a satellite of France, these satellites sparked a nationalist movement. The Cisalpine Republic was converted into the Italian Republic (Italian Republic (Napoleonic)) in 1802, under the presidency of Napoleon. As all of these republics were imposed by an outside force, none had any popular support in Italy, especially since the peasantry was alienated by Jacobin anti-clericalism. It would take a true grassroots movement to bring change. In addition, even native republicans became disillusioned when
in 1802, under the presidency of Napoleon. As all of these republics were imposed by an outside force, none had any popular support in Italy, especially since the peasantry was alienated by Jacobin anti-clericalism. It would take a true grassroots movement to bring change. In addition, even native republicans became disillusioned when they realized that the French expected them to be obedient satellites of Paris, which included frequent interference in local affairs and massive taxes. Return
vol. 229 . Late 416, Yao Yi, who was in charge of Puban (蒲阪, in modern Yuncheng (Yuncheng, Shanxi), Shanxi), rebelled, but with little popular support, Yao Shao was able to quickly capture Puban and arrest him. However, rebellions continued. In 417, Yao Hong's cousin Yao Hui (姚恢) the Duke of Qi rebelled, abandoning his post of Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu) and using all forces at Anding (a major defense post during Later Qin) against Yao Hong. Yao Shao
. The developmental benefits of the Aswan Dam have arguably been vested in Egypt and not Sudan, as manifested by the New Halfa Scheme and its inhabitants. The railroad helped win the war for the British, Egyptians, and Sudanese against the Khalifa (Caliph). The rail line left a gap between Sellal, just south of Aswan, and Wadi Halfa, however. Kitchener's line connected Wadi Halfa with Khartoum, in the Sudan. Increasing British popular support for Gordon eventually
for Khartoum are discharged. One of Sudan's major motorways, links Port Sudan to Khartoum via Wad Medani, Gedaref, and Kassala. There is a major road that goes north to Halaib, but it is neglected. Also since 2009 a new highway linking Port Sudan via Atbara has been opened, reducing the travel time between Khartoum and Port Sudan drastically. The Khatmiyya sufi order which had enjoyed popular support in east and north Sudan rejected the Mahdi's claim outright. Mahdist
) Patrician and Plebian (Plebs) classes have mounted steadily. Order is maintained by a sharing of power between two men, Julius Caesar, and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Pompey was once acknowledged by all to be the greater man, but Caesar's eight-year Gallic Wars have made him increasingly rich and popular. Caesar's growing popular support causes the Patricians (Patrician (ancient Rome)) to grow more and more fearful. With his patrician pedigree, and his enormous army, wealth, and popular support, Caesar might make himself king. (Roman Empire) 350px thumb (Image:Latium Provinces.png) '''Gaius Cluilius''' was the king of Alba Longa during the reign of the Roman (Roman Kingdom) king Tullus Hostilius in the middle of the seventh century B.C. Alba Longa was an ancient city of Latium in central Italy southeast of Rome. * ''Stilicone (Stilicho): La Crisi Imperiale dopo Teodosio (Theodosius I)'' (1942) * ''Dalla monarchia (Roman Kingdom) allo Stato repubblicano (Roman Republic). Ricerche di storia romana arcaica'' (1945) * ''Fra Oriente e Occidente. Ricerche di storia greca (History of Greece) arcaica'' (1947)
that Huan Xuan lacked actual talent or popular support, led an uprising of a coalition of generals against him, starting the uprising at Jingkou (京口, in modern Zhenjiang, Jiangsu) and reaching Jiankang within a few days. Huan Xuan fled, but took Emperor An and Sima Dewen with him, back to his old power base Jiangling (江陵, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei). Liu Yu declared the restoration of Jin, and by summer 404, forces under his confederates Liu Yi (劉毅), He Wuji (何無忌), and his brother Liu Daogui (劉道規) have reached the vicinity of Jiangling and defeated Huan Xuan's troops. Huan Xuan tried to flee again, but was killed by forces of the general Mao Qu (毛璩). Emperor An was declared to be restored at Jiangling by the officials Wang Kangchan (王康產) and Wang Tengzhi (王騰之). However, Huan Xuan's nephew Huan Zhen (桓振) soon surprised Wang Kangchan and Wang Tengzhi and captured Jiangling, taking Emperor An hostage, although ostensibly honoring him as the emperor. In spring 405, Jiangling fell to Liu Yi's forces, and Huan Zhen fled. Emperor An was welcomed back to Jiankang, but at this point on, Liu Yu was largely in control of the situation. Yu's flood control work is said to have made him intimately familiar with all regions of what was then Han Chinese territory. According to the ''Book of