Places Known For

production industry


utilization of the now open sugar lands for new housing and business initiatives. Consequently, while the nearby town of Chaguanas has evolved and expanded significantly to become the de facto administrative and commercial capital of Central Trinidad, Couva's character has changed to become magnet for industrialization, sports, health, and residential projects. Development and Demise of the Sugar Production Industry In 1937 there were two major developments which occurred on these sugar

Greater Vancouver

of filming locations in the British Columbia Interior '''Vancouver, British Columbia''' has a large film and television production industry, which earned it the nickname "Hollywood North." It usually serves as a substitute location (Filming location#Substitute locations) for other cities and locales. This is a list, arranged by region, of films and television series shot in the Lower Mainland, including several prominent filming locations in Greater Vancouver

Nizhny Novgorod Oblast

in the local economy. More than 650 industrial companies employ nearly 700 000 people, or 62% of the workforce involved in material production. Industry generates 83% of the regional GDP and accounts for 89% of all material expenditures. The leading sectors are engineering and metalworking, followed by chemical and petrochemical industries and forestry, woodworking, and paper industries. The first three sectors account for about 75% of all industrial production. The oblast has traditionally


production industry were well developed. Karafuto suffered from a labor shortage through most of its history, and tax incentives were provided to encourage immigration. During World War II, a large number of Koreans were also forcibly relocated to Karafuto. Karafuto's largest city was Toyohara (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). Other major cities included Esutoru (Uglegorsk, Sakhalin Oblast) in the north central and Maoka (Kholmsk) in the south central region. Japan File:Japanese SL D51-22


., vehicles from kits. There is a vibrant and fast growing cement production industry. *

Inland Empire

of methamphetamine production. The Riverside and San Bernardino county sheriffs' departments busted 635 meth labs in 2000; law enforcement has driven most of the meth production industry to Mexico since 2007, but many

Querétaro, Querétaro

City of Santiago de Querétaro). This honor was solicited by Viceroy Luís de Velasco, in recognition of Querétaro's growth, agricultural production, industry and educational institutions. By the 18th century, it was informally known as the "Pearl of the Bajío" and "The Third City of the Viceroyalty". By the 17th century, the Franciscans had been joined

Greater Sudbury

, 2012. Development of an active film and television production industry in Northern Ontario was initially undertaken by Cinéfest (Cinéfest Sudbury International Film Festival), the city's annual film festival, in the early 1990s, and is currently overseen by Music and Film in Motion, a non-profit organization based in Sudbury. "Landry leaving Music and Film in Motion". ''Sudbury Star'', April 20, 2011

