Places Known For

public works

Federal Emergency Relief Administration

online * Meriam; Lewis. ''Relief and Social Security'' The Brookings Institution. (1946). Highly detailed analysis and statistical summary of all New Deal relief programs; 900 pages online edition * Mertz, Paul. ''New Deal Policy and Southern Rural Poverty.'' (1978) * Sautter, Udo. "Government and Unemployment: The Use of Public Works before the New Deal," ''The Journal of American History,'' Vol. 73, No. 1 (Jun., 1986), pp. 59–86 in JSTOR * Sautter, Udo. ''Three Cheers for the Unemployed: Government and Unemployment before the New Deal'' (1992) excerpt and text search * Singleton, Jeff. ''The American Dole: Unemployment Relief and the Welfare State in the Great Depression'' (2000) online edition; also excerpt and text search * Sternsher, Bernard. ''Rexford Tugwell and the New Deal'' (1964) online edition * Venkataramani, M. S. "Norman Thomas, Arkansas sharecroppers, and the Roosevelt agricultural policies, 1933–1937." ''Mississippi Valley Historical Review'' (1960) 47: 225–46. in JSTOR * Williams; Edward Ainsworth ''Federal Aid for Relief'' (1939) online edition ;Primary sources *Hopkins, Harry L. ''Spending to save: the complete story of relief''. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1936. * Kirk, J.S. ed.''Emergency Relief in North Carolina a Record of the Development and the Activities of the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration 1932-1935'' (1936) 544pp; complete text online * McElvaine, Robert S. ''Down & out in the Great Depression: Letters from the "Forgotten Man"'' (1983); letters to Harry Hopkins; online edition External links On 20 April 1938, she was struck from the Naval Vessel Register and on 16 March 1939 sold for scrapping to Boston Iron & Metals Company of Baltimore (Baltimore, Maryland). In Spring, 1933, he was invited to Washington by Labor Secretary Frances Perkins to consult on relations with state labor departments. He advised the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and the Civil Works Administration. In November 1933, he was appointed Director of the Labor Compliance Division of the National Recovery Administration. He returned briefly to Madison in May 1934 but was almost immediately appointed Second Assistant Secretary of Labor. Altmeyer (1968), ix; and David Brian Robertson, "Policy Entrepreneurs and Policy Divergence: John R. Commons and William Beveridge," ''The Social Service Review'' 62, no. 3 (September 1988), 513. The economy, which had experienced significant recovery since the Civil War, was dealt a double blow by the Great Depression (Great Depression in the United States) and the Dust Bowl. After the Stock Market Crash of 1929, the economy suffered significant reversals and thousands of city workers became unemployed, many of whom depended on federal relief programs such as FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration), WPA (Works Progress Administration) and CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps). Farmers and ranchers were especially hard hit, as prices for cotton and livestock fell sharply. Beginning in 1934 and lasting until 1939, an ecological disaster of severe wind and drought caused an exodus from Texas and Arkansas, the Oklahoma Panhandle region and the surrounding plains, in which over 500,000 Americans were homeless, hungry and jobless. First Measured Century: Interview: James Gregory . Thousands left the region forever to seek economic opportunities along the West Coast. In April 1935 Tugwell and Roosevelt created the Resettlement Administration (RA), a unit of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. Directed by Tugwell, the RA sought to create healthy communities for the rural unemployed with access to urban opportunities. Some of the RA's activities dealt with land conservation and rural aid, but the construction of new suburban satellite cities was the most prominent. In her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, author Jane Jacobs critically quotes Tugswell on the program: "My idea is to go just outside centers of population, pick up cheap land, build a whole community and entice people into it. Then go back into the cities and tear down whole slums and make parks of them." Chapter 16, Gradual Money and Cataclysmic Money, p. 310 Three "Greenbelt" towns were completed before the Supreme Court found the program unconstitutional in Franklin Township v. Tugwell. Housing construction was deemed a state power and the RA was an illegal delegation of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration's power. Myhra, David. "Rexford Guy Tugwell: Initiator of America’s Greenbelt New Towns, 1935 to 1936." ''Journal of the American Planning Association''. 40, no. 3 (1974). Arnold, Joseph. ''The New Deal in the Suburbs''. Ohio State University Press, 1971. * Oklahoma History on Resettlement Administration * Complete List of New Deal Communities, of the Resettlement Administration, the Division of Subsistence Homesteads, and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, from the National New Deal Preservation Association Relief While local relief before 1932 focused on providing small sums of cash or baskets of food and coal for the neediest, the federal programs launched by Hoover and greatly expanded by the New Deal tried to use massive construction projects with prevailing wages to jumpstart the economy and solve the unemployment crisis. ERA, FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration), WPA (Works Progress Administration) and PWA (Public Works Administration) built and repaired the public infrastructure in dramatic fashion but did little to foster the recovery of the private sector. In sharp contrast to Britain, where private housing construction pulled the country out of depression, American cities saw little private construction or investment, and so they languished in the economic doldrums even as their parks, sewers, airports and municipal buildings were enhanced. The problem in retrospect was that the New Deal's investment in the public infrastructure had only a small "multiplier" effect, in contrast to the high multiplier for jobs that private investment might have created. Richard J. Jensen, "The Causes and Cures of Unemployment in the Great Depression." There were also small camps called hoovervilles that had very poor people living in them. , ''Journal of Interdisciplinary History'' (1989) 19:553-83. '''1934:''' Tate criticized the Federal Emergency Relief Administration for what he called a "new racket" in that, he said, it was planning to use the old Saint Vincent's Hospital (St. Vincent Medical Center (Los Angeles)) on Sunset Boulevard near Beaudry Avenue "as a clearinghouse for transient youths." In the vicinity, he said, were "thousands of families who are denied Federal relief because they had sufficient ambition to acquire property" but became unemployed. He added: "If they must harbor these tramps, they should be taken out into the country where they won't interfere with the family life of our citizens." "F.E.R.A. Acts Cause Rift," ''Los Angeles Times,'' September 19, 1934, page A-3

