remaining from the Guanyin Temple in the former Maimaicheng district is now under national protection. Since 1778 Urga may have had around 10,000 monks. They were regulated by a monastic rule called the Internal Rule of the Grand Monastery or ''Yeke Kuriyen-u Doto'adu Durem'' (for example, in 1797 or the second year of Jiaqing a decree of the 4th Jebtsundamba forbade "singing, playing with archery, myagman, chess, usury and smoking"). Urga was visited by many foreign envoys and travelers, including Egor Fedorovich Timkovskii (1820), N.M.Przhevalsky, Pyotr Kozlov, M. De Bourbolon (1860) and A.M.Pozdneev. The Russian embassy of 130 persons which arrived in Urga in January 1806 included Count Yury Golovkin, Count Jan Potocki, Julius Klaproth and Andrey Yefimovich Martynov. Timkowski, George ''Travels of the Russian mision through Mongolia to China and residence in Peking in the years 1820-1821'' Vol.1, 1827 London, p. 128 In 1863 the Russian Consulate of Urga was opened in a newly built two-storey building. A small onion-domed Chapel of the Holy Trinity was opened the same year. - Kyakhta Кяхта Republic of Buryatia - Aftermath News of the treaty aroused considerable suspicion amongst the British negotiators at the Simla Convention, who feared that Russia might use the treaty to gain influence on Tibetan matters. While China ultimately did not sign the Simla Convention, Treaty text of the Simla Convention of 1914 The Chinese government initialed but refused to ratify the Agreement. See Goldstein, Melvyn C., ''A History of Modern Tibet'', p75 for details a similar treaty, the tripartite Treaty of Kyakhta, was signed by Mongolia, the Republic of China and Russia on 25 May 1915. Mongolia - Modern Mongolia, 1911-84, Country Studies US The agreement affirmed Mongolia's complete autonomy in internal matters and Russian privileges in Mongolia, at the same time formally recognized China's suzerainty over the country. Treaty text quoted from B. L. Putnam Weale, ''The Fight For The Republic In China'' When Outer Mongolia declared its independence in 1911 from the Qing, 100 households under former vice-governor Sumya fled from Xinjiang via Russian border to Mongolia. They were resettled by the Khalkha in the west of Kyakhta. Sumiya and his Tsahars contributed to revolution of 1921 (Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921). They are known as the Selenge's Tsahar since settled in Selenge (Selenge Province). While organization of camel caravans varied over time and the territory tranversed, Owen Lattimore's account of caravan life in northern China in the 1920s gives a good idea of what camel transport is like. In his ''Desert Road to Turkestan'' he describes mostly camel caravans run by Han Chinese and Hui (Hui people) firms from eastern China (Hohhot, Baotou) or Xinjiang (Qitai (Qitai County) (then called Gucheng), Barkol (Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County)), plying the routes connecting those two regions through the Gobi Desert by way of Inner (Inner Mongolia) (or, before Mongolia's independence, Outer (Mongolia)) Mongolia. Before Outer Mongolia's effective independence of China (circa 1920) the same firms also ran caravans into Urga, Uliassutai, and other centers of Outer Mongolia, and to the Russian border at Kyakhta, but with the creation of an international border, those routes came into decline. Less important caravan routes served various other areas of northern China, such as most centres in today's Gansu, Ningxia, and northern Qinghai. Some of the oldest Hohhot-based caravan firms had a history dating to the early Qing Dynasty. Camel caravan organization While organization of camel caravans varied over time and the territory tranversed, Owen Lattimore's account of caravan life in northern China in the 1920s gives a good idea of what camel transport is like. In his ''Desert Road to Turkestan'' he describes mostly camel caravans run by Han Chinese and Hui (Hui people) firms from eastern China (Hohhot, Baotou) or Xinjiang (Qitai (Qitai County) (then called Gucheng), Barkol (Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County)), plying the routes connecting those two regions through the Gobi Desert by way of Inner (Inner Mongolia) (or, before Mongolia's