Székesegyház.jpg thumb right 250px The Cathedral of Kaposvár thumb right 250px The Dorottya Hotel**** (File:Egyem. lakóház, u.n. Dorottya-üzletház (12833. számú műemlék).jpg) Although the oppression slowed down but couldn't stop the development. The post office opened, and the country's first soap factory was founded. And thanks for an Austrian growth brewer János Donner, a new city district - the present Donner - started to built in the south side of River Kapos. The local public life bloomed
of development ended with the start of World War I, in which - like in other important events of the Hungarian history - the citizens, the soldiers of Kaposvár took their part. But the war brought hardship and dissatisfaction to the city. In the public life there were strikes and strengthening of left-wing ideas. The ideas of the Revolutions and interventions in Hungary (1918–20) found place in the public life. The first directorium and agricultural association were born here
Outcome Agreement'' area of Restalrig, Lochend (Lochend, Edinburgh) and Craigentinny. Ethical Standards in Public Life framework A framework and Code of Conduct was established which applied to Local authority (Local government in Scotland) councillors and members of Scottish public bodies (Scottish public body). Ethical Standards in Public Life framework: ) is part of NHS Scotland, and serves all of Scotland. It is a Special Health Board (NHS Scotland#Special Health Boards) funded directly by the Scottish Government Health Department (Scottish Executive Health Department).
political and public life, especially in Carniola. During the same period, the growth of industrialization intensified social tensions. Both Socialist and Christian socialist movements mobilized the masses. In 1905, the first Socialist mayor in the Austro-Hungarian Empire was elected in the Slovene mining town of Idrija on the list of the Yugoslav Social Democratic Party. In the same years, the Christian socialist activist Janez Evangelist Krek organized hundreds of workers and agricultural cooperatives throughout the Slovene countryside. Cinnabar is found in all localities that yield mercury, notably Puerto Princesa (Philippines); Almadén (Spain); New Almaden (California); Hastings Mine and St. John's Mine, Vallejo, California; C.Michael Hogan, Marc Papineau et al., ''Environmental Assessment of the columbus Parkway Widening between Ascot Parkway and the Northgate Development, Vallejo'', Earth Metrics Inc. Report 7853, California State Clearinghouse, Sept, 1989 Idrija (Slovenia); New Idria (New Idria, California) (California); Giza, Egypt; Landsberg (Landsberg, Rhineland-Palatinate), near Obermoschel in the Palatinate (Rhineland-Palatinate); Ripa, at the foot of the Apuan Alps and in the Mount Amiata (Tuscany); the mountain Avala (Serbia); Huancavelica (Peru); Murfreesboro, Arkansas; Terlingua (Terlingua, Texas) (Texas); and the province of Guizhou in China, where fine crystals have been obtained. It was also mined near Red Devil, Alaska on the middle Kuskokwim River. Red Devil was named after the Red Devil cinnabar mine, a primary source of mercury. Other forms of cinnabar *'''Hepatic cinnabar''' is an impure variety from the mines of Idrija in the Carniola region of Slovenia, in which the cinnabar is mixed with bituminous (bitumen) and earthy matter. *'''Metacinnabarite''' is a black-colored form of HgS, which crystallizes in the cubic (Cubic crystal system) form. thumb 250px Carniola within modern Slovenia: Upper Carniola (Image:Sloregions.png), Lower Carniola, and Inner Carniola. In 1918, the duchy ceased to exist and its territory became part of the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and subsequently part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). The western part of the duchy, with the towns of Postojna, Ilirska Bistrica, Idrija and Šturje (Ajdovščina) was annexed to Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)) in 1920, but was subsequently also included into Yugoslavia in 1947. See: Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 Since 1991, the region has been part of an independent Slovenia. thumb upright Vladimir Batagelj (Image:Batagelj Vladimir.jpg) '''Vladimir Batagelj''' is a Slovenian (Slovenians) mathematician, born 1948 in Idrija, Slovenia, who works mainly in data analysis, discrete mathematics, combinatorial optimization and applications of IT in education. Lace was used by clergy of the early Catholic Church as part of vestments in religious ceremonies, but did not come into widespread use until the 16th century. Lacemakerslace.oddquine.co.uk The popularity of lace increased rapidly and the cottage industry of lace making spread throughout Europe to most European countries. Countries like Finland (town of Rauma (Rauma, Finland)), Czech Republic (town of Vamberk), Slovenia (town of Idrija), England (town of Honiton), France, Belgium, Hungary, Ireland, Malta, Russia, Spain, Turkey and others all have their own unique artistic heritage expressed through lace. * Wikipedia:Idrija