Works Progress Administration

!-- thumb Typical sign on a WPA project (File:WPAsign.JPG) The '''Works Progress Administration''' (renamed in 1939 as the '''Work Projects Administration'''; '''WPA''') was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of unemployed people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, ref name "arnesen">

by the agency. The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion (about 6.7 percent of the 1935 GDP), and in total it spent $13.4 billion. Jason Scott Smith, ''Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933-1956'' (2006) p. 87 File:Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project - 11772.jpg thumb right Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project

of the criticism of the distribution of projects and funding allotment is a result of the view that the decisions were politically motivated. The South, as the poorest region of the United States, received 75 percent less in federal relief and public works funds per capita than the West. Critics would point to the fact that Roosevelt’s Democrats could be sure of voting support from the South, whereas the West was less of a sure thing; swing states took priority over the other states. Lee, "

Afghan Transitional Administration

Pashtun Incumbent (before chairman) - Vice-President and Defense Minister (Afghan Defense Minister) Mohammed Fahim Tajik (Tājik people) Incumbent - Vice-President Karim Khalili Hazara (Hazara people) New - Vice-President Hedayat Amin Arsala Pashtun (Pashtun people) New (was Finance Minister) - Vice-President and Public Works Minister (Afghan Public Works Minister) Abdul Qadir (Afghan leader) Abdul Qadir

Abdul Ali (Abdul Ali (Afghan politician)) Pashtun (Pashtun people) New (was Urban Affairs Minister) (killed on July 6, 2002) New (Ali only took over the Public Works portfolio after July 6, 2002 - Vice-President and head of the Afghan Constitution Commission Nematullah Shahrani Uzbek (Uzbek people) New - Special Advisor on Security and Education Minister (Afghan Education Minister) Yunus Qanooni

