Places Known For

previous political


Rotuma

Church Wesleyan missionaries from Tonga arrived on Rotuma in 1842, followed by Catholic (Roman Catholic Church) Marists (Society of Mary (Marists)) in 1847. Conflicts between the two groups, fuelled by previous political rivalries among the chiefs of Rotuma's seven districts, resulted in hostilities that led the local chiefs in 1879 to ask Britain (United Kingdom) to annex the island group. On 13 May 1881, Rotuma was officially ceded to the United Kingdom, seven years after Fiji


Karlovac

for completion. Due to the world economic crisis (Global financial crisis of 2008–2009), building start date is prolonged to an yet undefined date. The project plans have been drawn, however. A major reason for the motorway construction "mania" of the 2000s is a previous political halt of the major Croatian highway project, today's A1, in the 1970s and 1980s under former Yugoslavia (SFRY). When Croatia declared independence in 1991, the only true motorways in the country were Zagreb–Karlovac (the northernmost part of A1 (A1 (Croatia))) and Zagreb-Slavonski Brod (A3 (A3 (Croatia))), the latter being part of the highway "Bratstvo i jedinstvo". The dream to connect the two largest Croatian cities Zagreb and Split (Split (city)) with a motorway (''autocesta'') went back to the times of the Croatian Spring. However, the construction of this project had been blocked by the ruling Communist Party (Communist Party of Yugoslavia). Recently, after so many years of waiting, the construction of this route has been realized, in addition to the extension of the A3 (A3 (Croatia)) so it connects Zagreb to Croatian borders with both Serbia (near Lipovac (Lipovac, Croatia)) and Slovenia (near Bregana). There is also a motorway from Zagreb to Rijeka, the A6 (A6 (Croatia)), as well as the A4 (A4 (Croatia)) motorway from Zagreb to the northeast (Hungarian border) as well as a motorway from Zagreb to the northwest (Slovenian border), the A2 (A2 (Croatia)). The A9 (A9 (Croatia)) between Pula and the Slovenian border is also largely completed. The most traveled state routes in Croatia are: * '''D1 (D1 (Croatia))''', connects Zagreb and Split via Lika - passes through Karlovac, Slunj, Plitvice, Korenica, Knin, Sinj. * '''D2 (D2 (Croatia))''', connects Varaždin and Osijek via Podravina - passes through Koprivnica, Virovitica, Slatina (Slatina, Croatia), Našice. *35px link European route E55 (File:Tabliczka E55.svg) - WikiPedia:Karlovac Commons:Category:Karlovac