independence, Outer (Mongolia)) Mongolia. Before Outer Mongolia's effective independence of China (circa 1920) the same firms also ran caravans into Urga, Uliassutai, and other centers of Outer Mongolia, and to the Russian border at Kyakhta, but with the creation of an international border, those routes came into decline. Less important caravan routes served various other areas of northern China, such as most centers in today's Gansu, Ningxia, and northern Qinghai. Some of the oldest Hohhot-based caravan firms had a history dating to the early Qing Dynasty. thumb right 200px The last Zunghar Khan Dawachi (Image:Dawachi.jpg) At the death of Galdan Tseren in 1745 the Zunghars appeared still strong. However, the sudden collapse of the Khanate stemmed from Galdan Tseren's sons. C.P.Atwood-Ibid, 623 In 1749 Galden Tseren's son Lamdarjaa seized the throne from his younger brother. He was overthrown by his cousin Dawaachi and the Khoid noble Amursanaa. But they began to fight each other for succession. In 1753 Dawaachi's 3 relatives ruling the Dorbod surrendered to the Qing, and Amursanaa followed. In spring 1755, the Qing Dynasty attacked Ghulja, and captured the Zunghar khan. Amursana requested to be declared Zunghar Khan, but Qianlong emperor would only make him Khan of Khoit, one among four equal Khans. In summer, Amursana along with Chingünjav led a revolt against the Qing. Over the next two years, the Manchu and Mongol armies of the Qing Dynasty destroyed the remnants of the Zunghar khanate. Their last leader, Prince Amursanaa revolted against the Qing, and fled north to seek refuge with the Russians. (Amursana died there of smallpox. In the spring of 1762 his frozen body was brought to Kyakhta for the Manchu to see. The Russians then buried it, refusing the Manchu request that it be handed over for posthumous punishment. G. Patrick March,'Eastern Destiny: Russian in Asia and the Pacific, 1996, Chapter 12 ) To commemorate his military victory, Qianlong established the Puning Temple Complex of Chengde in 1755. In 1782, Bentham travelled along the Siberian route to China, visiting Kyakhta and its Chinese pendant Naimatchin, and then spending over a month at the border fluvial city of Nerchinsk, where he was able to study Chinese ship designs, particularly those of junks (junk (sailing)). Back in Europe, he campaigned for the introduction of watertight compartments, an idea which he acknowledged he had got from seeing large Chinese vessels in Siberia. thumb right 300px Modern and historical ranges of sea otter (File:Sea-otter-map.jpg) subspecies The most profitable furs were those of sea otters, especially the northern sea otter, ''Enhydra lutris kenyoni'', which inhabited the coastal waters between the Columbia River to the south and Cook Inlet to the north. The fur of the Californian southern sea otter, ''E. l. nereis'', was less highly prized and thus less profitable. After the northern sea otter was hunted to local extinction, maritime fur traders shifted to California until the southern sea otter was likewise nearly extinct. Fur trade, Northwest Power & Conservation Council The British and American maritime fur traders took their furs to the Chinese port of Guangzhou (Canton), where they worked within the established Canton System. Furs from Russian America were mostly sold to China via the Mongolian trading town of Kyakhta, which had been opened to Russian trade by the 1727 Treaty of Kyakhta. , ''Altanbulag khudaldaany Chölööt büs''). Altanbulag began as a trading outpost across the Kyakhta River from the Russian town of Kyakhta during Qing Empire (Qing Dynasty) rule of Mongolia. On 13 March 1921, a Soviet (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic)-backed People’s Provisional Government of Mongolia was established at Altanbulag. This government went on to oust the government of Roman Ungern von Sternberg and later formed the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924. Treaty of Kyakhta (1729) Just before his death, Peter the Great decided to deal with the border problem. The result was the Treaty of Kyakhta. This defined the northern border of what is now Mongolia (except for Tuva) and opened up the Kyakhta caravan (camel train) trade southeast to Peking.