, in the Croatian language were passed. Schools were opened. Makarska was at this time a small town with about 1580 inhabitants. Under the Austrians (1813-1918) As in Dalmatia as a whole, the Austrian authorities imposed a policy of Italianization, and the official language was Italian. The Makarska representatives in the Dalmatian assembly in Zadar and the Imperial Council in Vienna demanded the introduction of the Croatian language for use in public life, but the authorities steadfastly opposed the idea. One of the leaders of the National (pro-Croatian) Party (People's Party (Kingdom of Dalmatia)) was Mihovil Pavlinović of Podgora. Makarska was one of the first communities to introduce the Croatian language (1865). In the second half of the 19th century Makarska experienced a great boom and in 1900 it had about 1800 inhabitants. It became a trading point for agricultural products, not only from the coastal area, but also from the hinterland (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and had shipping links with Trieste, Rijeka and Split (city). The Congress of Vienna assigned Makarska to Austria-Hungary, under which it remained until 1918. The 20th century In the early 20th century agriculture, trade and fishing remained the mainstay of economy. In 1914 the first hotel was built, beginning the tourism tradition in the area. During World War II Makarska was part of the Independent State of Croatia. It was a port for the nation's navy (Navy of the Independent State of Croatia) and served as the headquarters of the Central Adriatic Naval Command, until it was moved to Split (Split (city)). Nigel Thomas, K. Mikulan, Darko Pavlovic. ''Axis Forces in Yugoslavia 1941-45'', pg. 18, Osprey Publishing, 1995. After the war Makarska experienced a period of growth, and the population tripled. All the natural advantages of the region were used to create in Makarska one of the best known tourist areas on the Croatian Adriatic. In 2007, exhumation of victims from the World War Two were still ongoing. U Makarskoj Iskopane žrtve Drugog Svjetskog Rata WikiPedia:Makarska Dmoz:Regional Europe Croatia Localities Makarska Commons:Category:Makarska
of Minnesota Center for Urban and Regional Affairs. ;History *Adams, John S., and Barbara VanDrasek 1993 Minneapolis-St. Paul: People, place and public life. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. (historical for Nicollet) *Dipman, David, and Hila Dipman 1974 Whittier's Early Beginnings. Notes for the Whittier Day Celebration, September 8, 1974. Minneapolis, MN. * Hart, Joseph 1997 How Little Asia Was Born. City Pages
. A substantial minority of the Irish people never forgave him for this role during the divorce crisis, permanently damaging his own standing in Irish public life. The rift prompted a nine-year old Dublin schoolboy, James Joyce, to pen a poem called ''Et Tu, Healy?''. thumb right 125px Plaque on Bantry (Image:Iarthair Chorcaí 081.jpg)'s Wolfe Tone Square commemorating Tim Healy's birth. DATE OF BIRTH 17 May 1855 PLACE OF BIRTH Bantry, County Cork DATE OF DEATH
and Egypt. In Iraq, he became involved in the nationalist movement led by Mustafa Barzani, with whom he developed a close friendship. In 1975, after the defeat of the movement, he moved back to Iran, and settled in the city of Karaj, where he lived until his death on February 22, 1990. He is buried in his home town of Mahabad. Republic of Mahabad encouraged women's participation in public life and KDPI launched a political party for women which promoted
cities. The Jewish Emancipation Act of 1868 gave Jews equality before the law and effectively eliminated all bars to their participation in the economy; nevertheless, informal barriers kept Jews from careers in politics and public life. Rise of the Liberal Party Franz Joseph appointed Gyula Andrássy—a member of Deák's party—prime minister in 1867. His government strongly favored the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and followed a laissez-faire economic policy. Guilds were abolished, workers were permitted to bargain for wages, and the government attempted to improve education and construct roads and railroads. Between 1850 and 1875, Hungary's farms prospered: grain prices were high, and exports tripled. But Hungary's economy accumulated capital too slowly, and the government relied heavily on foreign credits. In addition, the national and local bureaucracies began to grow immediately after the compromise became effective. Soon the cost of the bureaucracy outpaced the country's tax revenues, and the national debt soared. After an economic downturn in the mid-1870s, Deák's party succumbed to charges of financial mismanagement and scandal. As a result of these economic problems, Kálmán Tisza's Liberal Party, created in 1875, gained power in 1875. Tisza assembled a bureaucratic political machine that maintained control through corruption and manipulation of a woefully unrepresentative electoral system. In addition, Tisza's government had to withstand both dissatisfied nationalities and Hungarians who thought Tisza too submissive to the Austrians. The Liberals argued