History'', Yu divided the Chinese "world" into nine ''zhou (Zhou (country subdivision))'' or provinces. These were Jizhou (冀州), Yanzhou (兗州), Qingzhou (青州), Xuzhou (徐州), Yangzhou (揚州), Jingzhou (荊州), Yuzhou (Yuzhou (nine ancient provinces)) (豫州), Liangzhou (梁州) and Yongzhou (雍州). Ng Saam-sing 吾三省. (2008). ''Zong-guok Man-faa Bui-ging Bat-cin Ci'' 中國文化背景八千詞. Hong Kong: ''Seong Mou Jan Syu Gwun'' 商務印書館(香港). ISBN 9620718461, 9789620718465. p 37. Rebellion against Xiao Baojuan Xiao Baojuan was an arbitrary and violent ruler, and he often executed high level officials based on his perception of them as threats to his rule. in winter 500, he executed his prime minister Xiao Yi (蕭懿), and Xiao Yi's brother Xiao Yan (Emperor Wu of Liang), the governor of Yong Province (雍州, modern northwestern Hubei) declared a rebellion from the capital of Yong Province, Xiangyang (襄陽, in modern Xiangfan, Hubei). In response, Xiao Baojuan sent the general Liu Shanyang (劉山陽) to Jing Province (Jingzhou (ancient China)), ordering him to rendezvous with Xiao Yingzhou and then attack Xiangyang. Xiao Yan, however, persuaded Xiao Yingzhou that Liu's orders were to attack both Jing and Yong Provinces, and Xiao Yingzhou, after making Liu believe his good faith by executing Xiao Yan's messenger Wang Tianhu (王天虎), surprised and killed Liu, seizing his forces. He then openly declared rebellion and supported Xiao Baorong as nominal leader. Xiao Yingzhou and Xiao Baorong remained at Jiangling (江陵, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei), the capital of Jing Province, which was then made into the provisional capital, while Xiao Yan advanced east against Xiao Baojuan's forces. In spring 501, Xiao Baorong was proclaimed emperor (as Emperor He), but actual powers were in Xiao Yingzhou's hands. Background and establishment of Western Shu Qiao Zong was from Baxi Commandery (巴西, roughly modern Nanchong, Sichuan). By 405, he was a mid-level military commander under the command of Mao Qu (毛璩), the Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)) governor of Yi Province (益州, modern Sichuan and Chongqing). In 404, the warlord Huan Xuan had usurped the Jin throne from Emperor An (Emperor An of Jin), and Mao had, in response, mobilized his forces to ready to attack Huan Xuan, but Huan Xuan was quickly overthrown by Liu Yu (Emperor Wu of Liu Song), who restored Emperor An. However, Huan Xuan's nephew Huan Zhen (桓振) occupied the important city of Jiangling (江陵, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei) and continued to resist. Mao therefore continued to advance east, ready to attack Huan Zhen. He divided his forces into two groups, one commanded by his brothers Mao Jin (毛瑾) and Mao Yuan (毛瑗), and one commanded by Qiao Zong and Hou Hui (侯暉). - Jingzhou* 荆州 荆州 Jīngzhōu colspan "2" Jiangling (Jiangling County) Hubei, Hunan - History During the Xia (Xia Dynasty) and Shang (Shang Dynasty) Dynasties (c. 2200–1600 BC), Xuzhou lay in an area inhabited by the Dongyi or Huaiyi peoples who were constantly at war with the Shang and Zhou (Zhou Dynasty) Dynasties. The Xuzhou region was called Huaiyang
The '''history of Egypt (history of modern Egypt) under the Muhammad Ali Pasha (Muhammad Ali of Egypt) dynasty''' (1805–1953) spanned the later period of Ottoman Egypt, the Khedivate of Egypt under British (British Empire) patronage, and the nominally independent Sultanate of Egypt and Kingdom of Egypt, ending with the Revolution of 1952 (Egyptian Revolution of 1952) and the formation of the Republic of Egypt. Khedive of Egypt After the death of Said, Ismail was proclaimed Khedive on January 19, 1863, though the Ottoman Empire, and the other Great Powers recognised him only was Wāli. Like all Egyptian and Sudanese rulers since his grandfather Muhammad Ali Pasha, he claimed the higher title of Khedive, which the Ottoman Porte (Ottoman Porte) had consistently refused to sanction. However, in 1867, Isma'il succeeded in persuading the Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz to grant a ''firman (Firman (decree))'' finally recognising him as Khedive in exchange for an increase in the tribute. Another firman changed the law of succession to direct descent from father to son rather than brother to brother, and a further decree in 1873 confirmed the virtual independence of the Khedivate of Egypt from the Porte (Ottoman Porte). British Consul-General of Egypt The Urabi Revolt, led by Ahmed Urabi, a rising Egyptian colonel, endangered the Khedivate (Khedivate of Egypt). After the subsequent intervention by the British in Alexandria (the 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War), Baring returned from India in Egypt as the British agent and consul-general, "with a mandate for minor reforms and a prompt withdrawal of British troops". http: www.history.ac.uk reviews paper reid.html Baring's requests to withdraw were thwarted by British