific Bible College in Wainadoi, Fiji. He worked as an evangelist and helped establish missionary work in Waya


'''Yekusiel Yehuda Teitelbaum''' (1808–1883), known as the ''Yetev Lev'', was a Hasidic (Hasidic Judaism) ''Rebbe'' in Austria-Hungary. He was the son of Rabbi Eliezer Nison Teitelbaum, rabbi of Drubitsh (Drohobych), who was the son of the ''Yismach Moshe'' (Rabbi Moshe Teitelbaum; famous Orthodox (Orthodox Judaism) rabbis are sometimes known by the titles of their religious works) of Ujhel (Sátoraljaújhely), Hungary. He was to become the grandfather of Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum


, by the German Turpan expeditions. These expeditions were controlled by the Museum fur Völkerkunde, in Berlin. These pieces consist almost entirely of religious works by Manichaean and Christian writers. Most of the Sogdian religious works are from the 9th and 10th centuries. "Iranian Languages"(2009). Encyclopædia

Anuradhapura Kingdom

the Lovamahapaya; and religious works (like the numerous Buddha statues) are landmarks demonstrating the Anuradhapura period's advancement in sculpting. The city of Anuradhapura In 543 BC, prince Vijaya (Vijaya of Sri Lanka) (543–505 BC) arrived in Sri Lanka, having been banished from his homeland in India. He eventually brought the island under his control and established himself as king. After this, his retinue established villages and colonies throughout the country. One of these was established by Anuradha, a minister of King Vijaya, on the banks of a stream called Kolon and was named Anuradhagama. Wijesooriya (2006), p. 20 In 377 BC, King Pandukabhaya (Pandukabhaya of Sri Lanka) (437–367 BC) made it his capital and developed it into a prosperous city. Blaze (1995), p. 19 Yogasundaram (2008), p. 41 Anuradhapura (Anurapura) was named after the minister who first established the village and after a grandfather of Pandukabhaya who lived there. The name was also derived from the city's establishment on the auspicious asterism (Nakshatra) called Anura. Wijesooriya (2006), p. 27 Anuradhapura was the capital of all the monarchs who ruled the country during in the Anuradhapura Kingdom, with the exception of Kashyapa I (Kashyapa I of Sri Lanka) (473–491), who chose Sigiriya to be his capital. Bandaranayake (2007), p. 6 The city is also marked on Ptolemy's world map. Mendis (1999), p. 7 History King Pandukabhaya, the founder and first ruler of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, fixed village boundaries in the country and established an administration system by appointing village headmen. He constructed hermitages, houses for the poor, cemeteries, and irrigation tanks. Wijesooriya (2006), p. 28 He brought a large portion of the country under the control of the Anuradhapura Kingdom. However, it was not until the reign of Dutthagamani (161–137 BC) that the whole country was unified under the Anuradhapura Kingdom. Siriweera (2004), p. 25 He defeated 32 rulers in different parts of the country before he killed Elara (Elara (monarch)), the South Indian ruler who was occupying Anuradhapura, and ascended to the throne. Moratuwagama (1996), p. 225 The chronicle ''Mahavamsa'' describes his reign with much praise, and devotes 11 chapters out of 37 for his reign. Siriweera (2004), p. 27 He is described as both a warrior king and a devout Buddhist. Ludowyk (1985), p. 61 After unifying the country, he helped establish Buddhism on a firm and secure base, and built several monasteries and shrines including the Ruwanweli Seya Moratuwagama (1996), p. 252 and Lovamahapaya. Moratuwagama (1996), p. 238 Another notable king of the Anuradhapura Kingdom is Valagamba (Valagamba of Sri Lanka) (103, 89–77 BC), also known as Vatthagamani Abhaya, who was overthrown by five invaders (The Five Dravidians) from South India. He regained his throne after defeating these invaders one by one and unified the country again under his rule. Wijesooriya (2006), p. 75 Saddha Tissa (137–119 BC), Mahaculi Mahatissa (77–63 BC), Vasabha (67–111), Gajabahu I (114–136), Dhatusena (455–473), Aggabodhi I (571–604) and Aggabodhi II (604–614) were among the rulers who held sway over the entire country after Dutthagamani and Valagamba. Rulers from Kutakanna Tissa (44–22 BC) to Amandagamani (29–19 BC) also managed to keep the whole country under the rule of the Anuradhapura Kingdom. Siriweera (2004), p. 35 Other rulers could not maintain their rule over the whole island, and independent regions often existed in ''Ruhuna'' and ''Malayarata'' (hill country) for limited periods. During the final years of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, rebellions sprang up and the authority of the kings gradually declined. Siriweera (2004), p. 36 By the time of Mahinda V (982–1017), the last king of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, the rule of the king had become so weak that he could not even properly organize the collection of taxes. Wijesooriya (2006), p. 114 During the times of Vasabha, Mahasena (Mahasena of Sri Lanka) (274–301) and Dhatusena, the construction of large irrigation tanks and canals was given priority. Vasabha constructed 11 tanks and 12 canals, Wijesooriya (2006), p. 81 Mahasen constructed 16 tanks and a large canal, Wijesooriya (2006), p. 88 and Dhatusena built 18 tanks. Wijesooriya (2006), p. 