that the Dual Monarchy improved Hungary's economic position and enhanced its influence in European politics. Tisza's government raised taxes, balanced the budget within several years of coming to power, and completed large road, railroad, and waterway projects. Commerce and industry expanded quickly. After 1880 the government abandoned its laissez-faire economic policies and encouraged industry with loans, subsidies, government contracts, tax exemptions, and other measures. The number of Hungarians who earned their living in industry doubled to 24.2 percent of the population between 1890 and 1910, while the number dependent on agriculture dropped from 82 to 62 percent. However, the 1880s and 1890s were depression years for the peasantry. Rail and steamship transport gave North American farmers access to European markets, and Europe's grain prices fell by 50 percent. Large landowners fought the downturn by seeking trade protection and other political remedies; the lesser nobles, whose farms failed in great numbers, sought positions in the still-burgeoning bureaucracy. By contrast, the peasantry resorted to subsistence farming and worked as laborers to earn money. Social changes Hungary's population rose from 13 million to 20 million between 1850 and 1910. After 1867 Hungary's feudal society gave way to a more complex society that included the magnates, lesser nobles, middle class, working class, and peasantry. However, the magnates continued to wield great influence through several conservative parties because of their massive wealth and dominant position in the upper chamber of the diet. They fought modernization and sought both closer ties with Vienna and a restoration of Hungary's traditional social structure and institutions, arguing that agriculture should remain the mission of the nobility. They won protection from the market by reestablishment of a system of entail and also pushed for restriction of middle-class profiteering and restoration of corporal punishment. The Roman Catholic Church was a major ally of the magnates. Some lesser-noble landowners survived the agrarian depression of the late 19th century and continued farming. Many others turned to the bureaucracy or to the professions. In the mid-19th century, Hungary's middle class consisted of a small number of German and Jewish merchants and workshop owners who employed a few craftsmen. By the turn of the 20th century, however, the middle class had grown in size and complexity and had become predominantly Jewish. In fact, Jews created the modern economy that supported Tisza's bureaucratic machine. In return, Tisza not only denounced anti-Semitism but also used his political machine to check the growth of an anti-Semitic party. In 1896 his successors passed legislation securing the Jews' final emancipation. By 1910 about 900,000 Jews made up approximately 5 percent of the population and about 23 percent of Budapest's citizenry. Jews accounted for 54 percent of commercial business owners, 85 percent of financial institution directors and owners, and 62 percent of all employees in commerce. The rise of a working class came naturally with industrial development. By 1900 Hungary's mines and industries employed nearly 1.2 million people, representing 13 percent of the population. The government favored low wages to keep Hungarian products competitive on foreign markets and to prevent impoverished peasants from flocking to the city to find work. The government recognized the right to strike in 1884, but labor came under strong political pressure. In 1890 the Social Democratic Party was established and secretly formed alliances with the trade unions. The party soon enlisted one-third of Budapest's workers. By 1900 the party and union rolls listed more than 200,000 hard-core members, making it the largest secular organization the country had ever known. The diet passed laws to improve the lives of industrial workers, including providing medical and accident insurance, but it refused to extend them voting rights, arguing that broadening the franchise would give too many non-Hungarians the vote and threaten Hungarian domination. After the Compromise of 1867, the Hungarian government also launched an education reform in an effort to create a skilled, literate labor force. As a result, the literacy rate had climbed to 80 percent by 1910. Literacy raised the expectations of workers in agriculture and industry and made them ripe for participation in movements for political and social change. The plight of the peasantry worsened drastically during the depression at the end of the 19th century. The rural population grew, and the size of the peasants' farm plots shrank as land was divided up by successive generations. By 1900 almost half of the country's landowners were scratching out a living from plots too small to meet basic needs, and many farm workers had no land at all. Many peasants chose to emigrate, and their departure rate reached approximately 50,000 annually in the 1870s and about 200,000 annually by 1907. The peasantry's share of the population