Zagreb

;mania" of the 2000s is a previous political halt of the major Croatian highway project, today's A1, in the 1970s and 1980s under former Yugoslavia (SFRY). When Croatia declared independence in 1991, the only true motorways in the country were Zagreb–Karlovac (the northernmost part of A1 (A1 (Croatia))) and Zagreb-Slavonski Brod (A3 (A3 (Croatia))), the latter being part of the highway "Bratstvo i jedinstvo". The dream to connect the two largest Croatian cities Zagreb and Split (Split (city)) with a motorway (''autocesta'') went back to the times of the Croatian Spring. However, the construction of this project had been blocked by the ruling Communist Party (Communist Party of Yugoslavia). Recently, after so many years of waiting, the construction of this route has been realized, in addition to the extension of the A3 (A3 (Croatia)) so it connects Zagreb to Croatian borders with both Serbia (near Lipovac (Lipovac, Croatia)) and Slovenia (near Bregana). There is also a motorway from Zagreb to Rijeka, the A6 (A6 (Croatia)), as well as the A4 (A4 (Croatia)) motorway from Zagreb to the northeast (Hungarian border) as well as a motorway from Zagreb to the northwest (Slovenian border), the A2 (A2 (Croatia)). The A9 (A9 (Croatia)) between Pula and the Slovenian border is also largely completed. A major reason for the motorway construction "mania" of the 2000s is a previous political halt of the major Croatian highway project, today's A1, in the 1970s and 1980s under former Yugoslavia (SFRY). When Croatia declared independence in 1991, the only true motorways in the country were Zagreb–Karlovac (the northernmost part of A1 (A1 (Croatia))) and Zagreb-Slavonski Brod (A3 (A3 (Croatia))), the latter being part of the highway "Bratstvo i jedinstvo". The dream to connect the two largest Croatian cities Zagreb and Split (Split (city)) with a motorway (''autocesta'') went back to the times of the Croatian Spring. However, the construction of this project had been blocked by the ruling Communist Party (Communist Party of Yugoslavia). Recently, after so many years of waiting, the construction of this route has been realized, in addition to the extension of the A3 (A3 (Croatia)) so it connects Zagreb to Croatian borders with both Serbia (near Lipovac (Lipovac, Croatia)) and Slovenia (near Bregana). There is also a motorway from Zagreb to Rijeka, the A6 (A6 (Croatia)), as well as the A4 (A4 (Croatia)) motorway from Zagreb to the northeast (Hungarian border) as well as a motorway from Zagreb to the northwest (Slovenian border), the A2 (A2 (Croatia)). The A9 (A9 (Croatia)) between Pula and the Slovenian border is also largely completed. *'''A1 (A1 (Croatia))''', Zagreb - Bosiljevo (Bosiljevo 2 interchange) - Split (Split (city)) - Vrgorac (E71 (European route E71), E65 (European route E65)) *'''A2 (A2 (Croatia))''', Zagreb (Zagreb bypass) - Krapina - Macelj (E59 (European route E59)) The 380 km long motorway A1 Zagreb - Split (Split (city)) connects the continental part of Croatia with Mediterranean Dalmatia. It is complete with two lanes in both directions in its full length. The highway winds itself as a panoramic road through the Croatian hills. The highway currently ends near the Ploče sea port, but is planned to continue further on to Dubrovnik. Since June 2005 the Istrian Y extends from the Slovenian border in Istria and the A7 connects Slovenia to Rijeka. The A2 connection between Zagreb via Hrvatsko Zagorje to Maribor was completed in May 2007. The A4 connection from Zagreb to Varaždin and Čakovec exists since 2003, which was extended to the Hungarian border in October 2008 to complete the upgrade of the European route E71. The A6 route between Rijeka and Zagreb was constructed as an expressway in spring 2004, and upgraded to a full motorway in October 2008, thus upgrading the Croatian section of the European route E65. Together these two upgrades completed the European north-south corridor Vb. A motorway connection of Zagreb to the important industrial city of Sisak is planned to be constructed as A11 (A11 (Croatia)). The most traveled state routes in Croatia are: * '''D1 (D1 (Croatia))''', connects Zagreb and Split via Lika - passes through Karlovac, Slunj, Plitvice, Korenica, Knin, Sinj. * '''D2 (D2 (Croatia))''', connects Varaždin and Osijek via Podravina - passes through Koprivnica, Virovitica, Slatina (Slatina, Croatia), Našice. Zagreb has the largest and most modern bus terminal in Croatia. It is located near the downtown in Trnje (Trnje, Zagreb) district on the Marin Držić Avenue. It sports specially designed waiting areas above the bus stopping and parking area. The Zagreb bus terminal is close to the central train station, Glavni kolodvor and it is easy to reach by tram lines and by car. Sections of the Una (Una (Sava)) river and villages at the base of Mount Plješevica are in Croatia, while some are in Bosnia, which causes an excessive number of border crossings on a single route and impedes any serious development in the region. The Zagreb-Bihać-Split (Split (city)) railway line is still closed for major traffic due to this issue. * Austria has an embassy in Zagreb and 4 honorary consulates (in Dubrovnik, Pula, Rijeka and Split (Split (city))). * Croatia has an embassy in Vienna and 2 honorary consulates (in Graz and Innsbruck). * Belgium has an embassy in Zagreb and 2 honorary consulates (in Dubrovnik and Zadar). Belgian embassy in Zagreb * Croatia has an embassy in Brussels and an honorary consulate in Bruges. WikiPedia:Zagreb Commons:Category:Zagreb Dmoz:Regional Europe Croatia Localities Zagreb