93 Most of the other kings have also built irrigation tanks throughout ''Rajarata'', the area around Anuradhapura. By the end of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, a large and intricate irrigation network was available throughout Rajarata to support the agriculture of the country. Siriweera (2004), p. 171 Arrival of Buddhism thumb The Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi today, to which the Kingdom was offered by Devanampiya Tissa. alt Large Bo tree (Ficus religiosa) surrounded by a white wall and a golden fence. (File:Photograph of Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Anuradhapura Sri Lanka.jpg) One of the most notable events during the Anuradhapura Kingdom was the introduction of Buddhism to the country. A strong alliance existed between Devanampiya Tissa (250–210 BC) and Ashoka of India, Mendis (1999), p. 11 who sent Arahat Mahinda, four monks, and a novice being sent to Sri Lanka. Wijesooriya (2006), p. 34 They encountered Devanampiya Tissa at Mihintale. After this meeting, Devanampiya Tissa embraced Buddhism the order of monks was established in the country. Wijesooriya (2006), p. 38 Devanampiya Tissa, guided by Arahat Mahinda, took steps to firmly establish Buddhism in the country. Ludowyk (1985), p. 46 Soon afterwards, the bhikkhuni Sanghamitta arrived from India in order to establish the ''Bhikkhuni sasana'' (order of nuns) in the country. Ludowyk (1985), p. 49 She brought along with her a sapling from the Sri Maha Bodhi, the tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment (Bodhi), which was then planted in Anuradhapura. Wijesooriya (2006), p. 41 Devanampiya Tissa bestowed on his kingdom the newly planted Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi. Ludowyk (1985), p. 55 Thus this is the establishment of Buddhism in Sri Lanka Arrival of the Sacred Tooth Relic During the reign of Kithsirimevan (301–328), Sudatta, the sub king of Kalinga (Kalinga (India)), and Hemamala brought the Tooth Relic of the Buddha to Sri Lanka because of unrest in their country. Blaze (1995), p. 58 Kithsirimevan carried it in procession and placed the relic in a mansion named ''Datadhatughara''. Wijesooriya (2006), p. 89 He ordered this procession to be held annually, and this is still done as a tradition in the country. The Tooth Relic of the Buddha soon became one of the most sacred objects in the country, and a symbol of kingship. The person who was in possession of the Tooth Relic would be the rightful ruler of the country. Blaze (1995), p. 59 Therefore it was often enshrined within the royal palace itself. Rambukwelle (1993), p. 51 Invasions Several invasions have been made against the Anuradhapura Kingdom, all of which were launched from South India. The first invasion recorded in the history of the country is during the reign of Suratissa (Suratissa of Sri Lanka) (247–237 BC), where he was overthrown by two horse dealers from South India named Sena and Guththika. After ruling the country for 22 years, they were defeated by Asela (Asela of Sri Lanka) (215–205 BC), who was in turn overthrown by another invasion led by a Chola prince named Elara (Elara (monarch)) (205–161 BC). Wijesooriya (2006), p. 47 Elara ruled for 44 years before being defeated by Dutthagamani. Wijesooriya (2006), p. 49 However, the Mahavamsa records that these foreign kings ruled the country fairly and lawfully. The country was invaded again in 103 BC by five Dravidian chiefs (The Five Dravidians), Pulahatta, Bahiya, Panya Mara, Pilaya Mara and Dathika, who ruled until 89 BC when they were defeated by Valagamba. Another invasion occurred in 433, and the country fell under the control of six rulers from South India. These were Pandu, Parinda, Khudda Parinda, Tiritara, Dathiya and Pithiya, who were defeated by Dhathusena who regained power in 459. Siriweera (2004), p. 42 More invasions and raids from South India occurred during the reigns of Sena I (833–853) Wijesooriya (2006), p. 108 and Udaya III (935–938). Wijesooriya (2006), p. 112 The final invasion during the Anuradhapura Kingdom, which ended the kingdom and left the country under the rule of the Cholas, took place during the reign of Mahinda V. Siriweera (2004), p. 44 However, none of these invaders could extend their rule to ''Ruhuna (Kingdom of Ruhuna)'', the southern part of the country, and Sri Lankan rulers and their heirs always organized their armies from this area and managed to regain their throne. Throughout the history of Sri Lanka, ''Ruhuna'' served as a base for resistance movements. End of the kingdom In 993, the Chola Emperor Rajaraja I invaded Sri Lanka, forcing the then Sri Lankan ruler Mahinda V to flee to the southern part of the country. The Mahavamsa describes the rule of Mahinda V as weak, and the country was suffering from poverty by this time. It further mentions that his army rose against him due to lack of wages. Taking advantage of this situation, Rajendra I son of Rajaraja I, launched a large invasion in 1017. Mahinda V was captured and taken to India, and the Cholas sacked the city of Anuradhapura. They moved the capital to Polonnaruwa and subsequent Sri Lankan rulers who came into power after the Chola reign continued to use Polonnaruwa as the capital, thus ending the Anuradhapura Kingdom. Siriweera (2004), p. 45 Administration

