Places Known For

quot representing


Roman Kingdom

") representing the combined military and economic strength of the Roman people. Although the word ''Capitolium'' (pl. ''Capitolia'') could be used to refer to any temple dedicated to the Capitoline Triad, it referred especially to the temple on the Capitoline Hill in Rome known as ''aedes (aedes (Roman)) Iovis Optimi Maximi Capitolini'' ("the temple of the Best, Greatest, Capitoline Jupiter"). The temple was built under the reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last


Portuguese India

'' their royal crown in addition to gaining an imperial one, becoming King-Emperors. After the Mughal Emperor was deposed by the British East India Company, and after the company itself was dissolved, the title "Empress of India" (or ''Kaiser-i-Hind'', a form coined by the orientalist G.W. Leitner (Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner) in a deliberate attempt to dissociate British imperial rule from that of preceding dynasties) B.S. Cohn, "Representing Authority in Victorian India", in E. Hobsbawm and T. Ranger (eds.), ''The Invention of Tradition'' (1983), 165-209, esp. 201-2. was taken by Queen Victoria from 1 May 1876, and proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1877. The title was introduced nineteen years after the formal incorporation into the British Empire of Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent, comprising most of modern-day India (excluding the Portuguese India, the State of Sikkim, and the enclaves of French India), Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Burma (though the latter would be made a separate colony in 1937). Prime Minister (Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) Benjamin Disraeli is usually credited with the title's creation. History of the Monarchy, Victoria thumb The 1931 series celebrated the inauguration of New Delhi (Image:Inauguration of New Delhi 1931.jpg) as the seat of government. The one rupee stamp shows George V with the "Secretariat Building, New Delhi" and Dominion Columns. Significant losses to the Dutch in Portuguese India and Southeast Asia during the 17th century brought an end to the Portuguese trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean. Brazil became Portugal's most valuable colony until, as part of the wave of independence movements (Decolonization of the Americas) that swept the Americas during the early 19th century, it broke away in 1822. Portugal's Empire was reduced to its colonies on the African coastline (which were expanded inland during the Scramble for Africa in the late 19th century), East Timor, and enclaves in India and Macau. *''Ceylon Government-General'' All of India below a line running approximately from Portuguese (Portuguese colonial empire) Goa (Portuguese India) to the coastline of the Bay of Bengal. The Roman Catholic Brahmin caste among the Goan Catholics and Mangalorean Catholics are descended from Konkani Brahmins who converted to Roman Catholicism during the Portuguese colonial rule (Portuguese India) in Goa. Terminology The Saint Thomas Christians are so called due to their reverence for Saint Thomas the Apostle, who is said to have brought Christianity to India. The name dates to the period of Portuguese colonization (Portuguese India). They are also known, especially locally, as the ''Nasrani'' or ''Nasrani Mappila''. "Nasrani" is a term meaning "Christian"; it appears to be derived from Nazareth, Jesus' hometown. Mappila is an honorific applied to members of non-Indian faiths, including Muslims (''Jonaka Mappila'') and Jews (''Yuda Mappila''). Županov, Ines G. (2005). ''Missionary Tropics: The Catholic Frontier in India (16th-17th centuries)'', p. 99 and note. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11490-5 Bindu Malieckal (2005) Muslims, Matriliny, and A Midsummer Night's Dream: European Encounters with the Mappilas of Malabar, India; The Muslim World Volume 95 Issue 2 page 300 Some Syriac Christians of former Travancore continue to attach this honorific title to their names. ''The Mappila fisherfolk of Kerala: a study in inter-relationship between habitat, technology, economy, society, and culture'' (1977), P. R. G. Mathur, Anthropological Survey of India, Kerala Historical Society, p. 1 The Indian government designates members of the community as "Syrian Christians", a term originating with the Dutch colonial authority (Dutch India) distinguishing the Saint Thomas Christians, who used Syriac (Syriac language) as the liturgical language, from newly evangelized Christians following Latin liturgy. Vadakkekara, Benedict (2007). ''Origin of Christianity in India: a Historiographical Critique'', p. 52. Media House Delhi. The term ''Syrian'' relates not to their ethnicity but to their historical, religious and liturgical connection to the Church of the East, or East Syrian Church. Menachery, George (1973) ''The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India'', vol. II. B. N. K. Press. ISBN 81-87132-06-X The Portuguese had a keen interest in implanting themselves in the spice trade and in spreading their particularly bellicose version of Christianity, which had been forged during several centuries of warfare in the Reconquista. Frykenberg, Eric (2008). ''Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present'', 125–127. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5. Facilitating their goals was the ''Padroado Real'', a series of treaties and decrees in which the Pope conferred upon the Portuguese government certain authority in ecclesiastical matters in the foreign territories they conquered. They set up in Goa, forming a colonial government (Portuguese India) and a Latin church hierarchy under the Archbishop of Goa, and quickly set to bringing the Saint Thomas Christians under his authority. Frykenberg, Eric (2008). ''Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present'', pp. 127–128. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5. - Dom Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal (Afonso, Duke of Porto) 31 July 1865 21 February 1920 Infante of Portugal (Infante), Duke of Porto, Viceroy of India (Portuguese India), and after 1908 Prince Royal. In March 1505, having received from Manuel I of Portugal the appointment of viceroy of the newly conquered territory in India (Portuguese India), he set sail from Lisbon in command of a large and powerful fleet, and arrived in July at Quiloa (Kilwa (Kilwa Kisiwani)), which yielded to him almost without a struggle. A much more vigorous resistance was offered by the Moors of Mombasa, but the town was taken and destroyed, and its large treasures went to strengthen the resources of Almeida. Attacks followed on Hoja (now known as Ungwana, located at the mouth of the Tana River (Tana River (Kenya))), Barawa, Angoche, Pate (Pate Island) and other coastal towns until the western Indian Ocean was a safe haven for Portuguese commercial interests. At other places on his way, such as the island of Angediva, near Goa, and Cannanore (Kannur), the Portuguese built forts, and adopted measures to secure the Portuguese supremacy. Indian postal systems for efficient military and governmental communications had developed long before the arrival of Europeans. When the Portuguese (Portuguese India), Dutch (Dutch India), French (French India), Danish (Danish India) and British (United Kingdom) displaced the Mughals (Mughal Empire), their postal systems existed alongside those of many somewhat independent states. The British East India Company gradually displaced other powers and brought into existence a British administrative system over most of India, with a need to establish and maintain both official and commercial mail systems. The international context was not favourable to the Portuguese regime. The Cold War was near its peak, and both Western (Western Bloc) and Eastern-bloc (Eastern Bloc) states were supporting the guerrillas in the Portuguese colonies, attempting to bring these under, respectively, American and Soviet influence (see Portuguese Colonial War). The overseas policy of the Portuguese Government and the desire of many overseas residents to remain under Portuguese rule would led to an abrupt decolonisation, which occurred only after the Carnation Revolution of April 1974 and the fall of the regime. Unlike other European colonial powers, Portugal had long-standing and close ties to its African colonies. For the Portuguese ruling regime, the overseas empire was a matter of national interest. In the view of many Portuguese, a colonial empire was necessary to continued national power and influence. In contrast to Britain and France, Portuguese colonial settlers had extensively inter-married and assimilated within the colonies over a period of 400 years. Despite objections in world forums such as the United Nations, Portugal had long maintained that its African colonies were an integral part of Portugal, and felt obliged to militarily defend them against Communist-inspired armed groups, particularly after India's unilateral and forcible annexation of Portuguese exclaves Goa, Daman (Daman District, India) and Diu (Diu district) (Portuguese India), in 1961 (see Indian Invasion of Goa). thumb right Portuguese Air Force (File:AssaltonaMatadaSanga....jpg)'s helicopter operating in an African theatre during the Portuguese Colonial War. *In the Second World War, Portugal was neutral (Participants in World War