public outcry when the 1881 uprising of the Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad and the ensuing Mahdist War caused the successive defeats & deaths of the popular Colonel William Hicks and General Chinese Gordon. In 1866, Ismail succeeded in his endeavor to alter the order of succession to the Khedivate of Egypt. The title, instead of passing to the eldest living male descendant of Muhammad Ali (Muhammad Ali of Egypt), was now to descend from father to son. Ismail sought this alteration mainly because he disliked his uncle, Halim Pasha, who was his heir-presumptive, and he had imagined that he would be able to select whichever of his sons he pleased for his successor. Later in 1911, he was assigned to the Ottoman Tripolitania Vilayet (present-day Libya) to fight in the Italo-Turkish War, mainly in the areas near Benghazi, Derna (Derna, Libya) and Tobruk. A massive Italian amphibious assault force of 150,000 troops The History of the Italian-Turkish War, William Henry Beehler, page 96 had to be countered by 20,000 Bedouins The History of the Italian-Turkish War, William Henry Beehler, page 14 and 8,000 Turks (a short time before Italy declared war, a large portion of the Ottoman troops in Libya were sent to the Ottoman province of Yemen in order to put down the rebellion there, so the Ottoman government was caught with inadequate resources to counter the Italians in Libya; and the British government, which militarily controlled the ''de jure'' Ottoman provinces of Egypt and Sudan (Khedivate of Egypt) since the Urabi Revolt in 1882, didn't allow the Ottoman government to send additional Ottoman troops to Libya through Egypt; causing the Ottoman soldiers like Mustafa Kemal to go to Libya either dressed as Arabs (risking imprisonment if noticed by the British authorities in Egypt), or through very few available ferries (the Italians, who had superior naval forces, effectively controlled the sea routes to Tripoli).) However, despite all the hardships, Mustafa Kemal's forces in Libya managed to successfully repel the Italians in a number of occasions, such as the Battle of Tobruk (Battle of Tobruk (1911)) on 22 December 1911. During the Battle of Derna on 16–17 January 1912, while Mustafa Kemal was assaulting the Italian-controlled fortress of Kasr-ı Harun, two Italian planes dropped bombs on the Ottoman forces and a piece of limestone from a damaged building's rubble entered Mustafa Kemal's left eye; which caused a permanent damage on his left eye's tissue, but not a total loss of sight. After receiving medical treatment for nearly a month (he attempted to leave the Red Crescent's health facilities early after only two weeks, but when his eye's situation worsened, he had to return and resume the treatment) on 6 March 1912 Mustafa Kemal became the Commander of the Ottoman forces in Derna. He managed to defend and retain the city and its surrounding region until the end of the Italo-Turkish War on 18 October 1912. Mustafa Kemal, Enver Bey (İsmail Enver), Fethi Bey (Ali Fethi Okyar) and the other Ottoman military commanders in Libya had to return to Ottoman Europe (Ottoman territories in Europe) following the outbreak of the Balkan Wars on 8 October 1912, due to which the Ottoman government agreed to surrender the provinces of Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica (present-day Libya) to the Kingdom of Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)) with the Treaty of Ouchy (First Treaty of Lausanne) signed ten days later, on 18 October. Hussein Kamel was the son of Khedive Isma'il Pasha, who ruled Egypt from 1863 to 1879. Hussein Kamel was declared Sultan of Egypt on 19 December 1914, after the occupying British forces had deposed his nephew, Khedive Abbas Hilmi II (Abbas II of Egypt), on 5 November 1914. The newly created Sultanate of Egypt was declared a British protectorate. This brought to an end the de jure Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) sovereignty over Egypt (Khedivate of Egypt), which had been largely nominal since Muhammad Ali (Muhammad Ali of Egypt)'s seizure of power in 1805. *Ibrahim Pasha Baban, the Kurdish leader who founded Sulaymaniyah *Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, 19th-century Egyptian (Khedivate of Egypt) general and son of Khedive Muhammad Ali (Muhammad Ali of Egypt) *Abdel Fattah Yahya Ibrahim Pasha (1876–1951), Egyptian political figure Funding and engineering was mainly provided by German Empire banks and companies, which in the 1890s had built the Anatolian Railway (''Anatolische Eisenbahn'') connecting Istanbul, Ankara and Konya. The Baghdad Railway was to connect Berlin with Baghdad, where the Germans wanted to establish a port in the Persian Gulf. McMurray (2001) page 2 The Ottoman Empire desired to maintain its control of Arabia (Arabian Peninsula) and to expand its influence across the Red Sea into