Safavid dynasty

: The Timurid and Safavid Periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-20094-6, pp. 948–65. P. 950: "In day-to-day affairs, the language chiefly used at the Safavid court and by the great military and political officers, as well as the religious dignitaries, was Turkish, not Persian; and the last class of persons wrote their religious works mainly in Arabic. Those who wrote in Persian were either lacking in proper tuition in this tongue, or wrote outside Iran and hence at a distance from centers where Persian was the accepted vernacular, endued with that vitality and susceptibility to skill in its use which a language can have only in places where it truly belongs." Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

on Christmas Eve 1741. Four years later, at the invitation of Hendrick Theyanoguin, he came to live among the Mohawk (Mohawk Nation). He became fluent in the Onondaga language and assisted Conrad Weiser in negotiating an alliance between the English and the Iroquois in Onondaga (Onondaga (village)) (near present-day Syracuse, New York). Zeisberger also produced dictionaries and religious works in Iroquoian and Algonquian (Algonquian languages). Lehigh and New England Railway


0394400267. It has also been argued that the Black Death prompted a new wave of piety, manifested in the sponsorship (Patron#Arts) of religious works of art. The End of Europe's Middle Ages: The Black Death University of Calgary website. (Retrieved on April 5, 2007) However, this does not fully explain why the Renaissance occurred specifically in Italy in the 14th century. The Black

-Portrait'' (Florence, Uffizi). Her work was allied to the worldly tradition of Cremona, influenced greatly by the art of Parma and Mantua, in which even religious works were imbued with extreme delicacy and charm. From Gatti, she seems to have absorbed elements reminiscent of Correggio, beginning a trend in Cremonese painting of the late 16th century. This new direction is reflected in ''Lucia, Minerva and Europa Anguissola Playing Chess'' (1555; Poznan, N. Mus.) in which portraiture

;September, feast-day of the Nativity of the Virgin. Sadie, p. 833 His instruction in music began at the age of six with his father, Bartolomeo, ''maestro al cembalo'' ("Master of the harpsichord"). Considered a child prodigy, Cherubini studied counterpoint and dramatic style at an early age. By the time he was thirteen, he had composed several religious works. Early life Ludwig was born in Munich, the eldest son