Gabon

imprisoned, despite widespread protests and riots. French soldiers still remain in the Camp de Gaulle on the outskirts of Gabon's capital to this day. When M'Ba died in 1967, Bongo replaced him as president. In March 1968, Bongo declared Gabon a one-party state by dissolving the BDG and establishing a new party — the Parti Democratique Gabonais (PDG). He invited all Gabonese, regardless of previous political affiliation, to participate. Bongo sought to forge a single national movement in support of the government's development policies, using the PDG as a tool to submerge the regional and tribal rivalries that had divided Gabonese politics in the past. Bongo was elected President in February 1975; in April 1975, the position of vice president was abolished and replaced by the position of prime minister, who had no right to automatic succession. Bongo was re-elected President in both December 1979 and November 1986 to 7-year terms. Economic discontent and a desire for political liberalization provoked violent demonstrations and strikes by students and workers in early 1990. In response to grievances by workers, Bongo negotiated with them on a sector-by-sector basis, making significant wage concessions. In addition, he promised to open up the PDG and to organize a national political conference in March–April 1990 to discuss Gabon's future political system. The PDG and 74 political organizations attended the conference. Participants essentially divided into two loose coalitions, the ruling PDG and its allies, and the United Front of Opposition Associations and Parties, consisting of the breakaway Morena Fundamental and the Gabonese Progress Party. The April 1990 conference approved sweeping political reforms, including creation of a national Senate (Senate (Gabon)), decentralization of the budgetary process, freedom of assembly and press, and cancellation of an exit visa requirement. In an attempt to guide the political system's transformation to multiparty democracy, Bongo resigned as PDG chairman and created a transitional government headed by a new Prime Minister, Casimir Oye-Mba. The Gabonese Social Democratic Grouping (RSDG), as the resulting government was called, was smaller than the previous government and included representatives from several opposition parties in its cabinet. The RSDG drafted a provisional constitution in May 1990 that provided a basic bill of rights and an independent judiciary but retained strong executive powers for the president. After further review by a constitutional committee and the National Assembly, this document came into force in March 1991. Opposition to the PDG continued after the April 1990 conference, however, and in September 1990, two coup d'état attempts were uncovered and aborted. Despite anti-government demonstrations after the untimely death of an opposition leader, the first multiparty National Assembly elections in almost 30 years took place in September–October 1990, with the PDG garnering a large majority. Following President Omar Bongo's re-election in December 1993 with 51% of the vote, opposition candidates refused to validate the election results. Serious civil disturbances led to an agreement between the government and opposition factions to work toward a political settlement. These talks led to the Paris Accords in November 1994, under which several opposition figures were included in a government of national unity. This arrangement soon broke down, however, and the 1996 and 1997 legislative and municipal elections provided the background for renewed partisan politics. The PDG won a landslide victory in the legislative election, but several major cities, including Libreville, elected opposition mayors during the 1997 local election. Facing a divided opposition, President Omar Bongo coasted to easy re-election in December 1998, with large majorities of the vote. While Bongo's major opponents rejected the outcome as fraudulent, some international observers characterized the results as representative despite many perceived irregularities, and there were none of the civil disturbances that followed the 1993 election. Peaceful though flawed legislative elections held in 2001–2002, which were boycotted by a number of smaller opposition parties and were widely criticized for their administrative weaknesses, produced a National Assembly almost completely dominated by the PDG and allied independents. In November 2005, President Omar Bongo was elected for his sixth term. He won re-election easily, but opponents claim that the balloting process was marred by irregularities. There were some instances of violence following the announcement of Omar Bongo's win, but Gabon generally remained peaceful. National Assembly elections were held again in December 2006. Several seats contested because of voting irregularities were overturned by the Constitutional Court, but the subsequent run-off elections in early 2007 again yielded a PDG-controlled National Assembly. On June 8, 2009, President Omar Bongo died of cardiac arrest at a Spanish hospital in Barcelona, ushering in a new era in Gabonese politics. In accordance with the amended constitution, Rose Francine Rogombé, the President of the Senate, became Interim President on June 10, 2009. The first contested elections in Gabon's history that did not include Omar Bongo as a candidate were held on August 30, 2009 with 18 candidates for president. The lead-up to the elections saw some isolated protests, but no significant disturbances. Omar Bongo's son, ruling party leader Ali Bongo Ondimba, was formally declared the winner after a 3-week review by the Constitutional Court; his inauguration took place on October 16, 2009. The court's review had been prompted by claims of fraud by the many opposition candidates, with the initial announcement of election results sparking unprecedented violent protests in Port-Gentil, the country's second-largest city and a long-time bastion of opposition to PDG rule. The citizens of Port-Gentil took to the streets, and numerous shops and residences were burned, including the French Consulate and a local prison. Officially, only four deaths occurred during the riots, but opposition and local leaders claim many more. Gendarmes and the military were deployed to Port-Gentil to support the beleaguered police, and a curfew was in effect for more than 3 months. A partial legislative by-election was held in June 2010. A newly created coalition of parties, the Union Nationale (UN), participated for the first time. The UN is composed largely of PDG defectors who left the party after Omar Bongo's death. Of the five hotly contested seats, the PDG won three and the UN won two; both sides claimed victory. Government thumb 250px Ali Bongo Ondimba (File:Ali Bongo Ondimba with Obamas 2014.jpg), President of the Gabonese Republic, his wife Sylvia Bongo Ondimba, US president Barack Obama and his wife Michelle Obama in 2014. Commons:Category:Gabon WikiPedia:Gabon Dmoz:Regional Africa Gabon


