Places Known For

public attention


Pine Ridge Indian Reservation

Knee on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in 1973. Other events during the 1970s were designed to achieve the goal of gaining public attention. They ensured AIM would be noticed to highlight what they saw as the erosion of Indian rights and sovereignty. Banks, pp. 108-113; Leonard Crow Dog; Richard Erdoes. ''Crow Dog: Four Generations of Sioux Medicine Men'' (New York: Harper Perennial, 1996), pp. 170-171 ISBN 978-0-06-092682-3 ref name "Crow Dog and Erdoes

the goal of gaining public attention. They ensured AIM would be noticed to highlight what they saw as the erosion of Indian rights and sovereignty. Banks, pp. 108-113; Leonard Crow Dog; Richard Erdoes. ''Crow Dog: Four Generations of Sioux Medicine Men'' (New York: Harper Perennial, 1996), pp. 170-171 ISBN 978-0-06-092682-3 Mary Crow Dog; Richard Erdoes. ''Lakota Woman'' (New York: HarperPerennial, 1990) p. 88 ISBN 978-0-06


Abu Ghraib

involvement in a coup (coup d'état) attempt in Equatorial Guinea. (BBC) (IAfrica) *For example, the recent abuses by the USA military at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq were made highly visible and resulted in shock and outrage in the USA. In contrast, the daily practices of humiliation and abuse in some prison settings in the USA gets almost no public attention. However, impatience for actionable


Chinatown, San Francisco

of her life she supposedly returned to China a wealthy woman to live the rest of her days in comfort, but came back to California not long afterward. From 1868 until her death in 1928, she lived a quiet life in Santa Clara County, returning to public attention only


Cambridge, Ontario

was a man of religious commitment and in recognition of his many educational contributions, the school was named in his honor. School teams are known as the "Doyle" Mustangs and are known for their exceptional performance in Badminton, Wrestling, Soccer, and Volleyball. The school has received public attention several times over the years due to an Anti-Bullying initiative run by the school's leadership program which saw the school participate in Family


Willow Bunch, Saskatchewan

alone; cultivation technologies were not sophisticated, so devices such as harrows, carriages and harvest racks were the standard. Steam-powered farming machinery began to appear in southern Saskatchewan in the 1920s, which created much public attention for farmers using the machines. Public archives, Willow Bunch Museum Despite fascination with the new technologies, the machinery disappeared from Saskatchewan farms during the 1930s; the machines were not economically


Pula

, Ferdinand Max had a keen private interest in the fleet, and with him the Austrian naval force gained an influential supporter from the ranks of the Imperial Family (House of Habsburg). This was crucial as sea power was never a priority of the Austrian foreign policy and the navy itself was relatively little known or supported by the public. It was only able to draw significant public attention and funds when it was actively supported by an imperial prince. As Commander-in-Chief, Ferdinand Max


Wikipedia:Articles for creation/2007-08-10

Established in 1989, the LA Stage Alliance Ovation Awards are Southern California’s premiere awards for excellence in theatre production, design and performance. It is also the only peer-judged theatre awards in Los Angeles. Called the "...highest-profile contest for local theatre..." by the Los Angeles Times, the Ovation Awards are an invaluable opportunity to bring the theatre community together and focus public attention on Los Angeles’ diverse cultural life. Each Ovation