;, Ginger is also "singing in a club in Waikiki", possibly the same gig mentioned by the radio announcer where she was "still wearing the evening gown from her last performance". "When I first broke into show business, I used to work with a magician", Ginger confesses in Season 1 Episode 33 "It's Magic". In ''Gilligan's Island'''s pilot, actress Kit Smythe, was hired to portray Ginger; who was then a secretary. '''Ala Moana''' (meaning ''path
, the legend of the "Singing River" was born. It is said that on still summer and autumn evenings, the sad song of the Pascagoulas can still be heard near the river. Modern history thumb right 300px A view of a section of the Ingalls Shipbuilding Company showing various United States Navy ships under construction in Pascagoula (Image:Ingalls Shipbuilding.JPEG) The region changed hands over the next century, being occupied variously by the English, French, and Spanish until well
year of Jiaqing a decree of the 4th Jebtsundamba forbade "singing, playing with archery, myagman, chess, usury and smoking"). Executions were forbidden where the holy temples of the Bogd Jebtsundama could be seen, so capital punishment was carried out a certain distance away from the city. In 1839 the 5th Bogd Jebtsundamba moved his residence to Gandan Hill, an elevated position to the west of the Baruun Damnuurchin markets. A part of the city was moved to nearby Tolgoit. The reason given for this move was that prevailing north-western winds brought the impure air of the Baruun Damnuurchin markets (known for its many Chinese and Russian shops as well as brothels) onto the inviolably sacred area of the Bogd Jebtsundamba's Zuun Khuree temple complex, located just to the east of the markets. Despite this, in 1855 the part of the camp that moved to Tolgoit was brought back to its 1778 location and the 7th Bogd Jebtsundamba moved back to the Zuun Khuree permanently. The Gandan Monastery flourished as a center of philosophical studies (''tsanid''). Women were not allowed to enter the area and its Yellow Hat monks were forbidden to go to the lay quarters (''khoroo'') where Red Hat sect monks freely took wives. Urga was visited by many foreign envoys and travelers, including Egor Fedorovich Timkovskii (1820), N.M.Przhevalsky, Pyotr Kozlov, M. De Bourbolon (1860) and A.M.Pozdneev. The Russian embassy of 130 persons which arrived in Urga in January 1806 included Count Yury Golovkin, Count Jan Potocki, Julius Klaproth and Andrey Yefimovich Martynov. Timkowski, George ''Travels of the Russian mision through Mongolia to China and residence in Peking in the years 1820-1821'' Vol.1, 1827 London, p. 128 In 1863 the Russian Consulate of Urga was opened in a newly built two-storey building on Consul Hill. A small onion-domed Chapel of the Holy Trinity was opened the same year. There were protests from some Urga monks who complained that the Consulate on Consul Hill was higher than the sacred pole of the Bogd Jebtsundamba. Most of the major Mongolian khans and nobles had representative residence quarters in Urga located in the south-east and south-west ''khoroo'' lay quarters which they occasionally visited. The south-west lay quarters also included the Tibetan and Buryat quarters and had a number of Red Hat temples, shamanic shrines as well as Yellow Hat temples. The quarters (''Amban Khan Khoroo'') of the Mongol and Manchu governors of Urga were located in the ''Zuun Omnod Khoroo'' (Southeast Khoroo) lay quarters. thumb center 600px A 1913 panorama of Urga. The large circular compound in the middle is the Zuun Khuree temple-palace complex. The Gandan temple complex is to the left. The palaces of the Bogd are to the south of the river. To the far bottom right of the painting is the Maimaicheng district. To its left are the white buildings of the Russian consulate area. The Manjusri monastery can be seen on Mount Bogd Khan Uul at the bottom-right of the painting (File:Jugder3.jpg) File:1913 a street in Khuree.jpg 1913 color photo of Dechingalav temple (1739). To its right is the smaller