San Juan Achiutla

The Mixteca In 1906 the French scientist Leon Diguet published in Paris the following about La Mixteca: Contribution a l'Etude geographique du mexique précolombien. "Le Mixtecapan" :The mountainous and hilly region which is the Mixtec Indians' country formed, after the Spaniards' establishment, ''La Mixteca'' province, was designated by the ''Nahuas'' with the ''Mixtecapan'' name, a word derived from the ''Nahuatl'' word ''Mixtlan'' (cloudy or foggy land), made up term by ''Mixtli'' (cloud) and the suffix ''tlan'', locative, place. This name would have been given to the country because the cold weather frequently prevails over the elevated regions of the High Mixteca mountains . :This territory includes, in the current geographical division, an important Oaxaca State part and a fraction of the States of Puebla and Guerrero. :The Mixtec name gave to this country before the conquest is unknown, we only know by Father Antonio de los Reyes, missionary who settled in Teposcolula around 1593 and a Mixtec grammar author, the Mixtecs were named ''Mixtoquijxi'' (wild cats) by their neighbors the Zapotecs, designation probably ironic and coming of from the roughness of the places that these Indians had chosen to settle. Achiutla thumb The Achiutla’s man. Pre-Columbian piece. San Juan Achiutla. (File:Hombre de San Juan Achiutla, Oaxaca, Mex.jpg) Leon Diguet also made historiography on Achiutla: :Two locations are identified as being the Mixtec country colonization focal point: Apoala and Achiutla. These settlements have grown and flourished as urban centres which, although now reduced to simple towns, before the European conquest were flourishing cities. :Achiutla or Achutla (''Achioztlan'') is represented today - wrote Diguet 1906- by two towns located a short distance one from another, San Juan Achiutla and San Miguel Achiutla, in that the total population barely reaches 1,800 individuals. The average altitude taken between the two populations is 1,800 metres. more accurate current measurement: 1992 m The ancient city of Achiutla was north of the town of San Miguel, on the plateau where today stands the Church. The Church mentioned by Diguet belongs to the San Miguel convent which included a great dimensions walled garden. It’s on the pre-Columbian temple platform, perhaps the main, and in front, used as cemetery which prevents appreciate what actually is, different levels and boards of another pyramid of huge dimensions of the same time, waiting for their study and restoration. :Before the conquest, the population likely reached 14,000 inhabitants, but it found significantly reduced following an "mazahuatl" Diguet text says ''mazahuatl'', correct is ''matlazahualtl'': epidemic that could be typhus, plague, hemorrhagic fever or smallpox brought this last by the Spaniards. At that time there wasn’t an accurate diagnosis. Achiutla never recovered its populationthe size that had in ancient times. epidemic. :Established in the High Mixteca center, Achiutla was the chief who ruled the Mixtécapan residence. After the schism that divided the country into three principalities, this city was the spiritual centre or the ''Taysacca'' or religious leader residence. The temple was famous, they came from everywhere to worship a deity considered to be a Quetzalcoatl personification. It was represented by a large dimension emerald on which were carved a bird and a snake. This jewel excited the Spaniards admiration by the job perfection. It was destroyed by the missionaries as described below. thumb Stone Axe, obsidian arrowheads and ''malacate'' winch were found in San Juan Achiutla. (File:Hacha, flechas San Juan Achiutla, Oaxaca México.jpg) :On the old city edge opens a cave, the entrance suggest a tunnel that connects with the town of San Juan and for which, in times of war, it could go from one to another. :The Achiutla Nahuatl name seems to come from this cave. Deconstructing it is in effect: ''achio'' means frequent, ''oztli'', cave, ''tlan'', locality or place: place of the cave frequented. Another possible etymology is as follows: ''Atl'' water, ''chipimi'' dripping, ''otli'' road, ''tlan'' locality or place: site were the roads oozing water. There are other Achiutla's meaning versions: a "cave which drips water" which is effectively linked with meanings explained by Diguet. Another "Where ''achiote'' (Bixa Orellana) is abundant", but achiote grows in tropical regions, between 100 and 1,500 metres above sea level and this plant does not support the frosts, whereas Achiutla had 1,992and freezes in winter. As condiment is not usually in the High Mixteca; in pre-colonial times was used to get the red color for codex and other pigmentation, but its use to that effect was low; that is why it's completely doubtful the achiote was copious in Achiutla, . :For the Mixtec name, ''Sundecu'' or ''Sundico'' Mixtec, ''nunu'' village, ''dico'' pulverized, made dust. This name would have been given to the city, because the revered Emerald would have been reduced to dust by the missionaries. :Achiutla's geographical location, splendor and religious importance are probably the causes have done so to consider as the Mixtec nation origin place. Although nowadays doesn’t exist information can prove their priority over Apoala. Jansen and Pérez Jiménez refer to Achiutla in their ''Paisajes Sagrados: codices y arqueología de Ñuu Dzaui'' as follows: :In the Codex ''Añute (Selden''), p. 6-III, we see how the 6 Monkey Princess embarks on a journey underground. Apparently starts from an opening in the rock wall over a river, were is venerated the ''El Corazón del Pueblo de la lluvia'' jewel (The rain people’s heart, ''Ñuu Dzaui'', the Mixtec people); probably it's the cave ''Ñuu Ndecu'' (Achiutla) where the ''El Corazón del Pueblo'' packaging (1934 Burgoa, I: 319, 332-333) was preserved. The Princess began with asking for permission to ''Ñuhu'', probably the entrance guardian to the underground hall: named ''Hueso-Coa'', ''Yeque Yata'', can decipher as "bone (''yeque'') before (''yata'')". thumb ''Dzahui (File:Dios de la lluvia, San Juan Achiutla, Oaxaca, Mexico.jpg)'' Pre-Columbian rain's deity found in San Juan Achiutla. For its part Manuel A. Hermann Lejarazu explains in his work on the Codex ''Yucunama'': :Focus on the High Mixteca area, the most mountainous and elevated ''Ñuu Dzaui'' part. In the pre-colonial era flourished here the ''Ñuu Tnoo'' (Tilantongo), ''Chiyo Cahnu'' (Teozacualco), ''Ñuu Ndaya'' (Chalcatongo), ''Ndisi Nuu'' (Tlaxiaco) and ''Ñuu Ndecu'' (Achiutla) kingdoms, among others. :The Sun and Venus gods threw darts from the sky with which drilled the big hill precious the place of sand. One of his darts fertilized the Earth and thus was born the first lineage ancestor. The Primordial Lord's granddaughter, married a prince, who was born from a big tree in the City on Flames, ''Ñuu Ndecu'', the current Achiutla. :Achiutla, as is at the present known ''Ñuu Ndecu'' ("Burning City"), was in ancient times the High Mixteca spiritual center, the: :''"This nation Mixtec Great Temple, where all its resolutions for peace and wars had his consultations Oracle ... ;" "they came from other distant provinces to ask favour and ask him in his works, doubts and what must be done". The pre-Hispanic settlement was largest and most important: more than four thousand families lived in their beautiful valleys next to rivers, occupying in the work of the field, "and so they are not neglect, had indicated as criers, official elected for a year, so that every morning at the first light, uploaded on top of the House of his Republic""with great shouts, they rang and excitasen all, saying: come out, come out to work, to work" (Burgoa, 1934b I: chaps. 