II#Portugal) but the treaty was invoked by the Allies to establish bases on the Azores. *In 1961, during the invasion (Operation Vijay (1961)) of the Portuguese possessions (Portuguese India) of Goa, Daman and Diu by the Indian Union, Portugal sought the help of Britain to little effect. *During the 1982 Falklands War the facilities of the Azores were again offered to the Royal Navy. Expansion and territory The English East India Company (hereafter, the Company) was founded in 1600, as ''The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies''. It gained a foothold in India in 1612 after Mughal (Mughal Empire) emperor Jahangir granted it the rights to establish a factory (Factory (trading post)), or trading post, in the port of Surat on the western coast. In 1640, after receiving similar permission from the Vijayanagara ruler (Vijayanagara Empire) farther south, a second factory was established in Madras on the southeastern coast. Bombay island, not far from Surat, a former Portuguese outpost gifted to England (Kingdom of England) as dowry in the marriage of Catherine of Braganza to Charles II (Charles II of England), was leased by the Company in 1668. Two decades later, the Company established a presence on the eastern coast as well; far up that coast, in the Ganges river delta, a factory was set up in Calcutta. Since, during this time other ''companies''—established by the Portuguese (Portuguese India), Dutch (Dutch East India Company), French (French East India Company), and Danish (Danish East India Company)—were similarly expanding in the region, the English Company's unremarkable beginnings on coastal India offered no clues to what would become a lengthy presence on the Indian subcontinent. left thumb 250px India in 1765 and 1805 showing East India Company Territories (Image:India1765and1805b.jpg) '''Old Goa''' (Konkani (Konkani language):पोरणें गोंय – ''Pornnem Goem''; Hindi ओल्ड गोवा – ''Old Gova'', पुराणा गोवा – ''Purana Gova'') or '''Velha Goa''' (''Velha'' means "old" in Portuguese (Portuguese language)) is a historical city in North Goa district in the Indian state (States and territories of India) of Goa. The city was constructed by the Bijapur Sultanate in the 15th century, and served as capital of Portuguese India from the 16th century until its abandonment in the 18th century due to plague. The remains of the city are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India were Portuguese India. The period of European contact of Ceylon began with the arrival of Portuguese soldiers and explorer (Exploration)s of the expedition of Lorenzo de Almeida, the son of Francisco de Almeida in 1505. '''André Pereira dos Reis''' was a Portuguese (Portugal) captain, pilot, and cartographer. A native of Goa, he was engaged in the wars against the Arabs, serving in the fleets of fortress of Portuguese India. In 1647, he was knighted (knight). He was blamed for the loss of Muscat (Muscat, Oman) (1650). thumb right w:St. Paul's Church, Diu St. Paul's Church in Diu (File:Eglise St Paul.jpg) named after St. Paul (w:St. Paul), the Apostle of Jesus (w:Apostle (Christian)) also known as the Apostle to the Gentiles, in baroque architecture (w:Baroque architecture) in India. '''Daman and Diu (w:Daman and Diu)''' is a union territory (w:Union Teritory) in India. For over 450 years, the coastal exclaves of Daman (w:Daman) and Diu (w:Diu) on the Arabian Sea (w:Arabian Sea) coast (w:Coast) were part of Portuguese India (w:Portuguese India), along with Goa (Goa) and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (w: Dadra and Nagar Haveli). Goa, Daman, and Diu (w: Goa, Daman, and Diu) were incorporated into the Republic of India (w: Republic of India) on 19 December 1961 by military conquest (w:Operation Vijay 1961). *Goa, Daman and Diu were the main Portuguese possessions (w:Portuguese India) in India which remained under the Portuguese rule for 450 years. They were liberated on 19 December 1961 during Operation Vijay (w:Operation Vijay 1961). Both Daman and Diu were governed from Goa till their liberation (w:Liberation) on 19 December 1961. Before the Portuguese period, from fourteenth to sixteenth century. Diu (w:Diu, India) was one of the best port and naval bases and both Daman and Diu were notable. **Kumar Suresh Singh, et al, in Daman and Diu (1994), p. 5 *The twin islands are a perfect example of a place where history and nature meet.The tranquillity (w:Tranquillity) is what symbolises the beaches (w:Beaches) of Daman and Diu Islands. Daman was the Portuguese colony (w:Portuguese India) for over four centuries and joined the Indian Union (w:Indian Union) in 1961. **Prakash Talwar, in Travel And Tourism Management (4 Vols.) (1 January 2006), p. 208


