of the South began to fight anew. The town became Zapatista. Genovevo de la O and federal forces fought over the town several times with possession changing hands until the end of the war. The municipal seat was declared a city by the state legislature in 1996. The family of Carlos Hank Gonzalez, a powerful political figure in the second half of the 20th century, has bought a significant quantity of land in Tianguistenco, leading to the somewhat derogatory term of “Hankilandia” for the municipality. Mexican Sprinters are built in one of Mercedes-Benz Mexico's three factories in either Santiago Tianguistenco, Monterrey, and Mexico City and are branded as Mercedes-Benz, Mercedes-Benz-Valdez (Mercedes-Benz Mexico) or Mercedes-Xicotencatl (Mercedes-Benz Mexico) depending on which factory they were made in and what specific model they are. Mexican Sprinters feature heavier transmissions and can be fitted with a V-12 engine from the Mercedes S-Class for police and heavy duties. Mercedes-Benz Mexico offers a lengthened Sprinter not sold in other markets with the V-12 engine badged as the Sprinter-E (E for Special "Especial"). The Sprinter E is used mainly for police duties but is commonly used in other roles as well. Mexican built Sprinters have redesigned interiors from the German models and come in the wood paneled luxury trim standard. Between 2006 and 2010 the Sprinter has been the most popular van in Mexico. body_style 4-door coupé fastback assembly Sindelfingen, Germany Santiago Tianguistenco, Mexico engine 3.5 L V6 5.0 L V8 5.5 L V8 6.2 L V8 (Mercedes-Benz M156 engine) 3.0 L V6 Diesel image 250px 2006-2008 Mercedes-Benz SL 350 (R230; Australia) (File:2006-2008 Mercedes-Benz SL 350 (R230) roadster (2011-01-12) 01.jpg) production Bremen, Germany Santiago Tianguistenco, Mexico manufacturer Mercedes-Benz
in the anti-Falun Gong campaign. It is closely associated with the powerful Political and Legislative Affairs Committee of the Communist Party of China. Local 610 Offices are also established at provincial, district, municipal and neighborhood levels, and are estimated to number approximately 1,000 across the country.
is evidence as to a powerful political and military centre both in Burebista’s time and in the period that preceded the reign of Decebalus. The settlement was documented in the 15th century as Piatra lui Craciun, or Camena, a market town. The first urban settlements, which emerged under Petru I Mușat (Petru I of Moldova) (1375–1391), were Piatra lui Craciun, Roman (Roman, Romania) and Neamț. The Neamț citadel, whose documentary attestation dates back to February 2, 1395, was also
Century "imperial century" , while nationalism became a powerful political ideology in Europe. Consequently, many self-determination movements, which spurned some type of anti-communist government, were accused of being Soviet-inspired or controlled. Thus, the United States entered into a ten-year war in Vietnam, taking over from French colonialists (French colonial empire), Elizabeth Chadwick, Self-determination, terrorism, and the international humanitarian law of armed conflict, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1996, p. 192-193 ISBN 90-411-0122-5 and supported Portugal in its attempts to hold on to Angola. The Rhodesian Bush War of the 1960s and 1970s pitted the unrecognized, ardently anti-communist Rhodesian government, comprised largely of the country's minority whites, against rival groups of black guerrillas, aligned respectively with Moscow and Beijing. Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.