golden roof of the Abtai Khan ger temple (1585). To the left is the Maidar temple (1838) and edge of the big Bat Tsagaan temple (1654). File:Jugder4.jpg Detail of the Maimaicheng and Russian consulate in Jugder's 1913 painting. File:Judger2.jpg Detail of the South-East Lay Quarters and surrounding areas in Jugder's 1913 painting. File:Jugder1.jpg Detail of Manjusri monastery on Mount Bogd Khan Uul in Jugder's 1913 painting. File:1913 a monastery in Khuree.jpg Maidar Temple (1838) of Zuun Khuree in Urga photographed in 1913. File:1913 in Khuree.jpg 1913 color photo of Gandan Monastery. File:1913 The gate of Yellow Palace in Khuree.jpg 1913 color photo of the ceremonial Gate of Zuun Khuree. File:1913 Lama of Yellow Palace in Khuree.jpg 1913 color photo of Mongol Lamas of Zuun Khuree wearing Buddhist robes togas. File:June 23, 1913 in Khuree.jpg 1913 photo of monks on Tasgan Hill facing the city to the south. File:1913 A married woman in Khuree.jpg 1913 photo of Mongol woman next to the ''Khais'' (hedge fence) of Zuun Khuree. Urga and the Kyakhta Trade Following the Treaty of Kyakhta in 1727 Urga (Ulan Bator) was a major point of the Kyakhta trade between Russia and China - mostly Siberian furs for Chinese cloth and later tea. The route ran south to Urga, southeast across the Gobi to Kalgan and southeast over the mountains to Peking. Urga was also a collection point for goods coming from further west. These were either sent to China or shipped north to Russia via Kyakhta because of legal restrictions and the lack of good trade routes to the west. By 1908 Lindon Wallace Bates, The Russian Road to China,1910 there was a Russian quarter with a few hundred merchants and a Russian club and informal Russian mayor. East of the main town was the Russian consulate built in 1863 with an Orthodox church, post office and 20 Cossack guards. It was fortified in 1900 and briefly occupied by troops during the Boxer Rebellion. There was a telegraph line north to Kyakhta and southeast to Kalgan and weekly postal service along these routes. Beyond the Russian consulate was the Chinese trading post called Maimaicheng and nearby the palace of the Manchu viceroy. With the growth of Western trade at the Chinese ports the tea trade to Russia declined,some Chinese merchants left and wool became the main export. Manufactured goods still came from Russia but most were now brought from Kalgan by caravan. The annual trade was estimated at 25 million rubles, nine tenths in Chinese hands and one tenth Russian. Revolutions of 1911 and 1921 and Communist era thumb left 100px Sanduo (三多), an ethnic Mongol, was the 62nd and last Amban Qing Amban (File:San Duo.jpg) (1910-1911) of Urga. thumb 200px Outdoor market near Gandan hill in 1972. State Department Store in the background (File:Dzah.jpg) thumb 200px Green areas were increased in the city center during the Communist era. (File:FoliageUB7.jpg) The Moscow trade expedition of the 1910s estimated the population of Urga at 60,000 based on Nikolay Przhevalsky's study in the 1870s. From Khutagtiin Khuree to Niislel Khuree. Presentation of the Director of the General Archives Authority D.Ulziibaatar. The city's population swelled during the Naadam festival and major religious festivals to more than 100,000. In 1919 the number of monks had reached 20,000, up from 13,000 in 1810. In 1910 the ''amban'' Sando went to quell a major fight between Gandan lamas and Chinese traders started by an incident at the Da Yi Yu shop in the Baruun Damnuurchin market district. He was unable to bring the lamas under control and was forced to flee back to his quarters. In 1911, with the Qing Dynasty in China headed for total collapse, Mongolian leaders in Ikh Khüree for Naadam met in secret on Mount Bogd Khan Uul and resolved to end 220 years of Manchu control of their country. On December 29, 1911 the 8th Jeptsundamba Khutughtu (Bogd Khan) was declared ruler of an independent Mongolia (Outer Mongolia (1911–1919)) and assumed the title Bogd Khan. Khüree as the seat of the Jebtsundamba