23-26).'' :With qualifying Ñuu Ndecu as the Great Temple in ''Ñuu Dzaui'' - Mixtec nation-, chroniclers makes an implicit comparison with the Aztecs famous largest temple in their capital, Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Even today stands the old pyramid silhouette, a kind of Acropolis, which tradition referred to as the Sun Temple. All this is, as we said, on a hill with promontory, between rivers(which run north to South). On the Western side, it passes the river ''Los Sabinos''; on the eastern side pass the ''Yute Uha'', "Salt River", and ''Yute Ita'', "Flowers River". At the foot of the convent's promontory, these streams come together and form the ''Yute Ndaa'', "Extended River " or "Blue River". :The oral tradition of the place holds that ''Ñuu Ndecu'' valley was formerly a large lagoon, which barely lifted the promontory and the ''Siki Tinduu''. It is the primordial lake concept, which like the darkness, is a metaphor for the area which saw the today's world creation. thumb ''Negrito'' Stone, Mixtec household utensil used from pre-Columbian times to the 20th century first half, to insert into the center firewood and light in the dark to do chores like grinding ''nixtamal (File:Piedra Negrito.jpg)'' early in the morning. Basalt. Diameter 13 cm. high 8 cms. San Juan Achiutla :The two priests led stones of power - the Rain's God stone and the Lizard stone--to the ''Yuta Tnoho'' sanctuary (Apoala), where they received blessings and instructions from the 9 Lizard Lady, who reigned there (Codex ''Añute'', p. 1-III). We note in passing the conceptual overlap between this lizard stone and the lizard relief in a building early Huamelulpan. ''Ñuu Ndecu'' (Achiutla), the priests placed these stones next to the primary lagoon, at the great Ceiba foot, made their prayers, spread her blood on paper and offered ground “piciete”. It was then opened the tree and gave birth to the ancestor founder, Lord 2 Grass "Deceased which manifests as a Feathered Serpent". Six brothers, probably six noble Añute families (Jaltepec) ancestors followed him. I.e., this origin story tells about a group of seven men who were born from the ''Ñuu Ndecu'' tree, the principal of which was the dynasty ruler (''yaa tnuhu iya toniñe'') founder. In this regard, Jansen and Pérez Jiménez, also depict: :By this magic and religious act grew in that place the Origin Great Tree, which lifted and holds the sky. It was the “Tree of the Eye”, ''Yutnu Nuu'', a ''ceiba'' or a ''pochote'', surrounded by snakes of fog and darkness, that is to say by mysterious and impressive superhuman powers. They were offered to him - placed in basket and ''jícara'' (a vegetal and natural bowl) - jade and gold, wealth in abundance -the eagle and the fire serpent - power to transform and fly into trance, as a ball of fire - as well as the hand with the knife and the rope - civilian authority. :With him were born: the Lord 1 Eagle, Water; the Lord 3 Water, ''Maguey''; the Lord 5 Deer, Turkey; the Lord 5 Movement, Quail; the Lord 5 Lizard, Rain, and the Lord 5 Eagle, Rain. They were the primary founders and owners, which gave life to the region. They were the first ''Nuuddzahui'' (Mixtec). thumb 300px The god Dzahui consecrate a Mixtec ruler by pouring over him with his jug (Nutall Codex, page 5, back). (File:Dzahui.jpg) Hermann Lejarazu continues: :The ''Ñuu Ndecu'' important position as the spiritual center of ''Ñuu Dzaui'' and kernel of his liturgical and political life in the pre-colonial era is also expressed in the main deity worshipped name here. The main sanctuary was at the highest mountain summit, where the high priest gave worship to the Sacred Wrapper called The People's Heart. Wrapped in precious fabrics was an jade ancient stone in the large chili pepper size, sculpted in a bird and a coiled snake form, in other worlds, a Feathered Serpent picture, the Mesoamerica divine power, known as Quetzalcoatl in Nahuatl. The People's Heart - say Burgoa - represented the Mixtec people lineage founder: :''Making sacrifices and worshiped its first founder said he was the People´s Heart and kept it in a safe place and sacrificed to it valuables things as gold and precious stones. Front of the Heart always burned wood, where they burned ''copal'' or incense too.'' :This People's Heart also appears in the ''Ñuu Dzaui'' pictorial manuscripts, specifically in the Codex ''Añute (Selden)'', page 6-III, where it's painted as a precious stone with " The People of the Rain Heart" name (''Ini Ñuu Dzavui''), in other words, "The Mixtec People’s Heart”. It's situated in a large cave on top of a river. thumb Ñuu Ndecu path to and site, the City in Flames, Achiutla, colonial and pre-Columbian archaeological site (File:03 Sitio Achiutla.jpg) Pérez Ortiz quotes the historian and Dominican Francisco de Burgoa (Francisco Burgoa)'s description made about this piece in 1674, more than one hundred years after its destruction: :'':…and between their infamous altars, they had one devoted to an idol, called The People´s Heart, that was great veneration object, and a greatly appreciated matter, because it was an emerald as large as a big chili pepper from this earth, had carved above a little bird, with great gracefulness, and top to bottom coiled a little snake did with the same art, the stone was transparent. It shined from the bottom, where it seemed like a candle burning flame; it was a very ancient jewel, that there was no memory of the commencement of its worship and adoration .'': :These historical references--continues Lejarazu - aren't sufficient to identify The People’s Heart worship exact place, nor their accurate relationship with the Achiutla’s Oracle. It's clear the river represents the ''Ñuu Ndecu'' deep valley. It appears in the 15th century, Achiutla was conquered by the Aztecs, who destroyed and burned their main temple, in 1462 the temple and the city suffered the fire, to this fact is due to carry the Mixtec name of ''Ñuu Nducu'' in one of their etymologies meaning burned town or city in flames. Achiutla, ''Ñuu Ndecu'', is waiting for its historical and archaeological recovery, relevant to the Mixtec culture, the State of Oaxaca and Mexico; as well as claim linguistic and ethnic indigenous, of the Mixtec Indian, object sometimes of denial, rejection and self-destruction of the maternal ethnic, language and culture, effects of colonialism and racism, to supplant the dignity and wealth that involve to belong to this ancient culture, even alive. San Juan Achiutla's Colonial period traces thumb San Juan Achiutla's Baptismal font. Colonial period (File:05 Pila bautismal periodo hispano.jpg) When in the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, took news of Hernán Cortés and his troops arrival to Veracruz - concerns Alfonso Pérez Ortiz citing José Antonio Gay – ''Moctecuhzoma'' (Moctezuma (Moctezuma II)) sent an embassy with some gifts for "The People’s Heart" deity and consult the Oracle "to know the fate that was reserved for his people", the Ñuu Ndecu "Pontiff" came to the shrine and "The people that had been left to the party from outside"", they heard between confusing noise of voices" the fateful announcement that "the Moctezuma lordship is over...