, politicians and other dignitaries signed the bat. The bat is still there and awaiting Pakistan's team victory in a World Cup so that this bat can be given to the national team in a colorful ceremony In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Sikh community became a powerful political force, with Sikh leader Ranjit Singh founding the first Sikh empire, which had its capital in Lahore, the second-largest city in Pakistan today. Significant populations of Sikhs inhabited the largest cities in the Punjab such as Lahore, Rawalpindi and Lyallpur (Faisalabad) (now Faisalabad), as well as the neighbouring Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). However, when India was partitioned (Partition of India) in 1947 to create the Muslim state of Pakistan, a significant portion of the Punjab region became part of the new state. Ethnic cleansing of Hindus and Sikhs led to a major exodus of those communities from Pakistan into India; conversely Muslims in the Indian territory were subject to the same ethnic cleansing and forced migration to Pakistan. Large numbers of Sikh places of worship (gurdwaras) were destroyed and hundreds of thousands of Sikhs were killed. Economic effects The availability of natural resources is limited by the dry climate and mountainous terrain, substantial population growth is increasing pressure on the resource base, and resource management has suffered from the emphasis on rapid economic growth and often-unregulated forms of economic productivity. As a result, human transformation of the environment is manifest in several problems. Population growth and poor water infrastructure have reduced per capita water availability from 53,000 cubic meters to 1,200 cubic meters, and heavy reliance on firewood has contributed to the world’s second highest rate of deforestation. Poor agricultural practices have led to soil erosion, groundwater degradation, and other problems that have hindered crop output and contributed to health problems for rural communities. Solid waste burning, low-quality fuels, and the growing use of fuel-inefficient motor vehicles have contributed to air pollution that in some cities—such as Karachi, Islamabad, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta, Faisalabad and Rawalpindi—has exceeded levels deemed safe by the World Health Organization. And Pakistan is suffering a lot from droughts from the dry climates. WikiPedia:Rawalpindi Dmoz:Regional Asia Pakistan Provinces Punjab Localities Rawalpindi commons:Rawalpindi
Century "imperial century" , while nationalism became a powerful political ideology in Europe. The Ottoman Empire, Austrian Empire, Russian Empire, Qing Empire and the new Empire of Japan maintained themselves, often expanding or contracting at the expense of another empire. All ignored notions of self-determination for those governed. Jackson J. Spielvogel, ''Western Civilization: Since 1500 '', p. 767, Cengage Learning, 2008, ISBN 0-495-50287-1, 9780495502876. thumb Topographic map (File:Suez1856.jpg), northern Gulf of Suez, route to Cairo (Old Cairo), 1856. Although the alleged difference in sea levels could be problematic for a canal's construction, the idea of finding a shorter route to the east remained alive. In 1830, F. R. Chesney (Francis Rawdon Chesney) submitted a report to the British government, which stated that there was no difference in altitude, and that the Suez Canal was feasible, but his report received no further attention. Lieutenant Waghorn (Thomas Fletcher Waghorn) established his ''Overland Route'', which transported post and passengers to India via Egypt. Linant de Bellefonds (Louis Maurice Adolphe Linant de Bellefonds), a French explorer of Egypt, became chief engineer of Egypt's Public Works (Egyptian Public Works). In addition to his normal duties, he surveyed the Isthmus of Suez and made plans for the Suez Canal. French Saint-Simonianists (Saint-Simonianism) showed an interest in the canal and in 1833, Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin tried to draw Muhammad Ali's (Muhammad Ali Pasha) attention to the canal but was unsuccessful. Alois Negrelli, the Austrian (Austrian Empire) railroad pioneer, became interested in the idea in 1836. In 1846, Prosper Enfantin's Société d'Études du Canal de Suez invited a number of experts, among them Robert Stephenson, Negrelli and Paul-Adrien Bourdaloue to study the feasibility of the Suez Canal (with the assistance of Linant de Bellefonds). Bourdaloue's survey of the isthmus was the first generally accepted evidence that there was no practical difference in altitude between the two seas. Britain, however, feared that a canal open to everyone might interfere with its India trade and, therefore, preferred a connection by train from Alexandria via Cairo to Suez, which eventually was built by Stephenson. thumb right 200px Poster of Nazi organisation Bund Deutscher Osten (File:Bund Deutscher Osten - nazi poster.jpg) with swastika on Teutonic Knights shield 1935 The Roman Catholic order continued to exist in Austria (Austrian Empire), out of Napoleon's reach. Beginning in 1804 and until 1923 (in which year Archduke Eugen of Austria resigned the grandmastership), it was headed by members of the Habsburg dynasty. The Báthory, a Hungarian