exchange in terms of trading volume, capable of making 10 million trades a day. File:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Zicht op Nairobi met op de voorgrond het stadspark met tribune TMnr
for Hitler. It also provided a legal grounding for the Nazi regime, as the German courts and cabinet quickly swept aside centuries of legal prohibition against extra-judicial killings to demonstrate their loyalty to the regime. Against conservatives and old enemies The regime did not limit itself to a purge of the SA, however. Having earlier imprisoned or exiled prominent Social Democrats and Communists, Hitler used the occasion to move against conservatives he considered unreliable. This included Vice-Chancellor Papen and those in his immediate circle. In Berlin, on Göring's personal orders, an armed SS unit stormed the Vice-Chancellery. Gestapo officers attached to the SS unit shot Papen's secretary Herbert von Bose without bothering to arrest him first. The Gestapo arrested and later executed Papen's close associate Edgar Jung, the author of Papen's Marburg speech; they disposed of his body by dumping it in a ditch. Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).
trade agreement of the European Economic Community (EEC, later European Union) in 1973, by signing a petition along with 500 other more-or-less prominent social democrats and socialists. As an employee of the Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions, Halonen advocated diplomatic recognition of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Otherwise she was loyal The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.
family, who invited her to spend a year as their guest at Greenbank, their ancestral mansion in Liverpool. The Rathbones were Quakers and prominent social reformers, and at Greenbank, Dix met men and women who believed that government should play a direct, active role in social welfare. She was also exposed to the British lunacy reform movement, whose methods involved detailed investigations of madhouses and asylums, the results of which were published in reports to the House of Commons (British House of Commons). In 1836, Titus came upon some bales of Alpaca wool in a warehouse in Liverpool and, after taking some samples away to experiment, came back and bought the consignment. Though he was not the first in England to work with the fibre, he was the creator of the lustrous and subsequently fashionable cloth called 'alpaca'. (The discovery was described by Charles Dickens in slightly fictionalised form in ''Household Words''). Commons:category:Liverpool Dmoz:Regional Europe United Kingdom England Merseyside Liverpool Wikipedia:Liverpool
production. In 1892, Du Bois received a fellowship from the John F. Slater Fund for the Education of Freedmen (Slater Fund) to attend the University of Berlin for graduate work. Lewis, p. 90. While a student in Berlin, he traveled extensively throughout Europe. He came of age intellectually in the German capital, while studying with some of that nation's most prominent social scientists, including Gustav von Schmoller, Adolph Wagner and Heinrich
; Commons:Category:India Wikipedia:India Dmoz:Regional Asia India
web url http: www.dailypress.com news local bal-blackhistory-cole,0,816571.story title Judge Harry A. Cole publisher the Baltimore Sun accessdate 2008-11-03 '''Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney''' (January 9, 1875 – April 18, 1942) was an American (United States) sculptor (List of sculptors#W), art patron and collector, and founder in 1931 of the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City. She was a prominent social figure and hostess, who was born into the United
States Vanderbilt family and married into the Whitney family. '''Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney''' (January 9, 1875 – April 18, 1942) was an American (United States) sculptor (List of sculptors#W), art patron and collector, and founder in 1931 of the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City. She was a prominent social figure and hostess, who was born into the United States Vanderbilt family and married into the Whitney family. death_place residence