¨." The Lord 2 Vulture, Snake of Fire-Sun and Mrs. 13 House, Flower of Bat, ruled ''Ñuu Ndecu'' when in the Land of the Rain, were known these dire first news concerning the Spaniards. From 1522 to 1528 Achiutla, what would be San Miguel and San Juan, was subjected unduly by the conquer Martín Vázquez who would be prosecuted for mistreating and threatening death to the people's chiefs by not delivering extraordinary tributes and pretended to be the legitimate ''encomendero''. In 1528 Achiutla became part Francisco Maldonado's encomienda its real owner, ''Ñuu Ndecu'' contributed to him 48 gold dust "tejuelos". In 1550 his ''encomienda'' and "Achiotla" (Achutla) passed to doña Isabel Roxas (Rojas) his wife. In 1555 the viceroy don Luis de Velasco ordered to allow entering Santo Domingo religious order to Achiutla, since the encomendero's cleric of the place prevented. The Dominicans settled finally in 1557 in ''Ñuu Ndecu'' founded their community, at the time they would build the "doctrine-convent". thumb Explosion chamber. In a large number were used in San Juan Achiutla from the colony until the early 20th century rather than rockets, it was filled with gunpowder and detonated by the hole in the side. Iron. 10 Cms high, wide at the base 4.5 cms. (File:Cámara_de_explosión.jpg) Among the Dominican religious who came to Achiutla was Fray Benito Hernández who wrote his ''Christian catechism written in Mixtec'', Fray Benito Hernández took the Dominican order habit in the San Esteban convent in Salamanca. Reached Mexico by Fray Vicente de las Casas. So they went to the Mixtec region where he learned the Mixtec language in a short time. He was sent to evangelize Achiutla because the father who was there didn’t know the language and therefore had not achieved good communication with the place inhabitants. Friar hadn’t a good reception and the people abandoned him almost to death by starvation, cause he intended to put end to the idolatry and destroyed the Chalcatongo's graveyard, situated in one La Mixteca highest hills. His Christian doctrine in Mixtec language was an attempt to understand indigenous people and teach them the new faith. Unfortunately, the single original in the world which is incomplete in the Burgoa Library in Oaxaca, lacks front cover and colophon. The work is written in the Teposcolula’s Mixtec variant. and to whom is attributed the evangelization of the Mixtecs of ''Ñuu Ndecu''; people that continued practicing their ancient religious customs in a hidden form in the caves and hills close to the place making worship to "The People’s Heart" deity . Fray Benito heard about the existence of this image and rose to the summit in question, where destroyed the ceremonial center. :'':…an immensity of several figures of idols, which were in niches, on stones stained foolishly of human blood and smoke of incense which sacrificed them.'' (Burgoa) And he got done in The People’s Heart” deity. :'':…and have a solemn day prevented, and together many towns, pulled the stone and he broke it with great difficulty, through instruments, because its hardness, sent grind it into powder there … and mixed with ground, he threw and stepped on, in front of the eyes of a huge crowd that attended the event, and then made them a big sermon''…(Burgoa) So the pulverizing of this jewel, would be a little after 1557 (Pérez Ortiz, 2009). 1580 There were few Spaniard settlers in the Mixtec communities in the mountains, because they avoided visit them for fear of its inhabitants. '''In 1584 San Juan Achiutla land titles were issued by the colonial government, that in 1748 issued communal titles.''' From this last period, the San Juan Evangelista's Church in San Juan Achiutla retains the following historical trail: an oil painting approximately 1.4 for 1.2 m whose lower part said ''"Don Juan Ortiz and his wife doña María Daniel devotion year 1749".'' The work has several levels; the top appears the Holy Trinity, in the central part an Archangel, then Saint Dominic and St. Francis of Assisi. At the next level the purgatory image: a man with the papal tiara, another with the bishop tiara, one cleric, a woman and a man, all burn between the flames; below represents a solemn mass attended by men on the right and women on the left. On the deteriorated work lower place we can read: ''"F. García Ruiz and José Isidro Ruiz, José de la Luz..."'', and more illegible words in red. It could be inferred that at that time there was sufficient financial capacity of some people as to order to do oil paintings possibly out of the town, probably in the San Miguel convent or Teposcolula, make solemn Eucharistic celebrations, and the existence of sufficient population and economic activity could be inferred to generate at least medium-sized wealth. The colonial period, the 19th century and the Mexican Revolution at San Juan Achiutla are pending of being researched and counted. At this point we know that in: * 1825, San Juan Achutla Nusuñe (it was its name then) was part of the constituency of the called ''Partido'' Partido in this case means, according to the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language Dictionary: district or territory of jurisdiction or body that has a main town per head de Tlaxiaco. * 1844 was a village of the Achutla's ''Partido'', sub-prefecture of Tlaxiaco, Teposcolula district. * 1858 again belonged to the Tlaxiaco's District. * 1891 was a municipality in the Tlaxiaco's District. Contemporary period San Juan Achiutla has no municipal archive so it's virtually impossible to do an history based on the documentary source. If we compare with people, we could say that the municipality works verbally; it would seem that municipality is in illiteracy in the absence of documentary collections. In 2010, Mexican Independence bicentennial and Mexican Revolution centennial year, appeared the book ''Camino por la Mixteca. Un testimonio y documentos para la microhistoria de San Juan Achiutla y la Mixteca Alta en el estado de Oaxaca'' Raúl Ruiz Bautista memoirs. Partially this book without being or pretending to be a site history, came to partially remedy the documents absence about San Juan Achiutla. For it we can retrieve some people and town events after the Mexican Revolution until 21st century first decade. San Juan history and the road Ixtapa - Tlacotepec construction are inseparable, Raúl Ruiz Bautista released his proclamation for their construction and San Juan Achiutla led the project and this road construction with Rutilio Ruiz Hernández to the head. The following are the relevant facts from the 20th century. '''1920''' * In the decade beginning