Travancore

. Ayyavazhi first came to public attention in the 19th century as a Hindu sect. Dr. R. Ponnu, ''Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and the Struggle for Social Equality in South India'', p. 98. Vaikundar's activities and the growing number of followers caused a reformation and revolution in 19th century Travancorean Dr. R. Ponnu, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, p. 63, ''"The religious reform of Sri Vaikunda Swamigal left an everlasting influence on South Travancorean society."'' and Tamil society (Tamil people), G. Patrick, ''Religion and Subaltern Agency'', pp. 90–91. surprising the feudal social system of South India. Dr. R. Ponnu, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, p. 86. It also triggers a number of reform movements including those of Narayana Guru, Vallalar etc. By the middle of 19th century, Ayyavazhi had come to be recognised as a separate religion with deep roots in the regions of South Travancore and South Tirunelveli. G. Patrick, ''Religion and Subaltern Agency'' Chapter 5, p. 91: ''"By the middle of the nineteenth century, AV (abbreviation of Ayyavazhi) had expanded into a recognisable religious phenomenon, making its presence felt in South Tiruvitankur (Travancore) and in the southern parts of Tirunelveli. From the LMS reports, one gathers the information that AV was spreading with 'extraordinary' speed."'' The numbers of faithful increased significantly from the 1840s. By the close of the 19th century, Swamithope was considered the religio-cultural epi-center of Ayyavazhi. LMS (London Missionary Society) Report for the year 1872, p. 107. After the time of Vaikundar, Ayyavazhi was spread through his teachings. The five Seedars, disciples of Vaikundar and their descendants, traveled to several parts of the country bearing the mission of Ayyavazhi. G. Patrick, ''Religion and Subaltern Agency'', Chapter 5, p. 120 ''"Vaikunda cami chose these disciples as close associates to propagate his teachings and ideas to the people"'' Meanwhile, the Payyan dynasty started administrating the Swamithoppe pathi, N. Elango and Vijaya Shanthi Elango, ''Ayya Vaikuntar – The Light of the World'' Chapter 4, p. 21 ''"The temple is managed by the Gurus of Lord Vaikuntar's gurukulam. The Gurus are the descendants of Guru Podukutti."'' while other Pathis came under the administration of the followers of Ayya. N. Elango and Vijaya Shanathi Elango, ''Ayya Vaikuntar – The Light of The World'' Chapter 8, pp. 41–44 (sources). Following the instructions of Akilattirattu Ammanai (Akilam), the Nizhal Thangals (small pagodas) have been established across the country for worship and the study of scripture. V.T. Chellam, ''Thamizaka Varalarum Panpadum'', Chapter 12, p. 493 thumb left '' The Holy 'Pirambu', 'Khadayam' and 'Surai koodu' ''— belongings of Vaikundar (Image:Ayya's Holy Perambu and Surai koodu.jpg) preserved at Swamithope pathi * V. Nagam Aiya (1989), ''The Travancore State Manual'', Volume-2, Asian Educational Services, ISBN 81-85499-33-0. * Cf. Ward and Conner (1860), ''Geographical and Statistical Memoir of the Survey of Travancore and Cochin States'', Travancore Sircar Press, Trivandrum. * Cf. Ponneelan's, ''Vaikunta Cuvamiyum Avar Kalamum'', Mimeograph note At this time round, the king of Thiruvithankur (Travancore), the Kalineesan came to Suchindrum for his routine visit. He was an agitated man. With his powers already been curtailed by the foreigners, he wanted to know whether there was any one else in his kingdom that could challenge his authority. The ministers told him as follows: Habitat The Malabar large-spotted civet 's original habitat was found in the Malabar Coast moist forests belt below the Western Ghats, where it lived in wooded plains and adjoining hill slopes. It was once very common in the coastal districts of Malabar and Travancore. Extensive deforestation has reduced the Malabar forests to a series of isolated patches. Cashew plantations are a refuge, which probably hold most of the surviving populations of the Malabar large-spotted civet, and are now threatened by large-scale clearance for rubber plantations (Plantation#Other types of plantation). Even though this may be the case Idaykka is still used and popularised as an instrument of and for the gods and goddess. Idakka was not seen or used, even in the court of Travancore king Swati Tirunal, a connoisseur and patron of music. It was not seen to be used by revered Carnatic music composer Saint Thyagaraja, when he was visited by classical musician, Shadkala Govinda Marar. This clearly shows that the Idakka before being used on a stage along with the accompaniment of other instruments, was confined strictly to the cultural and customary rites and rituals. Marthanda Varma rebuilt the Anandha Padmanabha Swami Temple in 1730 AD. He defeated the Dutch in the Colachel War in 1741, but maintained good relations with the British East India Company for tactical reasons. Thiruvithamkur, or Travancore, became a subsidiary of the British at the end of 18th century, and remained a princely state with its own government under the Maharaja. On India becoming independent, Travancore joined the Indian Union in 1947 and later became a part of the State of Travancore-Cochin in 1949 which in turn became part of the state of Kerala when it was formed in 