dropped from 72.5 percent in 1890 to 68.4 percent in 1900. The countryside also was characterized by unrest, to which the government reacted by sending in troops, banning all farm-labor organizations, and passing other repressive legislation. In the late 19th century, the Liberal Party passed laws that enhanced the government's power at the expense of the Roman Catholic Church. The parliament won the right to veto clerical appointments, and it reduced the church's nearly total domination of Hungary's education institutions. Additional laws eliminated the church's authority over a number of civil matters and, in the process, introduced civil marriage and divorce procedures. The Liberal Party also worked with some success to create a unified, Magyarized state. Ignoring the Nationalities Law, they enacted laws that required the Hungarian language to be used in local government and increased the number of school subjects taught in that language. After 1890 the government succeeded in Magyarizing educated Slovaks, Germans, Croats, and Romanians and co-opting them into the bureaucracy, thus robbing the minority nationalities of an educated elite. Most minorities never learned to speak Hungarian, but the education system made them aware of their political rights, and their discontent with Magyarization mounted. Bureaucratic pressures and heightened fears of territorial claims against Hungary after the creation of new nation-states in the Balkans forced Tisza to outlaw "national agitation" and to use electoral legerdemain to deprive the minorities of representation. Nevertheless, in 1901 Romanian and Slovak national parties emerged undaunted by incidents of electoral violence and police repression. Political and economic situation in 1905–1919 Tisza directed the Liberal government until 1890, and for fourteen years thereafter a number of Liberal prime ministers held office. Agricultural decline continued, and the bureaucracy could no longer absorb all of the pauperized lesser nobles and educated people who could not find work elsewhere. This group gave its political support to the Party of Independence and the Party of Forty-Eight, which became part of the "national" opposition that forced a coalition with the Liberals in 1905. The Party of Independence resigned itself to the existence of the Dual Monarchy and sought to enhance Hungary's position within it; the Party of Forty-Eight, however, deplored the Compromise of 1867, argued that Hungary remained an Austrian colony, and pushed for formation of a Hungarian national bank and an independent customs zone. Franz Joseph refused to appoint members of the coalition to the government until they renounced their demands for concessions from Austria concerning the military. When the coalition finally gained power in 1906, the leaders retreated from their opposition to the compromise of 1867 and followed the Liberal Party's economic policies. Istvan Tisza—Kalman Tisza's son and prime minister from 1903 to 1905—formed the new Party of Work, which in 1910 won a large majority in the parliament. Tisza became prime minister for a second time in 1912 after labor strife erupted over an unsuccessful attempt to expand voting rights. Cessation After the First World War, the existence of Transleithania came to an end. The Croatian ''Sabor'' assembly at Zagreb decided to join the National Council of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs on 29 October 1918. Out of desperation, Charles appointed Mihály Károlyi, who advocated looser ties between Austria and Hungary, as prime minister. Under Károlyi's prodding, the Hungarian parliament terminated the Austro-Hungarian Compromise as of 31 October 1918. On 13 November, Charles announced that he accepted Hungary's right to determine the form of the state and relinquished his right to take part in Hungary's politics. He also released the officials in the Hungarian half of the monarchy from their oath of loyalty to him. Although it is sometimes reckoned as an abdication, Charles deliberately avoided using the term in the event the Hungarian people recalled him. However, Károlyi and his government were unwilling to wait; they proclaimed the Hungarian Democratic Republic on 16 November. King Charles IV however never abdicated and from 1920 until 1944 the restored Kingdom of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1946)) was governed by Miklós Horthy as a regent. See also During history this river has been many times border between different states. First time this has happen between XIII and XVI century when it formed the border between Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen and Habsburgs. Similar thing has happened in 1868 when Rječina became border between Croatian and Hungarian part of Austro-Hungary. After World War I it became for a very short time the border between Free State of Fiume and Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. After Free State of Fiume was annexed by Italy, Rječina became border river of this country. After World War II Rječina was no longer a border between states.