noble family, began to rule Transylvania as princes under the Ottomans in 1571, and briefly under Habsburg (Habsburg Monarchy) suzerainty until 1600. The latter period of their rule saw a four-sided conflict in Transylvania involving the Transylvanian Báthorys, the emerging Austrian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Romanian voivoideship (province) of Wallachia. This included almost a year period of Romanian rule after the conquest of the territory by Wallachian voivod Michael the Brave. There are some late interpretations stating: as he subsequently extended his rule over Moldavia, Michael the Brave unified all the territories where Romanians lived, rebuilding the mainland of the ancient Kingdom of Dacia, Rezachevici, Constantin, Mihai Viteazul et la "Dacie" de Sigismund Báthory en 1595, Ed. Argessis, 2003, 12, p.155-164 although in Michael's time, the concept of the Romanian nation and the desire for unification did not exist, Petre Panaitescu - Mihai Viteazul, Bucureşti, 1936 and the absence of any national element in Michael's politics, holding that Michael's lack of desire to join the principalities' administrations proved his actions were not motivated by any such concept. Boia 1997, p. 150 Moreover, the princes of Transylvania never developed a Romanian national identity, the majority not being of Daco-Roman descent. George W. White, Nationalism and territory: constructing group identity in Southeastern Europe, Rowman & Littlefield, 2000, p. 132
, had left at the end of April, planning to return before Christmas. Richards pp. 62-3 On 8 August he captured two large ships at Point Cestos, now River Cess in Liberia. One of these was the frigate ''Onslow'', transporting soldiers bound for Cape Coast (Cape Coast Castle) (Cabo Corso) Castle. A number of the soldiers wished to join the pirates and were eventually accepted, but as landlubbers were given only a quarter share. The ''Onslow'' was converted to become the fourth ''Royal Fortune''. Burl pp. 211-13 In November and December the pirates careened their ships and relaxed at Cape Lopez and the island of Annobon. Burl p. 215 Sutton was replaced by Skyrme as captain of the ''Ranger''. They captured several vessels in January 1722, then sailed into Ouidah harbour with black flags flying. All the eleven ships at anchor there immediately struck their colours. Burl pp. 218-9 6. From part of modern Liberia and the Ivory Coast came the ''Gangá''. 20th and 21st centuries There are currently around 442,000 living MSU alumni worldwide giving the school one of the largest number of alumni of any institution of higher learning. Famous MSU alumni include former Michigan governors James Blanchard ref
established himself as a powerful political figure, and his allies won the August 1910 elections. Venizelos became Prime Minister in October 1910, ushering a period of 25 years where his personality would dominate Greek politics. The Roman province of ''Illyricum'' or Enzyklopädie der klassischen Altertumskunde by Ludwig Schaaff, 2002, ISBN 0-543-80046-6, page 17 An ancient geography, classical and sacred. By S. Augustus Mitchell. by Michigan Historical Reprint Series, 2005, ISBN 1-4255-3778-2, page 215 ''Illyris Romana'' or ''Illyris Barbara'' or ''Illyria Barbara'' replaced most of the region of Illyria. It stretched from the Drilon (Drin River) River in modern Albania to Istria (Croatia) in the west and to the Sava River (Bosnia and Herzegovina) in the north. Salona (near modern Split (Split (city)) in Croatia) functioned as its capital. The regions which it included changed through the centuries though a great part of ancient Illyria remained part of Illyricum (Illyricum (Roman province)). South Illyria became Epirus Nova, part of the Roman province of Macedonia. In 357 AD the region was part of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum one of four large praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided. By 395 AD dioceses in which the region was divided were the Diocese of Dacia (as Pravealitana), and the Diocese of Macedonia (as Epirus Nova). Most of the region of modern Albania corresponds to the Epirus Nova. This policy has helped the Irish Defence Forces to be successful in their contributions to UN peace-keeping missions since 1960 (in the Congo Crisis ONUC) and subsequently in Cyprus (UNFICYP), Lebanon (UNIFIL), Iran Iraq Border (UNIIMOG), Bosnia and Herzegovina (SFOR & EUFOR Althea), Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE), Liberia (UNMIL), East Timor (INTERFET), Darfur and Chad (EUFOR Tchad RCA). Irish Defence Forces do not deploy in Missions Italy participated in and deployed troops in support of UN peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Mozambique, and East Timor and provides critical support for NATO and UN operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and Albania. 1,000 Alpini troops were deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in February 2003. Italy also supported international efforts to reconstruct and stabilize Iraq through its military contingent of some 3,200 troops, as well as humanitarian workers and other officials. The troops remained in Iraq until December 2006 when they were retrieved by the Romano Prodi government.