Khutugtu was the logical choice for the capital of the new state. However, in the tripartite Kyakhta agreement of 1915 (between Russia, China, Mongolia), Mongolia's status was changed to mere autonomy. In 1919, Mongolian nobles, over the opposition of the Bogd Khan, agreed with the Chinese resident Chen Yi on a settlement of the "Mongolian question" along Qing-era lines, but before this settlement could be put into effect, Khüree was occupied by the troops of Chinese warlord Xu Shuzheng, who forced the Mongolian nobles and clergy to renounce autonomy completely. In 1921 the city changed hands twice. First, in February 4, 1921, a mixed Russian Mongolian force led by White Russian (White Movement) warlord Roman von Ungern-Sternberg captured the city, freeing the Bogd Khan from Chinese imprisonment and killing a part of the Chinese garrison. Baron Ungern's capture of Urga was followed by clearing out Mongolia's small gangs of demoralized Chinese soldiers and, at the same time, looting and murder of foreigners, including a vicious pogrom that killed off the '''Peace Bridge''' in Mongolia is a bridge built in 1963 in the city centre of Ulan Bator, the capital of Mongolia, with technical and financial assistance from China (People's Republic of China). * In Moldova, the Chişinău-controlled Dubăsari district is split into five pieces, of which two are enclaves within Transnistria. Transnistria is ''de facto'' independent, but not recognized by any UN members. * In Mongolia, the municipality of Ulan Bator is divided into three parts, two of which are enclaves in Töv Province. * In New Zealand, the Kawerau District is an enclave within the Whakatane District. - align center 30px border (File:Flag of Mongolia.svg) '''Mongolia''' Монгол улс (''Mongol uls'') 35px (File:Monggol ulus.svg) (''Mongγol ulus'') Ulaanbaatar (Ulan Bator) align right 1,564,115.75 align right e 2,754,685 (2010 Census) align right 1.75 align center Mongolian tögrög (MNT) align center Mongolian (Mongolian language) Head of State: Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj Head of Government: Sükhbaataryn Batbold - Asashōryū whose real name is Dolgorsuren Dagvadorj and hailing from Ulan Bator (w:Ulan Bator), Mongolia, started the tournament fourteen days earlier with an opening-day win over komusubi Kisenosato. His tournament win creates a new record with yokozuna (w:Yokozuna_(sumo)#Yokozuna) becoming only the fourth man to win 23 Emperors Cups. He now is only one win behind Kitanoumi (24), but a long way from both Chiyonofuji (31) and Taiho (32).
煌) 鸣沙山 , meaning "Singing-Sand Mountain"), named after the sound of the wind whipping off the dunes, the singing sand phenomenon. Dunhuang commands a strategic position at the crossroads of the ancient Southern Silk Route and the main road leading from India via Lhasa to Mongolia and Southern Siberia, as well as controlling the entrance to the narrow Hexi Corridor, which led straight to the heart
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Leagues are broadcast on local channels. The winner of the Major League (Vysshaya Liga ) is held
. All 132 passengers (including a group of Panamanian dentists on their way to a convention) were killed. Accident Database, planecrashinfo.com The Bahá'í temple in Panama City, Panama (Panama City), completed 1972, designed by Peter Tillotson. It serves as the mother temple of Latin America. It is perched on a high cliff, "Cerro Sonsonate" ("Singing Hill"), overlooking the city, and is constructed
locally on 107.4MHz. Go next thumb 250px Singing sand dunes (File:Singing sand dunes.jpg) *
. Havelsan is mostly active in the fields of C4ISR, naval combat systems, E-government applications, reconnaissance surveillance and intelligence systems, management information systems, simulation and training systems, logistic support, homeland security systems and energy management systems. - Ankara align center ESB align center LTAC Esenboğa International Airport - ; '''Ankara, Turkey:''' # "Singing a’ Capella in the Dark" – 3:52 The building