Wikipedia:Articles for creation/2006-07-23

stuffs from abroad and not support the food production industry of their own country? Should the consumer buy expensive foodstuffs from abroad (for example, those produced using ecological production methods bananas), or cheaper foods from their own country? • European level: idem • Global level: North-South divide and buying from poor farmers: is the food safe? Can the consumer trust that their purchases indeed help the poor? Can consumers trust the vendor? • Global level: should consumers eat meat and fish and contribute to the deterioration of nature, the farming of which has a negative environmental impact in terms of the food pyramid? • Future generations: do consumers consider them or not in deciding upon the use of non-renewable resources in food production? Consumer dilemmas relating to preparing, cooking and eating food • When preparing foods: Should cook without using pre-packaged and non-frozen food. What if there are no shops providing alternative products accessible by consumers? • When buying meat and meat products: Should the consumer choose between locally produced meat, organically produced meat or free range meat? • When buying fruit: should consumers buy from organic or ecological shop “traceable” products which may be mislabelled regarding country of origin and production method • Should consumers purchase cheap food or that which is produced ethically but may be more expensive ( short term profit for the consumer versus long term profit for society and the environment ) • Do consumers choose for one or more of these enormous amounts of labels, e.g. meat from pigs with or without teeth, with or without teeth, with or without tails, or do you believe the critics that argue that these labels can’t be trusted? • Do consumers get more confidence in labelling because of intensive regulation and monitoring of the labelling companies, or do they lose sight and trust because of these complicated regulations? • Do consumers trust the health claims of light food or do they believe critics these health claims are only partially valid and often neglect unhealthy ingredients (like acids) of the products? (Böcker and Hanf, 2002; Brinkmann, 2004; Kriflik and Yeatman, 2005; Schroderand. McEachem, 2004) 5. 2. The productionist paradigm of the food sector frames problems in an ethically unacceptable way The productionist paradigm that still permeates the whole food sector (including regulatory activities) emphasises the importance of high levels of food production, together with a limited conception of food safety, which can be summarised as food free from biological and chemical contaminants. Food-related diseases, such obesity, cardiovascular diseases and intestinal cancers (in particular caused by red meat), are neglected within this paradigm. Moreover, food portions, and the amount of calories and of salt, saturated fat and sugar in foods, haven increased in recent years (Nielsen and Popkin 2003). WHO has published various reports on the connection between food intake and these diseases (FAO WHO 2003). There are strong positive associations between consumption of foods high in fat and sugar (associated with the products of the fast food industry), weight gain and insulin resistance, which increases the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes (Pereira and Cutler et. al., 2005). The food industry has mostly reacted very angrily in response to these reports and findings and has attacked organisations critical of its products, and threatened them with juridical and other sanctions (Nestle 2002; Shell 2002). In particular large American companies apparently do not feel responsible for the diseases and environmental costs related to processed food. However, the advertising budgets for unhealthy food are enormous. A case in point is the high level of advertising promoting processed foods aimed at children which is broadcast during television schedules aimed at this same population group. Moreover, the direct and indirect costs to the individual and the economy associated with food-related diseases have escalated over recent decades, as have environmental costs and the damage done to human rights, i.e. the destruction of livelihood of poor farmers in the South (Thiele 2004). It seems as if only reluctantly, under great social pressure, the food industry is willing to start to tackle the problem of obesity in more affluent countries. Many companies are hampered by the old productionist paradigm that frames consumer protection in terms of safe food free from biological and chemical contaminants, and which formulates food innovation as a technology push process, in which there is no room for the voice of the consumer. 6. Implications for food product development: representativeness, transparency (labelling), fair taxation and pricing As was made clear in the first sections of this chapter, the existing situation within the food sector is far from ethically acceptable. Consumers are frequently confronted with unreliable and biased information, and with supplies of food that are largely unhealthy, animal and environmentally unfriendly, disrespectful of human rights and so forth. Although these ethically unacceptable activities cannot be attributed to the practices of large companies alone, the latter still have a large stake in continuation of the existing ethically unacceptable situation. A case in point, food advertisements aimed at children are worth annually US$12,7 billions, and do not promote fruits and vegetable consumption but do promote consumption of fatty and sugary food stuffs (Nestle 2002). Widespread obesity is the result (Critser 2003) In this section, I will