in 1920, due to resources scarcity for families livelihood in San Juan Achiutla, peasants migrated to Río Blanco, Orizaba, Córdoba, Potrero Viejo, Santa Rosa and other places in Veracruz State, Mexico, to find work in the field and in factories, they got job in fabrics and yarns factories and Cervecería Moctezuma, brewery, or in the field collecting coffee, cutting cane or other agricultural work. Returning to the village especially to be on December 27 at the town's feast. Many of them were rooted in those populations for many years, some permanently. * In 1929 it was built and established the first primary school where taught the teacher Rutilio Ruiz Hernández. One of the homes the school occupied was the premise and building called "La sala" owned by Bartolo Ruiz, who provided it for that purpose. This building no longer exists. '''1930''' * In 1935 the elementary school was converted into Rural Federal School Francisco I. Madero, being substituted Rutilio Ruiz Hernández as teacher by the professor Pedro Hernández, graduated from the Normal Rural School. At school existed only until the fourth grade. * In 1936 the young Eliseo Ruiz López was carried by her father Tranquilino Ruiz to Normal Rural School of Cuilapan, near Oaxaca City to study for rural teacher, being the first to come out of San Juan Achiutla to study. So the San Juan Achiutla’s Mayor, in arbitrary way, decided to imprison and submit to penal labour Tranqulino his father with the claim that the boy did not was lose to the Catholic faith and return to the village to serve the municipality and to abandon his studies, which failed. * In 1938 Raúl Ruiz Bautista and Natalio Ramírez Pérez left the town with the same goal, they were followed by many young people who would be teachers and professionals, employees in other parts of the country or in the United States of America. '''1940''' * On October 17, 1942 the municipality of San Juan Achiutla was established by presidential resolution. * '''On October 28, 1942 the communal property of the community of San Juan Achiutla, of the San Juan Achiutla municipality, were titled by presidential resolution published in the Official Gazette of the Federation on March 3, 1943.''' * The Municipal Palace was built in 1947 being Mayor Mr. Teodoro José. * In August 1949 from San Juan Achiutla Raúl Ruiz Bautista launched its Road Manifesto calling for the towns of the region to the road San Felipe Ixtapa - San Agustín Tlacotepec construction in order to get out of backwardness, poverty and the isolation deprived High Mixteca towns. The Manifesto was endorsed by don Rutilio Ruiz Hernández, who became the leader and road construction organizer in the region while Raul Ruiz would be the negotiator of financial resources and contact with authorities, organizations and politicians in the country's capital, both during the fifteen years that would last its construction. * The Regional Committee For the Ixtapa – Tlacotepec Road was founded in 1949; it organized the towns of this route during the entire period that lasted its construction, Rutilio Ruiz Hernández was named Chairman of this Committee. * On October 15, 1949 the San José de Gracia authorities adhere to the Manifesto, the other towns of the route, Santo Tomás Tecolotitlán, Santa María Ndoayaco, San Sebastián Atoyaquillo, Santo Domingo Huendío and San Agustín Tlacotepec also would in due course, providing and at times to deny their collaboration for the construction. At the beginning the work of the people was loaned free of charge as required by the Mexican Federal Government in their conventions, which provided one-third of its funding. After the first five years in which people worked for free, the workers were paid, though sparsely. * In December 1949 were sent letters to the Roads National Committee General Secretary José Rivera R. To ask resources for the road’s construction and in the same month to the of Communications and Transport Secretary Lic. Agustín García López. '''1950''' * In 1950 at the request of Rutilio Ruiz Hernández from San Juan Achiutla, Chairman of the Regional Committee For the Ixtapa – Tlacotepec Road, several towns sent to the President of the Republic, Miguel Alemán Valdés, written to requesting resources for the road, neither the National Committee or the Secretariat of Communications had responded. * In that same year Rutilio Ruiz Hernández was appointed general organizer of the Indigenous Congress in the Mixtec region. * In January 1951 the Regional Committee For the Ixtapa – Tlacotepec Road requests the Oaxaca State Governor financial resources and his influence before the Federal Government to obtain it. Not importing applications repeated during the construction of the road, never received a satisfactory response from the Government of Oaxaca, only contributed with an amount equivalent to less than half a kilometre, its attention to the project was sent the requests for resources "to the corresponding area" where fell in vacuum. * 1951 San Juan Achiutla and the Mixtec Region were represented by Raúl Ruiz Bautista in the Second National Congress of the Confederation of Indigenous Young People in Mexico City. It was a Congress to try to incorporate indigenous organizations for purely political purposes, as reported Raúl recommending not participates in such organization. * The Regional Committee of Indigenous Youth and Communities was founded in may, 1951 in San Juan Achiutla and designating San Juan Achiutla as the official seat of the Mixtec Regional Congress in the same year. * On May 23, 1951 the Communications and Public Works Ministry orders the layout of the road but directs to the last section, the Huendío - Tlacotepec is not done: '''"still important not to carry out the last segment with Tlacotepec, pursuant to the expressed desire of does not arise on the short road, the vehicles in the region of Chalcatongo and trying to have as a forced via the Tlaxiaco City."''' (Note No. 324-RGB-1947, dossier 441.2 727.2 5-1 folio 15362 signed by Manuel López sailing from Secretary of Communications an Public Works, '''to keep traffic on the long road, by Tlaxiaco''', the path would be a long alley without exit, without connection to Yosondúa and Chalcatongo. * In April 1951 the Regional Committee For the Ixtapa – Tlacotepec Road joins to the Coalition of Mixtec – Oaxacan Towns directed by Dr. Manuel Hernández Hernández, one of the major characters who due to his political position - Federal Deputy - help obtaining federal funds for the construction of the road. * On October 6, 1951 was received in San Felipe Ixtapa the first set of tools and materials by the Federal Government to begin construction of the road, so the work began this month and year. * San Juan Achiutla intervenes by Rutilio Ruiz Hernández in peacemaking, mediation and signing of the agreements of boundaries between San Miguel Achiutla and San Bartolomé Yucuañe, concluded between 1952 and 1953. Raúl Ruiz Bautista was responsible for the follow-up the legal settlement of the conflict in the Supreme Court of Justice in Mexico City at the request of Salvador Montes in representation of San Miguel Achiutla. * In January 1953 through Rutilio