Sonora

verdes de nuestra ciudad. url http: www.esmas.com fundaciontelevisa televisaverde pages probosque.html newspaper Televisa location Mexico City date May 31, 2010 accessdate December 12, 2010 language Spanish trans_title Chapultepec is the most important "green lung" representing 52% of green areas in our city The zoo was established by its Alfonso L. Herrera, a biologist, and opened in 1924. Herrera's intention was to reestablish the zoo tradition of the old Aztecs emperors and improve upon it. He began with species native to Mexico and then added others from the rest of the world. Native animals came from states such as Sonora, Veracruz and Campeche, with foreign animals from India, France, Peru, Brazil and the United States. He modeled the zoo after the "Giardino Zoológico e Museo de Zoología del Comune di Roma" in Rome, Italy. Between 1950 and 1960, the zoo expanded, adding new species. In 1975, the zoo obtained two pandas from China. Since then, eight panda cubs have been born at the zoo, making it the first institution outside of China to breed the species. From 1992 to 1994, the zoo was completely remodeled, categorizing exhibits by habitat rather than type of species. Some of the most important Mexican species at the facility include a rabbit native to only a few volcanoes in Mexico, zacatuche (or teporingo) (Volcano Rabbit), the Mexican Wolf, ocelot, jaguar and ajolote (Axolotl).


Huntsville, Alabama

to operate independently. '''Victoria Iloff Osteen''' (born March 28, 1961 in Huntsville, Alabama) is the French American co-pastor of Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas, an author, the wife of Joel Osteen, and the daughter-in-law of John Osteen. In 1990, Grant started to rebuild is broadcasting empire, under the name "Grant Communications", later renamed "Grant Broadcasting System II" (the "II" representing his second try to build


Knoxville, Tennessee

Knoxville . He later worked on his father's farm in Alabama before beginning his study of law in Winchester, Tennessee. In 1846 he was admitted to the Alabama bar. Union Soldier monument, which stands in the eastern corner of the cemetery, is one of the largest Union monuments in the South. Jack Neely, ''The Marble City: A Photographic Tour of Knoxville's Graveyards'' (Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 1999), pp. xx-xxi, 47. In 1996, the cemetery was added to the National Register of Historic Places as part of a multiple properties submission for national cemeteries. He attended the University of Chattanooga (now the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga) and received a J.D. (Juris Doctor) from the University of Tennessee College of Law in Knoxville (Knoxville, Tennessee) in 1951. He received an honorable discharge from the U.S. Army. He is a former member of the Metropolitan Government Charter Commission. He currently works as an attorney, having once been an acting attorney for Hamilton County and an attorney for the Hamilton County Board of Education. Joe M. Haynes graduated from the University of Tennessee in Knoxville (Knoxville, Tennessee) with a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering, and with a J.D. (Juris Doctor) from Nashville School of Law. He is a member and former chairman of the Davidson County Legislative Delegation. He was Vice-Mayor (vice mayor) of the City of Goodlettsville (Goodlettsville, Tennessee) from 1986 to 1988 and Commissioner from 1976 to 1978. He works as an attorney, and he is a member of the Nashville Bar Association, as well as one of its former presidents and directors. He is married to Barbara Haynes, Judge of the Third Circuit Court in Davidson County. Ashland City | The Tennessean | tennessean.com right 180px thumb Monument to the 79th at the Battle of Fort Sanders site in Knoxville (Image:Fort-sanders-ny-79th-tn1.jpg) At Fort Sanders (Battle of Fort Sanders) (known by the Confederates as Fort Loudoun), Knoxville (Knoxville, Tennessee), the Highlanders helped inflict a massive defeat on Longstreet's (James Longstreet) troops. The position, a bastioned earthwork, was on top of a hill, which formed a salient (Salients, re-entrants and pockets) at the northeast corner of the town's defences. In front of the earth- work was a 12-foot-wide ditch, some eight feet deep, with an almost vertical slope to the top of the parapet, about 15 feet above the bottom of the ditch. It was defended by 12 guns and, according to different sources, 250 or 440 troops, of which the 79th provided 120 men.