1956. Venad Monarchs (till 16th century) Royal Ark Image:Vaikunda Avathara Orvalam kids.jpg 240px thumb left Kids dancing during 'The Great Masi Procession.' Ayya Vaikundar, was released from the Jail of Singarathoppe on 19th Masi, (3 March) after the trail with the king of Travancore, Swathi Thirunal. After the release Ayya was carried in a Vahana to Swamithoppe, by his followers. So on celebrating this event the people used to go to Thiruvananthapuram on that day and go as a procession to Swamithoppe. There are a series of lesser god-heads mentioned in Akilam were lesser in power and within Ekam while Vaikundar is viewed on one hand as the incarnation of Ekam and on the other hand as in equal power to Ekam. But during the encounter of Vaikundar with the King of Travancore, a verse of Akilam states that Ekam itself was created by Vaikundar. So Vaikundar is supreme to all. This report says about the fast spread of Ayyavazhi then throughout the regions of Southern Kerala (then Travancore) and South Tamil Nadu (the then 'Tinnevely') as, "multitudes of people flocked from all parts of the provinces of Travancore and Tinnevelly." One part of the report states that Ayya Vaikundar's devotees believe they were "cured by him of different diseases." On the Ayyavazhi religion, the report says that "multitudes of people flocked to him from all parts of Travancore and Tinnevelly (Tirunelveli)." ''(p. 71)'' 218px (Image:India_kerala.png) '''Kerala''' is a state (States_and_territories_of_India) on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. It is one of four states that compose the linguistic-cultural region known as South India. First settled in the 10th century BCE by speakers of Proto-South Dravidian (Dravidian languages ), Kerala was influenced by the Mauryan Empire. Later, the Chera kingdom (Chera) and feudal Nair city-states became major powers in the region. Finally, the States Reorganisation Act of November 1, 1956 elevated Kerala to statehood. Social reforms enacted in the late 19th century by Travancore and Cochin (Kingdom of Cochin) were expanded upon by post-Independence (Independence of India) governments, making Kerala among the Third World's healthiest, longest-lived, most gender-equitable, and most literate regions. '''Narayana Guru (नारायण गुरु,നാരായണ ഗുരു)''' (1856–1928) was a great sage and social reformer of India. Born in ''Ezhava Thiyya'' community (a Backward Community in today's parlance), he revolted against the brahminical (brahmin) order and thereby transformed the social face of Kerala. Narayana Guru is revered for his ''Vedic (Historical Vedic religion)'' knowledge, poetic proficiency, openness to the views of others, non-violent philosophy and most importantly his unnerving resolve to rebel and change wrongdoing in society. Narayana Guru was instrumental in setting the spiritual (spirituality) foundations for social reform in the current State of Kerala (erstwhile states of Travancore, Kochi (Kochi, India) and Malabar (Malabar (Northern Kerala))). Read more here... (Narayana Guru) 175px thumb left The Symbol of Ayyavazhi Ayyavazhi symbol (Image:Ayyavazhi architecture.symbol.jpg) mounted at the top of a Thangal (Nizhal Thangal) near Marthandam; Photo during Inauguration. In the nineteenth century Travancore society, the social setup is highly marked for the discriminative hierarchical caste order and the inhumanties unfold from this, such as untouchability, ''unseeability'' and ''unapproachability'' accordingly some people were shunned from the public approach and sight. This caste based social reality is transformed into a religious institution. The then political faculties duly safegaurded this order. Even in temple the priests while handing over the ''Prasatam'' (a ritual object) to devotees after worship, they approach freely with the higher castes, whose nearness and touch would not pollute them, and use to throw the Prasatam on to a platform from where the lower caste devotee (whose touch may pollute him) has to collect this. The alternative relationship and close contact brought up by this ritual practice meant a reversal of the hierarchical social relationship and discrimination based on purity (Virtue) and pollution. In other words, with the under-lying ritual ambience, this 'Tottu Namam' acted fast against the caste based and other inequalities prevalent in the then Travancore Kingdom and Tamil society (Tamil people). 140px thumb right Child with Thirunamam smeared on the fore head (Image:Child with Thiru Namam.jpg) Unlike the social definition for this ritual practice, the religious or ritual importance for Thirunamam fits to all period of time. Sociologically, while this practice is a basic need, to reform a society (19th century Travancore), religiously the same is performed just with a religious belief. The religious definition for the practice 'Tottu Namam' is as '''The Name of God'''. The Atman (Atman (Hinduism)) is assumed to be in a flame shape and it as the name of God. That is, the Atman (Atman (Hinduism)) is God and the supreme self. A very strong critique of the political oppressors seems to have been operative in Ayyavazhi. In the first place, it was expressed in the very characterisation of the Thiruvithankur (Travancore) king as Kalineesan, the representative of the evil force, and of the British as Venneesan (the