Achiutla: * The ''tequio'', which is obligatory work as contribution to the town public works and services, that allows the people and the municipality to be clean and healthy place in an exemplary fashion. * The ''gueza (guelaguetza, give to receive)'' which is mutual support mainly in supplies or in cash between neighbors and relatives that bring to those who have a celebration, feast or compromise, such as weddings, baptisms, funerals or ''mayordomías''. The ''gueza'' reception is a solemn

director visits the Mixteca Alta and decides to support the construction of the road. * In August 1956 the Progressive Avant-garde of San Juan Achiutla in the Federal District identifies and invited 56 migrant achiutlenses in the State of Veracruz, to integrate an autonomous organization similar to the Progressive Avant-garde in the region of Río Blanco and surrounding cities and towns, and systematically raise funds and send them to the municipality as a support for the town’s development of public

Grimsby, Ontario

Climate Grimsby's climate varies throughout the year; 12 °C – 15 °C in the spring, 21 °C – 33 °C in the summer, and 10 °C – 17 °C in the fall. Temperatures in the winter months are around 4 °C to −16 °C, with about 190 cm of snow per year.

Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania

, the borough was an important port on Pennsylvania Main Line Canal (Main Line of Public Works), where the Juniata Division Canal connected to the Allegheny Portage Railroad. The famous toy known as the Slinky is manufactured within Hollidaysburg by Poof-Slinky, Inc. (formerly James Industries, Inc.). More than a quarter billion Slinkys have been manufactured in the toy's history.

of Public Works of the Pennsylvania Canal from Johnstown (Johnstown, Pennsylvania) on the west to Hollidaysburg (Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania) on the east, thus allowing continuous barge traffic between the Ohio (Ohio River) and the Susquehanna (Susquehanna River) rivers. Considered a technological marvel in its day, it played a critical role in opening the interior of the United States beyond the Appalachian Mountains to settlement and commerce. It included the first railroad tunnel (Oldest railroads in North America) in the United States, the Staple Bend Tunnel, and its inauguration was marked with great fanfare. birth_date He matriculated at Princeton University, but interrupted his studies to join the United States Marines. He returned to Princeton to earn his bachelor's degree in civil engineering in 1973 and then attended Carnegie Mellon University, where he earned his master's degree in 1975 and his Ph.D. in 1979, both in civil engineering. DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania, USA (United States) DATE OF DEATH Imada turned professional (professional golfer) in 1999. From 2000 to 2004 he played on the second tier Nationwide Tour, winning the 2000 BUY.COM Virginia Beach Open and the 2004 BMW Charity Pro-Am at The Cliffs. On the Monday following his win, Imada fired a back-nine score of 29 in U.S. Open (U.S. Open (golf)) qualifying at Scotch Valley, in Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania. He was the medalist, with a score of 64, and advanced to sectional qualifying. His third place finish on the 2004 money list earned him promotion to the PGA Tour.