, the investigation by the International Criminal Court into Bemba's responsibility may be sidelined. It isn't just in Congo that trade-offs are being made. ... Skeptics point out that those who have stood trial so far have either been defeated in war or are retired and irrelevant. They insist there would be no chance of hauling powerful political figures in Washington and London before a court to answer for their actions..." ), historians and lawyers will often make a serious case that war crimes occurred, even if there was no formal investigations or prosecution of the alleged crimes or an investigation cleared the alleged perpetrators. ** Australia: either Commons:Category:Democratic Republic of the Congo Wikipedia:Democratic Republic of the Congo Dmoz:Regional Africa Congo, Democratic Republic of the
in modern Greek history: as the military conspirators were inexperienced in politics, they asked Venizelos, who had impeccable liberal credentials, to come to Greece as their political adviser. Venizelos quickly established himself as a powerful political figure, and his allies won the August 1910 elections. Venizelos became Prime Minister in October 1910, ushering a period of 25 years where his personality would dominate Greek politics. Venizelos initiated a major reform program, including a new and more liberal constitution (Greek Constitution of 1911) and reforms in the spheres of public administration, education and economy. French and British military missions were invited for the army and navy respectively, and arms purchases were made. In the meantime, the Ottoman Empire's weaknesses were revealed by the ongoing Italo-Turkish War in Libya. Through spring 1912, a series of bilateral agreements between the Christian Balkan states (Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia) formed the Balkan League, which in October 1912 declared war on the Ottoman Empire. In the First Balkan War, the Ottomans were defeated on all fronts, and the four allies rushed to grab as much territory as they could. The Greeks occupied Thessaloniki just ahead of the Bulgarians, and also took much of Epirus (Epirus (region)) with Ioannina, as well as Crete and the Aegean Islands. The Treaty of London (Treaty of London (1913)) ended the war, but no one was left satisfied, and soon, the four allies fell out over the partition of Macedonia (Macedonia (region)). In June 1913, Bulgaria attacked Greece and Serbia, beginning the Second Balkan War, but was beaten back. The Treaty of Bucharest (Treaty of Bucharest (1913)), which concluded the war, left Greece with southern Epirus, the southern half (Greek Macedonia) of Macedonia, Crete and the Aegean islands, except for the Dodecanese, which had been occupied by Italy in 1911. These gains nearly doubled Greece's area and population. In March 1913, an anarchist, Alexandros Schinas, assassinated King George in Thessaloniki, and his son came to the throne as Constantine I. Constantine was the first Greek king born in Greece and the first to be Greek Orthodox. His very name had been chosen in the spirit of romantic Greek nationalism (the ''Megali Idea''), evoking the Byzantine emperors of that name. In addition, as the Commander-in-chief of the Greek Army during the Balkan Wars, his popularity was enormous, rivalled only by that of Venizelos, his Prime Minister. When World War I broke out in 1914, despite Greece's treaty of alliance with Serbia, both leaders preferred to maintain a neutral stance. But when, in early 1915, the Allies (Allies of World War I) asked for Greek help in the Dardanelles campaign, offering Cyprus in exchange, their diverging views became apparent: Constantine had been educated in Germany (German Empire), was married to Sophia of Prussia, sister of Kaiser Wilhelm (Wilhelm II of Germany), and was convinced of the Central Powers' victory. Venizelos on the other hand was an ardent anglophile, and believed in an Allied victory. Since Greece, a maritime country, could not oppose the mighty British navy, and citing the need for a respite after two wars, King Constantine favored continued neutrality, while Venizelos actively sought Greek entry in the war on the Allied side. Venizelos resigned, but won the next elections (Greek legislative election, May 1915), and again formed the government. When Bulgaria entered the war as a German ally in October 1915, Venizelos invited Entente (Allies of World War I) forces into Greece (the Salonika Front (Macedonian front (World War I))), for which he was again dismissed by Constantine.