Seoul

"''yeongdeung''" (靈登) or "divine ascent", a shamanic (Korean shamanism) rite. The third syllable is "''po''", representing water (浦), referring to the district's position on the Han River (Han River (Korea)). The 2006 population was 408,819


Tel Aviv

in Tel Aviv, where she sang "Saëni Imchá" (Dance with Me) and "Naamah". Two years later, she won second place in the Eurovision Song Contest with "T'en vas pas," representing Switzerland. On 28 November 2002, a suicide car bomb exploded at the Israeli-owned beachfront Paradise Hotel, killing three Israelis (Israeli people) and ten Kenyans (Kenyan people). About 20 minutes earlier, an unsuccessful attempt was made to shoot down an Arkia Israel Airlines Boeing 757 chartered tourist plane taking off from nearby Moi International Airport using surface-to-air missiles; nobody was hurt on the plane, which landed safely in Tel Aviv. The main suspect for both attacks is al Qaeda (see Kenyan hotel bombing). In one of the lesser known incidents of the war, starting in July 1940, Italian aircraft bombed cities in the British Mandate of Palestine (Italian bombings on Palestine in World War II). The bombing of Tel Aviv on September 10, killed 137 people. In mid-October, the Italians also bombed American-operated oil refineries in the British Protectorate of Bahrain. Time Magazine, Record Raid Petah Tikva's largest bus terminal is the Petah Tikva Central Bus Station (Tahana Makazit), while other major stations are located near Beilinson Hospital and Beit Rivka. A rapid transit light rail system is in the works which will connect Petah Tikva to Bnei Brak, Ramat Gan, Tel Aviv and Bat Yam. Riots With Chancellor abroad, and the Zionist Commission itself, with its leader Colonel Frederick Kisch, in Zurich for the 16th. Zionist Congress (attended also by Ze'ev Jabotinsky), the SMC (Supreme Muslim Council) resumed works, confidentially authorised, on the Haram only to be met with outcries from the Jewish press. The administration rapidly published the new rules on 22 July, with a serious error in translation that fueled Zionist reports of a plot against Jewish rights. Commons:Category:Tel Aviv Wikipedia:Tel Aviv Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Tel Aviv


Malta

Mail Also, the Maltese coat-of-arms bears a mural crown described as "representing the fortifications of Malta and denoting a City State".