discuss four issues that can make the food production sector more ethically acceptable: the need for diversification of production and food styles, the need for greater transparency focused towards the consumer (ethical traceability), the need for taxation of unhealthy food stuffs, and the need for sufficient prices. The need for greater and more representative diversification towards a multi-tier food system (intensive, extensive, organic, GM, non-GM, health food, fun food, etc) is directly justifiable from the concept of respect for the cultural diversity of food choices. Before World War 2, food was seen in most countries and cultures to be an important factor applied both to self suffiency of states as to the self-identity of a culture. Historically, the short period after World War 2 stands alone as the time in which food wasn’t framed in terms of cultural and emotional identity, although this does not appear to be the case in the present time. As a consequence of the increasing politicisation and culturalisation of food , food is again seen by many as an ethical, social and cultural commodity. In correspondence with the pluralism of cultures, we encounter in addition to the dominant food style, fast food, increased societal emphasis on different varieties of food, farming and production styles, such as Slow Food, international food, and health food, alternative food (urban community) net works. For example, organic food is the fastest growing agricultural sector in the United States. In response to its’ rapid growth, the United States Department of Agriculture implemented the National Organic Program (NOP) in October of 2001 (2003). The NOP set the standard to which all food sold in the United States as “organic” must be produced. In European countries we can see the same picture emerging. Coexistence of different systems (pluralism) requires procedures to regulate the peaceful coexistence of these diverse styles. Although the debate on the formulation of criteria of coexistence from an ethics point of view is still in its infancy, some comments can be made at this stage. First, very generally, the recognition of food choices and their representative and collective organisations is in line with the deontological, utilitarian and pragmatist arguments given earlier. Secondly, coexistence should take into account the representativeness of a food style, not its monetary value or market share. Although these last two criteria are to betaken into account, there are other means to find out what styles are representing food choices, like consultations and deliberations. Transparency is still in its infancy in the food production sector. For example, many subsidies in Europe and USA are not open to societal scrutiny and not made public. What is made public until now (e.g. in UK) shows that large companies get a substantial part of the EU-subsidies (the sugar company Tate and Lyle gets in 2004 192 million Euro in subsidy). Moreover, the name of companies that are fined because of lack of hygiene or because they didn’t live up to certification rules, are not published; the inspection reports of the European Food Standard Agencies are not open to the public. It is important that the implementation of traceability systems should ensure the transparent provision of information regarding the origin of ingredients included in food products Under current legislation this is still rather vague, and does not include the traceability of ingredients provided by fringe suppliers (for example, within the animal feed chain) and waste companies (Lees 2003). Traceability is mostly organized as a recall system for risk management purposes and not as an information system that keeps the consumer informed about ethical concerns. Traceability systems are only framed as a safety tool, not as a way to promote ethical food choices. This is a problem particularly because the longer the chain, the greater the waste will be. For example, longer food chains mean that more packaging of food ingredients will be used, and, as a consequence, the production system will be less sustainable. This is not considered in the current traceability framework. Ethical traceability schemas that do not reflect management concerns but consumer’ interests are required. Taxation of unhealthy food ingredients (for example, polysaturated fats, salt and sugar) is a third requirement that could make the food system more ethically acceptable (American Public Health Association 2002). As a result of the increasing costs of food-related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and obesity, which are to some extent the result of the consumption of unhealthy food ingredients, the food sector has to take its responsibility and pay for these externalized costs. Some say that there are no unhealthy or healthy food stuffs, or that other factors also contribute to these diseases. It seems that the arguments for and against what constitutes healthy eating is dependent on the circumstances and the product to be sold. Of course, a whole range of factors determining obesity (for example, overnutrition in combination with a sedentary lifestyle) but it is easily observable that everywhere where McDonalds (and processed food) are dominant, obesity is an increasing problem (see also the chapter by Mela, this volume). Although industry is against a tax on fatty foods, it does appear to accept responsibility for poor consumer health through inappropriate nutrition, as is clear from the final outcome of the Trans Fat Lawsuits, where McDonalds settled with a payment of 8.5 million USD to the American Heart Association. (One wonders why other nations didn’t receive compensation, see The idea of a