Tonga

to represent a removal of "feminine" aspects of the male, turning boys into fully masculine males.


Lima

. Political system Unlike the rest of the country, the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima also has functions of regional government and is not part of any administrative region, according to Article 65. 27867 of the Law of Regional Governments on 16 November 2002.87 However the previous political organization remains in the sense that there is still a 'Governor' is the political authority throughout the scope of the department of Lima and the city itself. The functions of this authority are more


Sichuan

the latter half of the Tang dynasty (618−907). Tang Dynasty Sichuan came under the firm control of a Chinese central government during the Sui dynasty, but it was during the subsequent Tang dynasty where Sichuan regained its previous political and cultural prominence for which it was known during the Han. Chengdu became nationally known as a supplier of armies and the home of Du Fu, who is sometimes called China's greatest poet. During the An Lushan Rebellion (755


Slovenia

of economic transition (Transition economy), Croatian economy experienced difficulties due to deindustrialization, war destruction and the loss of Yugoslav and Comecon markets. * from Zagreb to Split (Split (city)) There are also other routes to Slovenia, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. A major reason for the motorway construction "mania" of the 2000s is a previous political halt of the major Croatian highway project, today's A1, in the 1970s and 1980s under former Yugoslavia (SFRY). When Croatia declared independence in 1991, the only true motorways in the country were Zagreb–Karlovac (the northernmost part of A1 (A1 (Croatia))) and Zagreb-Slavonski Brod (A3 (A3 (Croatia))), the latter being part of the highway "Bratstvo i jedinstvo". The dream to connect the two largest Croatian cities Zagreb and Split (Split (city)) with a motorway (''autocesta'') went back to the times of the Croatian Spring. However, the construction of this project had been blocked by the ruling Communist Party (Communist Party of Yugoslavia). Recently, after so many years of waiting, the construction of this route has been realized, in addition to the extension of the A3 (A3 (Croatia)) so it connects Zagreb to Croatian borders with both Serbia (near Lipovac (Lipovac, Croatia)) and Slovenia (near Bregana). There is also a motorway from Zagreb to Rijeka, the A6 (A6 (Croatia)), as well as the A4 (A4 (Croatia)) motorway from Zagreb to the northeast (Hungarian border) as well as a motorway from Zagreb to the northwest (Slovenian border), the A2 (A2 (Croatia)). The A9 (A9 (Croatia)) between Pula and the Slovenian border is also largely completed. All heavily traveled routes towards Slovenia, Hungary and Serbia are motorway connections, and almost all parts of Croatia are now easy to reach using motorways. From Croatia, there are many international bus routes to the neighboring countries (Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia etc.), as well as to Austria, Germany, Slovenia, Switzerland and to other European countries. International buses correspond to European standards. Key issues over the last decade have been the implementation of the Dayton Accords (Dayton Agreement) and the Erdut Agreement, nondiscriminatory facilitation of the return of refugees and displaced persons from the 1991-95 war including property restitution for ethnic Serbs, resolution of border disputes with Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro, and general democratization (Democracy). Croatia and Slovenia have several land and maritime boundary disputes. Slovenia claims that the maritime border in Piran Bay (gulf of Piran) does not go through the middle of the bay, while Croatia claims it does. This is causing problems for fishermen due to there being an undefined area where the naval police of each country may patrol. Related to the border in Piran Bay is Slovenian access to international waters in the form of a corridor which would require Croatia to cede its exclusive rights over at least some of its territorial waters to the west of Umag. *The '''deepest vertical shaft''' in a cave is Commons:Category:Slovenia WikiPedia:Slovenia Dmoz:Regional Europe Slovenia