Burma

that of preceding dynasties) B.S. Cohn, "Representing Authority in Victorian India", in E. Hobsbawm and T. Ranger (eds.), ''The Invention of Tradition'' (1983), 165-209, esp. 201-2. was taken by Queen Victoria from 1 May 1876, and proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1877. The title was introduced nineteen years after the formal incorporation into the British Empire of Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent, comprising most of modern-day India (excluding the Portuguese India, the State of Sikkim, and the enclaves of French India), Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Burma (though the latter would be made a separate colony in 1937). Prime Minister (Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) Benjamin Disraeli is usually credited with the title's creation. History of the Monarchy, Victoria thumb The 1931 series celebrated the inauguration of New Delhi (Image:Inauguration of New Delhi 1931.jpg) as the seat of government. The one rupee stamp shows George V with the "Secretariat Building, New Delhi" and Dominion Columns. According to Honda and Shimozu (The Beauty of Fired Clay: Ceramics from Burma, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand, 1997), the Lao kilns are similar to the Siamese types found at Suphanburi and Si Satchanalai. But Hein, Barbetti and Sayavongkhamdy (An Excavation at the Sisattanak Kiln Site, Vientiane, Lao P.D.R., 1989, 1992) say that the Lao kilns, which are of a cross-draft clay-slab type, differ substantially not only from the Siamese types but all other types in Southeast Asia. Air America's slogan was "Anything, Anywhere, Anytime, Professionally". Air America aircraft, including the de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou and Fairchild C-123 Provider, flew many types of cargo to countries such as the Republic of Vietnam, the Kingdom of Laos, and Cambodia. It operated from bases in those countries and also from bases in Thailand and as far afield as Taiwan and Japan. It also on occasion flew top-secret missions into Burma and the People's Republic of China. *Lallah Rookh, an elephant with Dan Rice's circus. She died in 1860 soon after swimming across the Ohio River. *Lin Wang, a Burmese (Burma) elephant that served with the Chinese Expeditionary Force during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and later moved to Taiwan with the Kuomintang army. Lin Wang became a fond childhood memory among many Taiwanese. When he died in 2003, he was (and still is) the longest-living captive elephant at 86. *Mahmoud, the lead elephant in the army of Abraha, which attacked the Kaaba in Mecca. Thus, the year became known as the Year of the Elephant and provided a historical ready-reference for the birth date of the prophet Muhammad of the Muslim religion. '''Chiang Mai''' (Thai (Thai alphabet) . The Hmong are known in China as the ''Miao'', a designation that embraces several different ethnic groups. There is debate about usage of this term, especially amongst Hmong living in the West, as it is believed by some to be derogatory, although Hmong living in China still call themselves by this name. Chinese scholars have recorded contact with the Miao as early as the 3rd century BCE, and wrote of them that they were a proud and independent people. However, after the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty attempted to impose several new taxation systems and continued expansion of their empire, the Hmong are reported to have rebelled. Many wars were randomness fought, and eventually many Hmong were pushed from China into Burma (Myanmar), Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. The history of the Hmong people is difficult to trace; they have an oral tradition, but there are no written records except where other people have encountered them. Hmong history has been passed down through legends and ritual ceremonies from one generation to another. Najmul Millat was a contemporary of Ziauddin al-Iraqi, Kazim Tabatabai Yazdi and Abul Hasan Isfehani. He was a Faqih of the highest rank and trained several Ulama like Sibte Hasan, Adeel Akhtar and Kitayat Husain. CHAPTER 2 THE FUQAHA He will always be remembered for his services to the Shi'a (Shia Islam) of Tibet, Burma, Africa and countries in the West rendered through the missionaries trained in his Jamia Nazmia. He wrote several books. * Three novels effectively tell the story of Burma (w:Burma)'s recent history. The link begins with Burmese Days (w:Burmese Days), which chronicles the country's history under British colonialism. Not long after Burma became independent from Britain in 1948, a military dictator sealed off the country from the outside world, launched 'The Burmese Way to Socialism', and turned Burma into one of the poorest countries in Asia. The same story is told in ''Animal Farm (w:Animal farm)''. Finally in ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' Orwell's description of a horrifying and soulless dystopia paints a chillingly accurate picture of Burma today, a country ruled by one of the world's most brutal and tenacious dictatorships. In Burma there is a joke that Orwell