Vatican City

. The Concordat is credited with giving new life to the Society of Jesus, whose property increased with its influence and reputation. right 230px thumb St. Peter's Square in Vatican City. (Image:Place-Saint-Pierre-foule.jpg) The Mujahedeen Army, a group of insurgents in Iraq (w:Iraq) has posted a message on the Internet threatening attacks on Vatican City (w:Vatican City) in Rome, Italy (w:Rome, Italy). Vatican City (w:Vatican City) has not released the contents or details of the letter, but news agencies in Iran report that the letter contains a discussion about the United Nations (w:United Nations) resolution against Iran, which imposes sanctions. The Vatican (w:Vatican City) reported that Pope Benedict XVI (w:Pope Benedict XVI) was the first to know of the Jesuits' decision and immediately gave his required approval. The information was announced that the Pope had accepted an invitation to visit the United Kingdom (w:United Kingdom) from Prime Minister (w:Prime Minister) Gordon Brown (w:Gordon Brown). The latter had visited the Vatican City (w:Vatican City) three times and had invited the Pope to come to Great Britain in February 2009. Downing Street (w:Downing Street) is expected to confirm the arrangements later today. This visit would make the first Papal visit to the UK since Pope John Paul II (w:Pope John Paul II)'s visit in 1982. However, John Paul's visit was on a pastoral basis, so this is set to be the first state visit to the UK by a pope in that it is the first to follow an official invitation. Leaders from the Vatican (w:Vatican City) and the Muslim (w:Muslim) community around the world have deplored the vote as an attack on religious freedom. The Swiss government has also expressed shame at the result, and expects repercussions from Muslim countries with which it does business. Some politicians from other countries, however, defended the ban.


Sigismund Holbein painted religious works in the late Gothic (Gothic art) style. Hans the Elder was a pioneer and leader in the transformation of German art from the Gothic to the Renaissance style. DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH Augsburg, Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire DATE OF DEATH 1524 Biography He was the elder brother, by about three years, of Hans Holbein the Younger and like his brother was born in Augsburg (which today is in Bavaria, but then was a free imperial city), a center of art, culture and trade at that time. His father Hans Holbein the Elder was a pioneer and leader in the transformation of German art from the Gothic (Gothic art) to the Renaissance style. In his studio both his sons, Ambrosius and Hans, received their first painting lessons as well as the an introduction to the crafts of the goldsmith, jeweller and printmaker. During this first stay in England, Holbein worked largely for a humanist circle with ties to Erasmus. Among his commissions was the portrait of William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury (William Warham), who owned a Holbein portrait of Erasmus. ''Portrait of William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury''. (:File:William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury by Hans Holbein the Younger.jpg) Holbein also painted the Bavarian astronomer and mathematician Nicholas Kratzer, a tutor of the More family whose notes appear on Holbein's sketch for their group portrait. Strong, 4. ''Portrait of Nicholas Kratzer'' (:File:Hans Holbein d. J. 037.jpg). Although Holbein did not work for the king during this visit, he painted the portraits of courtiers such as Sir Henry Guildford and his wife Lady Mary, ''Portrait of Sir Henry Guildford'' (:File:Hans Holbein d. J. 057.jpg) and ''Portrait of Mary, Lady Guildford'' (:File:Hans Holbein the Younger - Mary, Lady Guildford.jpg). and of Anne Lovell, recently identified as the subject of ''Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling''. Wilson, 140; Foister, 30; King, 43–49. Anne Lovell's husband was Sir Francis Lovell, an esquire of the body to Henry VIII (Henry VIII of England). In May 1527, "Master Hans" also painted a panorama of the siege of Thérouanne for the visit of French Ambassadors. With Kratzer, he devised a ceiling covered in planetary signs, under which the visitors dined. Strong, 4; Claussen, 50. The chronicler Edward Hall described the spectacle as showing "the whole Earth, environed with the sea, like a very map or cart". North, 21. * Commons:Category:Bayern WikiPedia:Bavaria Dmoz:Regional Europe Germany States Bavaria

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