Telegraph Hill, San Francisco

of the first public works murals executed under the Public Works Administration (Works Progress Administration), later known as the WPA. "The primitive nature of Coit Tower would lend itself better to that sort of thing than other public buildings," was Arthur Brown's first reaction to the project. Diego Rivera included Brown among the designers and craftsmen in his fresco mural of ''The Making of a Fresco Showing the Building of a City'' (1931). 'Firebelle Lil' Coit was one

Villa de Etla

of 17.85km2 and are bordered by the municipalities of Asunción Etla, Santo Domingo Etla, San Miguel Etla and Reyes Etla. The municipality is located in the Central Valleys region of the state about seventeen km from the capital of Oaxaca. The municipal government consists of a municipal president, an officer called a “síndico” and four secretaries called “regidors” (for taxes, education, public works and agencies neighborhoods). These and other officials are elected under Mexico’s usos y

book page 561ff title Wars of the Americas: a chronology of armed conflict in the New World, 1492 to the present author David Marley publisher ABC-CLIO year 1998 ISBN 0-87436-837-5 The last few years of the municipality has been marked by political instability. This has negatively impacted public works such as the repaving of roads, electrification and a non functioning water treatment plant, with delays as long as 15 years. Category:Populated places in Oaxaca Category:Municipalities of Oaxaca Category:Populated places established in 1636 Surrounding towns A number of small towns surround the main city and are closely linked economically and culturally with the main city. Some of these towns are known for producing certain crafts that are identified with the three central valleys of Oaxaca. In these towns one can see the workshops and the crafts being produced in the traditional manner although most of these towns' products are sold in the main city. Santa María Atzompa produces glazed, glass-inlaid pottery of green, while San Antonio Arrazola and San Martín Tilcajete make alebrijes, small painted wooden figures. San Bartolo Coyotepec is known for its barro negro pottery, and Teotitlán del Valle works with wool and llama to make tapetes, or more commonly, throw rugs. These rugs are known for their intense colors, made traditionally with natural dyes, made from cempasúchil (yellow), cochineal (red) and indigo (blue). In addition, Oaxaca city and surrounding towns have market days, where one can visit the tianguis (open-air markets) set up for that day. There are markets on each day of the week. Monday in Miahuatlan (Miahuatlán de Porfirio Díaz) is for buying daily staples, and Tuesday, in Ayoquezco (Ayoquezco de Aldama) is noted for wood furniture. On Wednesday, people head to Etla (Villa de Etla) and Zimatlán (Zimatlán de Alvarez) for dairy products, especially cheese. Thursday is reserved for the two largest ''tianguis'' in Ejutla (Ejutla de Crespo) and Villa de Zaachila. On Friday, in Coyotepec, Jalietza and Ocotlán (Ocotlán (Oaxaca)) cotton textiles, embroidered blouses, corn-husk flowers and glazed pottery from Atzompa are sold. Also Llano park in Oaxaca has a small market. Saturday is reserved for the main city of Oaxaca, and to finish, on Sunday mezcal is sold in Tlacolula (Tlacolula de Matamoros). The two most important religious establishments have been '''Señor de la Cuevita Sanctuary''' and the former m'''onastery of Culhuacán.''' The Señor de la Cuevita Sanctuary is located on Avenida Morelos and 16 de Septiembre in the city of Iztapalapa. It was built to house an image of Christ made of cornstalks which is called the “Señor de la Cuevita” (Lord of the Small Cave). According to legend, this image was taken from here to Etla, Oaxaca (Villa de Etla), but it mysteriously disappeared from there to reappear in a small cave back in Iztapalapa. However, its importance stems from a miracle attributed to it. In 1833, the area was hit by a cholera plague. People appealed to this image and when the plague dissipated, this image was given credit. Yearly rites of gratitude to this image eventually developed into the borough’s annual Passion Play (passion play). Since 1853, this church has been the center of most indigenous dance held. This is because in that year the archbishop of Mexico forbade “pagan” dances and to avoid confrontation, the dances began to be held here in the main atrium (Atrium (architecture)). In 1875, the church was painted by Anacleto Escutia. - 554 Villa de Etla Villa de Etla Etla (Etla District, Oaxaca) - - 554 Villa de Etla Villa de Etla Etla (Etla District, Oaxaca) -

Regional Municipality of Peel

; Government and politics Senior administrators *Frank Dale, Regional Chair *David Szwarc, Chief Administrative Officer *Norma Trim, Chief Financial Officer and Commissioner of Corporate Services *Janet Menard, Commissioner of Human Services *Janette Smith, Commissioner of Health Services *Kent Gillespie, Commissioner of Employee and Business Services *Dan Labrecque, Commissioner of Public Works

in Canada. ''Public Works'' Peel manages the regions public works needs including: * garbage and recycling programs * water works * road maintenance — non provincial roads ''TransHelp'' The Region of Peel's unique

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