at Ouargla beyond the Atlas Mountains, whence in the 11th century they moved southwest to Oued M'zab. Maintaining their cohesion and beliefs over the centuries, Ibadi religious leaders have dominated public life in the region to this day. Tlemcen prospered as a commercial center and was called the "pearl of the Maghrib." Situated at the head of the Imperial Road through the strategic Taza Gap to Marrakech, the city controlled the caravan route to Sijilmasa, gateway for the gold and slave trade with the western Sudan. Aragon came to control commerce between Tlemcen's port, Oran, and Europe beginning about 1250. An outbreak of privateering out of Aragon, however, severely disrupted this trade after about 1420. In the mid 11th century, Oujda acquired prominence through its strategic position on the road east from Sijilmasa. Throughout the history of the dynasties of the Muslim West, Oujda played an important strategic role among the Merinids, settled in Fes (Fes, Morocco), in this case as a rear base in their conflict with the Abdalwadids of Tlemcen. From at least the 13th to the 19th century, Tabelbala was a stop on the caravan routes linking southern Morocco (notably Sijilmasa) to the Sahel, in particular Timbuktu. On the collapse of Almohad rule in the 1230s Tlemcen became the capital of one of three successor states, the (Ziyyanid (Zayyanid)) kingdom of Tlemcen (1236 - 1554) and was ruled for centuries by successive Ziyyanid sultans. Delfina S. Ruano (2006), ''Hafsids'', in Josef W Meri (ed.), ''Medieval Islamic Civilization: an Encyclopedia''. Routledge., p. 309. Its flag was a white crescent pointing upwards on a blue field. During the Middle Ages, Tlemcen not only served as a trading city connecting the "coastal" route across the Maghreb with the trans-Saharan caravan routes, I. Hrbek (1997), ''The disintegration of political unity in the Maghrib'', in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), ''General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century'' (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 34-43. S.M. Cissoko (1997), ''The Songhay from the twelfth to the sixteenth century'', in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), ''General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century'' (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 77-86. but also housed a European trading center (funduk) which connected African and European merchants. Talbi (1997: 29). In particular, Tlemcen was one of the points through which African gold (arriving from south of the Sahara via Sijilmasa or Taghaza) entered the European hands. Id. Consequently, Tlemcen was partially integrated into the European financial system. So, for example, Genoese bills of exchange (Bill of Exchange) circulated there, at least among merchants not subject to (or not deterred by) religious prohibitions. Fernand Braudel (1979), ''Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century: Vol. III: The Perspective of the World''. Transl. Sian Reynolds. Univ. Calif. Press & HarperCollins (1992), p. 66. The importance of these materials for reconstructing the social and economic history for the period between 950 and 1250 cannot be overemphasized. Judaic scholar Shelomo Dov Goitein created an index for this time period which covers about 35,000 individuals. This included about 350 "prominent people," among them Maimonides and his son Abraham (Avraham son of Rambam), 200 "better known families", and mentions of 450 professions and 450 goods. He identified material from Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria (but not Damascus or Aleppo), Tunisia, Sicily, and even covering trade with India. Cities mentioned range from Samarkand in Central Asia to Seville and Sijilmasa, Morocco to the west; from Aden north to Constantinople; Europe not only is represented by the Mediterranean port cities of Narbonne, Marseilles, Genoa and Venice, but even Kiev and Rouen are occasionally mentioned. Dov Goitein, Shelomo. ''A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza'' '''Taghaza''' (also '''Teghaza''') is an abandoned salt-mining centre located in a salt pan (Dry lake) in the desert region of northern Mali. It was an important source of rock salt for West Africa up to the end of the 17th century when it was abandoned and replaced by Taoudenni. Salt from the mines formed an important part of the long distance trans-Saharan trade. Taghaza is located The Fatimids turned westward in 911 CE, destroying the imamate of Tahert and conquering Sijilmasa in Morocco. Ibadi Kharijite refugees from Tahert fled south to the oasis at Ouargla. All this had been done by him to prepare for the appearance of Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, the ''imam (Shia Imam)''-caliph of the Fatimids. Al-Mahdi was rescued from a prison in Sijilmasa (present-day Morocco) and proclaimed as caliph, ruling from the former residence of the Aghlabids.