wrote not just one novel about the country, but three: a trilogy comprised of ''Burmese Days'', ''Animal Farm'' and ''Nineteen Eighty-Four''. ** Emma Larkin (w:Emma Larkin), ''Finding George Orwell in Burma'', p. 3. *My attitude to peace is rather based on the Burmese (w:Burma) definition of peace - it really means removing all the negative factors that destroy peace in this world. So peace does not mean just putting an end to violence or to war, but to all other factors that threaten peace, such as discrimination, such as inequality (w:inequality), poverty. **Aung San Suu Kyi, in Suu Kyi gives Nobel speech in Norway, 21 years later *Ahoms, a tribe from Burma (w:Burma), who controlled the region from thirteenth to eighteenth centuries, who absorbed Hindu culture (w:Hindu culture), were the original builders of Guwahati’ most famous site, a shrine to the goddess Sati (w:Sati), also known as Kali (w:Kali), consort of Shiva (w:Shiva). **Anthony Levi, Trudy Ring, in Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda, "International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania", p. 308. *Experimental gardens Tree that bears Qunine were opened on the Nilgiri Mountains (w:Nilgiri mountains) of Southern India (w:South India), the Himalayas on the north of Bengal (w:Bengal), the hills of Assam (w:Assam) and the Northwest Provinces, and on the highlands of Burma (w:Burma). With the exception of the Nilgiri and Himalayas, these localities were found to be unfavorable. At Darjeeling (w:Darjeeling) in the Himalayas, four hundred miles north of Calcutta, near which the cinchona (w:Cinchona)-gardens are located, … Cinchona alkaloid (w:Qunine) is now largely used throughout the country, with a proportionate reduction in the demand for quinine (w:Qunine). **Quinine (w:Quinine) in “The Tree That Bears Quinine” by Otis Robinson Bacheler quoted in: Science Monthly Volume 21 May 1882 , Wikisource. right thumb Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge is worthy of eulogisation - Sama Veda (File:Mysore_Painting.jpg). '''Saraswati (w:Saraswati)''' (Sanskrit (w;Sankrit language): सरस्वती, Sarasvatī ?) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, arts, wisdom and nature. She is a part of the trinity of Saraswati, Lakshmi and Parvati. All the three forms help the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in the creation, maintenance and destruction of the Universe. The Goddess is also revered by believers of the Jain religion (w:Jain religion )of west and central India. She is known in Burmese (w:Burma) as Thurathadi or Tipitaka Medaw , in Chinese (w:Chinese language) as Biàncáitiān (辯才天), in Japanese as Benzaiten (弁才天 弁財天) and in Thai (w:Thai language) as Surasawadee (สุรัสวดี). Of the countries ratifying the treaty, the largest are (in order of decreasing population) India (w:India), Pakistan (w:Pakistan), Bangladesh (w:Bangladesh), Japan (w:Japan), Mexico (w:Mexico), Thailand (w:Thailand), France (w:France), and Burma (w:Burma). Nations that have signed but not yet ratified include China (w:China), USA (w:USA), Brazil (w:Brazil), Nigeria (w:Nigeria), Philippines (w:Philippines), Viet Nam (w:Vietnam), Germany (w:Germany), and Egypt (w:Egypt). The largest non-signers are Indonesia (w:Indonesia), Russia (w:Russia), Colombia (w:Colombia), Tanzania (w:Tanzania), and Uzbekistan (w:Uzbekistan). The Himalayan (w:Himalayas) kingdom of Bhutan (w:Bhutan) went beyond the treaty requirements when on December 17 it became the first country in the world to completely ban the sale of tobacco. Prominent guests included Viscount Slim (w:Viscount Slim) (son of the late Field Marshal Slim (w:William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim), commander of the British Fourteenth Army (w:British Fourteenth Army) in Burma (w:Burma)), Countess Mountbatten of Burma (w:Patricia Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma) (daughter of the late Lord Louis Mountbatten (w:Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma), Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia Theatre), and Dame Vera Lynn (w:Vera Lynn). The report comes just days ahead of an Asian political summit, where the foreign ministers of many of the countries already affected by the H5N1 (w:H5N1) virus are expected to agree to even closer co-operative measures to help stall the advance of the virus. The foreign ministers of Cambodia (w:Cambodia), Laos (w:Laos), Burma (w:Burma), Thailand (w:Thailand) and Vietnam (w:Vietnam) have already agreed to closer co-operation to contain the virus and develop a vaccine. Aung San Suu Kyi sentenced to another three years of house arrest Aung San Suu Kyi (w:Aung San Suu Kyi) has been sentenced by a court in Burma (w:Burma) to a further three years of house arrest (w:House arrest) for violating the terms of her previous sentence. However her sentence was immediately commuted to 18 months on the orders of Burmese head of state (w:Head of state) Senior-General Than Shwe (w:Than Shwe) out of respect for her father General Aung San (w:Aung San) and out of a desire for "national reconciliation".


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