wicked white). ''Ailattirattu Ammanai'', published by T. Palaramachandran Nadar, 9th impression, 1989, pp. 214, 266 Kalineesan was projected to be the main oppressor who perpetrated the rule of Kali by exploiting the labour of the people through the systems of oozhiyam and levies, and by imposing the discriminatory caste system. Akilattirattu indicts the king as the cause of oppression and issues admonitions to him to revoke the exploitative measures. ''Ailattirattu Ammanai'', published by T. Palaramachandran Nadar, 9th impression, 1989, pp. 119, 120 and 121. History Amboori was inhabited by members of the Kanikar tribe since time immemorial. After Second World War the princely state of Travancore experienced severe famine, so the Raja of Travancore allowed Nasranis of Pala and Kottayam to settle in uncultivated Western Ghats ranges. That resulted large scale migration to tribal areas and alineation of tribal land. An early settlement of Christians was in Pantha, located north of Amboori, near Mayam. The St. Mary's Church of Mayam was the first Roman Catholic church in the area. St.Mary's School, Mayam was the first primary School in the area. Later during the construction of Neyyar Reservoir, the people of Pantha, mostly Christians, Pulayas and Parayas were forced to resettle. Most of them resettled in Amboori. In 1947 twenty-five families of the Central Travencore Christians made their way into the hills of what was to be called Amboori. The people found their way to the hill on which Amboory resides by carrying their possessions almost 12 km beyond Panachamoodu, the last point then served by public transportation. Early life She was born '''Anna Muttathupadathu''', the fourth child of Cherian Ouseph and Mary Muttathupadathu, in Kudamalloor, near Kottayam, on 19 August 1910. She was baptized (baptism) on the following 26 August. ''Alphonsamma'', as she was locally known, was born in Arpookara, a village in the princely state of Travancore, which was under the British Raj at the time. Today the place is called Kottayam District, within the state of Kerala, India. This lies within the Archdiocese of Changanassery. Death She died on 28 July 1946, aged 35. She is buried at Bharananganam, Travancore (present day Kerala) in the Diocese of Palai. Biography He was born in Travancore, India, where he spent his youth. A genial and kindly clergyman,he published over 100 papers each on Lepidoptera, sixty or so on Hymenoptera and smaller numbers on each of ten other insect orders. His best known work is ''A list of the beetles of Ireland'' (Coleoptera) a collaboration with J.N. Halbert published in 1902. A graduate of Dublin University, he spent most of his life in Co. Armagh, first as a teacher in Armagh town, then as Rector in Poyntzpass. Later in life he spent time in various parts of Co Down and Co Louth. The fact that he was elected a Special Life Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society of London gives some measure of the esteem in which he was held. Johnson was a careful and assiduous worker, careful to send dubiously identified specimens to others. His Ichneumonidae were sent to the Swede (Sweden) Per Abraham Roman, for instance. Richard Strauss once said of himself "I am not a composer of the first rate, but I am a splendid composer of the second". The same may said of William Johnson. thumb left Lighthouse (File:Leuchtturm in Kollam.jpg), Thangasseri, Kollam alt Red-and-white-striped lighthouse, behind a stand of palm trees The history of the district's administration can be traced back to 1835, when the Travancore state consisted of two revenue divisions with headquarters at Kollam and Kottayam. When Travancore and Cochin were combined into Travancore-Cochin, Kollam was one of the three revenue divisions. When the state of Kerala was formed in 1957, Chenkotta (Shenkottai) taluk (Tehsil) was merged with the state of Madras. Later in 1957, the Cherthala, Ambalapuzha, Mavelikara, Karthikapalli, Chengannur and Thiruvalla taluks (formerly in Kollam district) were united to form the new district of Alappuzha. In 1983, Pathanamthitta taluk and nine villages of Kunnathur taluk were removed from Kollam district to form the new Pathanamthitta district. Administration page of quilon.com The college was affiliated to The Travancore University and is now affiliated to Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam. '''Ayroor''' (sometimes Spelt as '''Ayiroor''' (Malayalam:അയിരൂര്‍ )) is a village situated on the western part of Ranni Taluk of Pathanamthitta District in Kerala state, India. Formerly, Ayroor was part of Tiruvalla Taluk in Alleppey District and is considered as part of Edanadu in Kerala. The Pamba River flows by the southern side of this scenic village and makes soil around the village very fertile. Ayroor village used to be a part of the erstwhile Travancore kingdom. It is also the Kathakali village of Kerala. Sankar returned to the State Congress at a crucial juncture, when it was going through one of its worst periods. His organising skills and leadership qualities became evident in the election held after independence. He was elected to the Travancore State Assembly in 1948. He also became the member of the Travancore-Cochin State Assembly from 1949 to 1956. Sankar was member of the Constituent Assembly and also member of the Franchise