tax on (saturated) fat needs further elaboration and experimentation, e.g. in the direction of taxing only certain foodstuffs (like chips or burgers), but given the societal costs of the associated diseases and the potential effects of higher prices deterring consumption it is also ethically justifiable because it implies a modest type of protection of vulnerable (young and un-informed) consumers. This could also justify subsidizing healthy food choices (for example, fresh fruits and vegetables, although this seems more difficult because of the wide variety in health requirements of consumers. The need for sufficient prices is a fourth ethical requirement, whereby the term sufficient should express the ethical requirements discussed earlier. It is established that when food prices decrease below a certain threshold, animal welfare and other ethical values will be damaged. Although availability of food for all is an ethical requirement, this requirement must be balanced with others that undoubtedly will cost some money and effort. Increasingly cheaper prices of chicken in Europe are paid for by the inhumane management and housing systems of broiler chickens. Increasingly low food prices can often only produced because producer pay employee’s salaries which are too low or insufficient to provide a living wage, landscapes are destroyed or other non-monetarised values are compromised. It is, of course, not an easy task to determine what constitutes a sufficient and fair price for commodities and foods, and the topic merits further study and debate; however, the trend of making foodstuffs (in particular those which are unhealthy, like fast foods) still cheaper, is endangering the implementation of values like animal welfare, environmental protection and the quality of the landscape. Producers and consumers, who are demanding for cheaper food stuffs, are doing a dubious job: they are not only moral hazards (Reisch, 2004), but compromising the well being of poor farmers, inarticulate animals, silent landscapes and their own long term interests (Appleby and Cutler et. al., 2003). 7. Future trends: diversification of food, farming and styles; more food wars. The food sector has to learn to live with diversity and social contextualisation through consumer involvement and participation in the food chain. Particularly in Europe, the landscape will become more diversified, with increased involvement of consumers, in particular when the complex connection between food consumption in one place and certain type of production in another place will become clearer to them. For example, health messages from nutritionists to eat more fish because of the healthy omega 3 fatty acid, will undoubtedly give rise to more concerns with the rapid decline of fish resources, as well as the presence of certain toxins in fish products (See also the chapter by de Jonge et al, this volume). The food sector will be confronted with more political conflicts over food, in particular associated with the trend of outsourcing, using controversial technologies, environmental impact of some production methods, and the increasing gap between poor and rich people. Given the uneasiness and even fear that many feel when confronted with technological globalization, where the food industry represents one of the most globalized players, food industry will feel the impact. Moreover, coexistence schemes, and steps to rebuild trust will be necessary. These are only possible as a consequence of developing transparent and integrated ways of involving consumers in fundamental decisions concerning research, management and food styles. Of course, many consumers do not have the time or interest to be engaged in the food sector and they will try to follow at distance by trusting their more involved consumer colleagues. But an increasingly large minority is interested in activities in the food sector, and has strong opinions on what is happening with their food, which they will want to voice. 8. Implications for research and development The food sector, in all its aspects, is one of the most controversial areas for research; both from a biological as from a social science or ethical perspective, problems continually arise. Experiments with different types of producer ethics and their systematic evaluation are necessary, as is also the case with coexistence schemes, and various mechanisms for deliberation and participation of consumers. Evaluation of ethical schemes, from consumer, producer, and governmental points of view will be needed, as will be the measures to rebuild relationships, trust and involvement. It is not known which types of participation are effective with respect to the various targets of ethical involvement. In addition, in the case of producers and regulators, it would be good to develop and apply better methods of inquiry regarding the ethical preferences of consumers with respect to food, labelling, and packaging. Within the food sector itself, the new situation of diversification, consumer participation, and ethical justification, may be a period of immense creativity and entrepreneurship. Trying to satisfy ethical requirements maybe difficult, but not impossible, and in the long term will pay for itself. A hundred and fifty years ago, many entrepreneurs were confronted with the situation that the large majority of Western nations did not find it ethically acceptable for human slave labour to be used in food production. Companies reacted by responding positively to new regulations outlawing slave labour, abolished these unethical practices, and prospered. At the present time, ethical requirements have been focusing, on new issues, in response to the novel situations evoked by globalisation and lack of consumer trust in the activities of different actors in the agrifood sector. Again, food companies are faced with new ethical challenges which demand ”re-engineering” of the food chain (Trienekens and Hvolby 2001). The worst thing that can happen is that the challenges are dismissed and consumers’ trust is not regained (Brinkmann, 2004). 