Kiev

consisted of landlords (developing into ''szlachta'', the unique Polish nobility) and peasants, and they were instrumental in promoting the commercial interests of the land. * 2004 Philippine (Philippines) elections: The 90-day campaigning period for the president (President of the Philippines), vice-president, and senators (Senate of the Philippines) starts this day with no less than six qualified candidates, half of which have no previous political experience. The current president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is seeking a full six-year term. The elections will be held on May 10. The missing Russian politician Ivan Rybkin unexpectedly reappears in Kiev, the capital of neighboring Ukraine, and is said to be on his way back to Moscow. According to his own words he "was entitled to two or three days of private life". Canada's audit or-general, Sheila Fraser, releases a scathing report on a CA$ (Canadian dollar)250-million sponsorship fund that had a major portion of its funds directed to firms friendly to the ruling Liberal party (Liberal Party of Canada); the resulting scandal and inquiry is quite likely to affect the coming election (Canadian federal election, 2004). Alfonso Gagliano, a former cabinet minister involved in the scandal, is removed from his post as ambassador to Denmark and recalled to Canada. implementation of the plan was not feasible because of the ongoing war, but a small colony was in fact founded around Himmler’s field headquarters at Hegewald (colony) Hegewald , Mazower, Mark (2008) Hitler's Empire, pg 454 near Kiev. Starting on October 10, 1942, Himmler’s troops deported 10,623 Ukrainians from the area in cattle cars before bringing in trains of ethnic Germans (volksdeutsche) from northern Ukraine. The SS authorities gave families needed supplies as well as land of their own, but also informed them of quota (Production quota)s of food they needed to produce for the SS. colours Blue headquarters Kiev, Ukraine website www.zaedu.org.ua colours Orange headquarters Kiev, Ukraine website http: www.razom.org.ua History The original Our Ukraine Bloc was formed in Kiev (''Kyiv''), Ukraine in 2001 in preparation for the 2002 parliamentary elections (Ukrainian parliamentary election, 2002). At the time of its formation, the leader of the bloc was Viktor Yushchenko. In 1107 he defeated Boniak, a Cuman khan (Khan (title)) who led an invasions on Kievan Rus'. When Sviatopolk II (Sviatopolk II of Kiev) died in 1113, the Kievan populace revolted and summoned Vladimir to the capital. The same year he entered Kiev to the great delight of the crowd and reigned there until his death in 1125. As may be seen from his ''Instruction'', he promulgated a number of reforms in order to allay the social tensions in the capital. These years saw the last flowering of Ancient Rus, which was torn apart 10 years after his death. Vladimir Monomakh is buried in the Saint Sophia Cathedral (Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev) in Kiev. Succeeding generations often referred to his reign as the golden age of that city. Numerous legends are connected with Monomakh's name, including the transfer from Constantinople to Rus of such precious relics as the Theotokos of Vladimir and the Vladimir Muscovite crown called Monomakh's Cap. A 'Joint understanding for a follow-on agreement to START-1' was signed by Presidents Barack Obama and Dmitri Medvedev in Moscow on 6 July 2009. This will reduce the number of deployed warheads on each side to 1,500–1,675 on 500–1,100 delivery systems. A new treaty was to be signed before START-1 expired in December 2009 and the reductions are to be achieved within seven years. US and Russia agree nuclear cuts, accessed 16 July 2009 After many months of negotiations, Commons:Category:Kiev WikiPedia:Kiev Dmoz:Regional Europe Ukraine Provinces Kyiv Oblast Kyiv


Romania

(using a sarcastic tone which had made his previous political speeches notorious). Otu; Slabey Roucek, p.76 B GU015 (Global Underground 015): Darren Emerson - Uruguay is set in Montevideo even though it was released as Uruguay. C GU026 (Global Underground 026): James Lavelle - Romania is set in Bucharest even though it was released as Romania.<


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