and Delimitation Commission and the Reforms Committee constituted after the introduction of the Responsible Government. Panavally Panavally is a serene village in Cherthala taluk of Alappuzha district. It is situated at the northern frontier of old Travancore state, sourrounded by backwater (backwater (river))s of Vembanad lake. The studies on the soil of the place have shown that, like many regions of Kerala, this part of the land also emerged from the sea a few centuries ago. The sand in the southern part of this village contains high concentration of pure silica. This is being used in many industries, in particular in brick (white) making. The Cherthala-Arookutty bus route goes through this village and runs parallel to the national highway NH 47. The economy in general is agriculture based, but equally supported by the seafood processing industry. Due to the proximity to the Cochin city, this village supplies workforce to the city as well. Major industries in this include Century Shipyard, Kuncharath coir mills etc. Nalpathaneeswaram Sree Mahadeva Temple, Thrichattukulam Mahadeva Temple,vazatharaveli annapoorneswari temple,sooryankunnu bhadrakali temple, Edappangazhi Sree Krishna Temple, Odampally Devi Temple are the main Hindu religious centres in Panavally. Poochakkal Police Station and Thykkattussery Block Office are situated in this village. '''Maharaja of Travancore''' was the principal title of the ruler of the Kingdom of Travancore (Travancore) in India. Maharajas of Kingdom of Travancore (Travancore) '''Raja Ravi Varma (w:Raja Ravi Varma)''' (29 April 1848 – 2 October 1906) from the princely state of Travancore (w:Travancore) (presently in Kerala (w:Kerala)). He was widely acclaimed following his winning an award for an exhibition of his paintings at Vienna in 1873. Though his style of painting was described as too showy and sentimental, his paintings are widely popular in India. A large number of his lovely paintings are in the Laxmi Vilas Palace of Vadodara. He has been hailed as one of the “greatest painters in the history of Indian art. His paintings achieved recognition for his depiction of scenes from the epics of the Mahabharata (w:Mahabharata) and Ramayana (w:Ramayana). *The history of modern Travancore begins with Marthanda Varma (w:Marthanda Varma) who inherited the Kingdom of Venad (w:Venad) and expanded Travancore (w:Travancore) by conquering kingdoms Attingal (w:Attingal), Kollam (w:Kollam), Kayamkulam (w:Kayamkulam), Kottarakara (w:Kottarakara), Kottayam (w:Kottayam), Changanassery (w:Changanassery), Meenachil (w:Meenachil), Poonjar (w:Poonjar) and Ambalapuzha (w:Ambalapuzha). **City Corporation, in City History right thumb All that I write whether poetry (File:Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma.jpg) or music centred around God. This is an act of faith in me. Music is not worth its name otherwise. '''Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma (w: Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma)''', known by the full name '''Sree Padmanabhadasa Sree Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma''' (Malayalam (w:Malayalam language): ശ്രീ പദ്മനാഭദാസ ശ്രീ സ്വാതി തിരുനാള് രാമവർമ്മ)(Tamil:ஸ்ரீ சுவாதி திருநாள் ராம வர்மா (April 16, 1813 – December 27, 1846) was the Maharaja (w:Maharaja) of the state of Travancore (w:Travancore) തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍)) )) in India. He modernized Travancore with a well-formulated code of laws, courts of Justice, introduction of English (w:English language) education, construction of an observatory (w:Observatory), installation of the first Government printing press (w:Printing press), establishment of the first manuscripts (w:Manuscripts) library and many more activities. Efficiency was the key word and corruption, a taboo in his administration. Amanda J. Weidman in Singing the Classical, Voicing the Modern: The Postcolonial Politics of ...27 June 2006 *He assumed the rule of Travancore state in 1829, at the age of sixteen. At the suggestion of Colonel John Munroe (w:Colonel John Munroe), the British Resident (w:British Resident) of Travancore (w:Travancore), Swati Tirunal had been tutored in English, Sanskrit, Marathi, political science, and Karnatic music by Subba Rao from Tanjavur (w:Tanjavur), also known as English Subba Rao for his skill in the English language. **Veketasubramanya Iyer (w:Oottukkadu Venkata Kavi), in p. 63 *His passion for photography from a tender age and it was his brother, the last ruler of Travancore (w:Travancore), Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, who presented him his first camera (w:Camera). With the Rolleiflex camera (w:Rolleiflex) presented to him in 1934 he learned the basics of photography and then there was no looking back. **The New Indian Express (w: The New Indian Express), in An Avid Shutterbug, Driving Enthusiast, Sanskrit Scholar (17 December 2013) *From the Vattezhuthu (w:Vattezhuthu) was derived another script called the kolezhuthu (w:Kolezhuthu). This script was more commonly used in the Cochin (w:Cochin) and Malabar (w:Malabar) areas than in Travancore (w:Travancore). Yet another script derived from the vattezhuthu was the Malayanma (w:Malayanma), which was commonly used south to Thiruvananthapuram. Malayanma also does not differ fundamentally from the vattezhuthu.