9. Conclusion For a long time, the ethics of food was only concerned with food security and consequently with distribution and misdistribution, assessed against the criteria of fair distribution. However, since the food wars (on e.g. genetically modified food) and the food scares which have occurred in the Western world over the last three decades, the whole social, cultural and political structure has been changed radically, and providing new challenges not only to the food industry and policy makers but also to food ethicists and the discipline of food ethics. Nowadays, with the gap between consumers and producers increasing consumer alienation , it seems clear that the lack of food is not the only morally unacceptable issue, but that the lack of representation of the voices of the consumers in the food chain is also an ethical concern. Consumers voice concerns regarding at least three types of issues: substantive issues, (such as animal welfare), sustainability (environment, justice towards future generations) and landscape (aesthetic values, the use if the countryside as a recreational resource), information issues, (such as reliable labelling and branding, and transparent traceability systems) and procedural issues, (such as meaningful consumer involvement and participation, or some kind of reliable consumer representation regarding activities within the food chain). Moreover, these concerns are voiced in a pluralist way, which means that diversification of food production is necessary, accompanied by policies of coexistence of the various food, farming and production styles. A large minority of consumers do not want to be protected, but do want to be heard, and as long as the food sector is willing to change towards consumer pull, and indeed acknowledges the disadvantages of being a push sector, it is necessary to experiment and evaluate new types of societal participation. Participation is often promoted as a panacea for all societal ills, but here it is argued that to become important and effective, it should offer more than give information and be representative and a form of reciprocal communication. It is a special task to find out what the role of NGO’s in the debate about ethics and food should be, as they should contribute to the balance of countervailing powers in the food sector. Acknowledgment The author has no interest whatsoever in food production companies; the ethics of production and consumption of food should be conducted without any prior commitment in increasing or decreasing production, and only with reasonable ethical principles and values in mind. -- ''large section commented out - see source for text'' Sources Critser, G., 2003, Fat Land: How Americans Became the Fattest People in the World, Boston: Houghton Mifflin FAO WHO, 2003, Report: Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases, Geneva (WHO TRS 916) Korthals, M., 2001, Taking consumers seriously: Two concepts of consumer sovereignty. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental ethics, 14, 2, p. 201-215 Korthals, M., 2004, Before Dinner: Philosophy and Ethics of Food, Dordrecht: Springer Lang, T. and E. Millstone (Eds.), 2002, The Atlas of Food, London: Earthscan Books Lang, T., and M. Heasman, 2004, Food Wars, London: Earthscan Books Nestle, M., 2002, Food Politics: How food industry influences nutrition and health. Berkeley: University of California Press Potthast, Th., C. Baumgartner and E.-M, Engels (Eds.), 2005, Die richtigen Maße für die Nahrung? Biotechnologie, Landwirtschaft und Lebensmittel in ethischer Perspektive, (Series Reihe:) Ethik in den Wissenschaften Vol. 17, Tübingen: Francke Verlag Shell, E. R., 2002, The Hungry Gene, London: Atlantic Books Thiele, F. and R. Ashcroft (Eds.), 2004, Bioethics in a small world, Dordrecht: Springer Watson, R., 1998, The Philosopher’s diet. How to lose weight and change the world, Boston: Non-pareil Michielkorthals (User:Michielkorthals) 09:47, 22 July 2006 (UTC) *'''Declined'''. I don't think Wikipedia is the right place to publish your essay as it is. There is a lot that could probably go into various existing articles. And as a registered user, you can create your own articles. See WP:HELP for more information. Kevin (User:Kevin1243) 10:09, 22 July 2006 (UTC) Affero General Public License Sources (User: 23:59, 22 July 2006 (UTC) *'''Declined'''. We can not accept copyrighted (WP:Copyrights) content taken from web sites or printed sources. Note that copyright protection is granted to all works automatically, whether it is asserted or not. Unless stated otherwise, assume that most content on the internet is copyrighted and not suitable for Wikipedia. Please write in your own words, and in continuous prose. This submission was taken from http: bio.html. NatusRoma (User:NatusRoma) Talk (User talk:NatusRoma) 03:38, 23 July 2006 (UTC)

Kitchener, Ontario

for the thin film deposition research and pre-production industry. The company is headquartered in Kitchener, Ontario Canada. Founded in 1992 by Andrew W. Bass, currently a private company. birth_date birth_place Kitchener (Kitchener, Ontario), Ontario death_date '''Harold Glenn Albrecht''' (born October 15, 1949 in Kitchener, Ontario) is a Member of Parliament (MP) for the Conservative Party of Canada

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