Wikipedia:Articles for creation/2006-07-23

Senor Vivo and the Coca Lord is the second book in Louis de Bernieres' Latin American Trilogy, following The War of Don Emmanuel's Nether Parts and preceding The Troublesome Offspring of Cardninal Guzman. The story centres around Senor Dionisio Vivo, a lecturer in philosophy in the town of Ipasueno. Vivo becomes (in)famous for his letters to a local paper, and the novel follows the consequences of these letters, particularly on Vivo's relationship with Anica. At times the novel is desperately sad, but this is balanced well by moments of humour, particularly concerning the town of Cochadebajo de los Gatos, the town of cats that townspeople are forced to move to and colonise in The War of Don Emmanuel's Nether Parts. The book, as with all of Louis de Bernieres' novels, has many sub plots and synchronous stories which overlap at points throughout, meaning it is never possible to guess what will happen next. Sources Louis de Bernieres, Senor Vivo and the Coca Lord, Vintage Fiction, 1991, ISBN 0 7493 9962 7 !-- You're


Rhineland-Palatinate

(Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany). BASF has customers in over 200 countries and supplies products to a wide variety of industries. Despite its size and global presence BASF receives little public attention as it abandoned consumer product lines in the 90s. * Ottoman Empire (Turkey): House of Osman * Palatinate of the Rhine (Rhineland-Palatinate): House of Wittelsbach * Parma Piacenza & Guastalla: After an interlude as an English POW and later as an interpreter at a police school, Schmidt started his future life as a freelance writer during the time of wandering that followed the war. Since Schmidt's pre-war home in Lauban was in the part of Germany placed under Polish administration after the war, Schmidt became part of the throng of refugees moved by the authorities from village to village in West Germany. This included stints in Cordingen (in the Bomlitz county of Lower Saxony), Gau-Bickelheim, and Kastel (both in the newly formed province of Rhineland-Palatinate). In Kastel, he was accused in court of blasphemy and moral subversion, which was then still prosecuted in the Catholic parts of West Germany. As a result, Schmidt and his wife moved to the Protestant city of Darmstadt in Hesse, where the suit against him was dismissed. In 1958, the Schmidts moved to the small village of Bargfeld (near Celle) in Lower Saxony, where they were to stay (cf. Martynkewicz 1992). The "Upper Rhine" is one of four sections (High Rhine, '''Upper Rhine''', Middle Rhine, Lower Rhine) of the river between Lake Constance and the North Sea. Countries and states along the Upper Rhine are Switzerland, France (Alsace) and the German states of Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse. The largest cities along the river are Basel, Mulhouse, Strasbourg, Mannheim, Ludwigshafen and Mainz. On the left Bank, we find the French region of Alsace and the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate; on the right bank, the German states of Baden-Württemberg and Hesse. The first few kilometers are in the Swiss city of Basel. thumb left Oignies-en-Thiérache, Monument for the geographical centre of the EU until its May 2004 expansion (Image:Centre europe des 15.jpg) *From 1995 to 2004, Viroinval was the location of the geographical centre of the European Union, at coordinates commons:Rheinland-Pfalz


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