the nominally Ottoman (until 1914) Khedivate of Egypt, which was militarily controlled by the United Kingdom since the Urabi Revolt in 1882. The Germans gained access to and ownership of oil fields in Iraq, and with a line to the port of Basra would have gained better access to the eastern parts of the German colonial empire, bypassing the Suez Canal. Background In 1571 the Greeks of Cyprus were conquered by the Ottoman Empire, following the Ottoman–Venetian War (1570–1573). The island and its population was later leased to Britain by the Cyprus Convention, an agreement reached during the Congress of Berlin in 1878 between the United Kingdom (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) and the Ottoman Empire. Britain formally annexed Cyprus (together with Egypt and Sudan (Khedivate of Egypt)) on 5 November 1914 as a reaction to the Ottoman Empire's decision to join the First World War on the side of the Central Powers; subsequently the island became a British Crown colony (British overseas territories). Article 20 of the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 marked the end of the Turkish claim to the island. Full text of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) Article 21 of the treaty gave the minority Muslims (Islam) on the island the choice of leaving the island to live as Turks in Turkey, or to stay on the island as British nationals. Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty (History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty) remained nominally an Ottoman province. It was granted the status of an autonomous vassal state (Vassal and tributary states of the Ottoman Empire) or ''Khedivate (Khedivate of Egypt)'' in 1867. Isma'il (Isma'il Pasha) and Tewfik Pasha governed Egypt as a quasi-independent state under Ottoman suzerainty until the British occupation (British occupation of Egypt) of 1882. Nevertheless, the Khedivate of Egypt (1867–1914) remained a de jure Ottoman province until 5 November 1914, Full text of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923): Article 17 of the treaty refers to Egypt and Sudan. when it was declared a British (British Empire) protectorate in reaction to the Ottoman Empire's decision to join the First World War on the side of the Central Powers. Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty (History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty) remained nominally an Ottoman province. It was granted the status of an autonomous vassal state (Vassal and tributary states of the Ottoman Empire) or ''Khedivate (Khedivate of Egypt)'' in 1867. Isma'il (Isma'il Pasha) and Tewfik Pasha governed Egypt as a quasi-independent state under Ottoman suzerainty until the British occupation (British occupation of Egypt) of 1882. Nevertheless, the Khedivate of Egypt (1867–1914) remained a de jure Ottoman province until 5 November 1914, Full text of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923): Article 17 of the treaty refers to Egypt and Sudan. when it was declared a British (British Empire) protectorate in reaction to the Ottoman Empire's decision to join the First World War on the side of the Central Powers. The first decade of the twentieth century saw the proliferation of local Bahá'í governing bodies. Often unaware of `Abdu'l-Bahá’s guidance, they had a variety of titles in English (English language) and Persian (Persian language), such as “Council Board, “Board of Consultation,” “House of Spirituality,” and "Executive Committee." Unaware `Abdu'l-Bahá had told the Chicago Bahá'ís to elect their body every five years, they were usually elected annually or even semi-annually. The number of members varied from five to nineteen (except in New York City, where `Abdu'l-Bahá, in 1911, said they should elect twenty-seven members in order to be inclusive of and to foster unity between that city’s diverse Bahá'í groups). They were male only until `Abdu'l-Bahá said, in 1911, that women should be elected to the local governing bodies existing in the United States; their exclusion from local bodies continued in Iran until the 1950s, because of Iranian cultural conventions. Stockman, ''The Bahá'í Faith in America,'' vol. 2, 338. In the period 1900 to 1911, consultative bodies are known to have existed in Kenosha, Wisconsin, Boston, Massachusetts, Washington, D.C., Spokane, Washington, northern Hudson County, New Jersey, the greater San Francisco area, California, in the United States; and in Bombay, British Raj India; Cairo, Khedivate of Egypt; Acre (Acre, Israel), Ottoman Syria; Baku, Tbilisi, Ashgabat and Samarqand in the Russian Empire; and Mashhad, Abadih, Qazvin, and Tabriz, Persia (Qajar dynasty). Consultative bodies also existed for the Jewish (Judaism) and Zoroastrian (Zoroastrianism) Bahá'ís in Tehran and for the women of a few Bahá'í communities. Robert H. Stockman, ''The Bahá'í Faith and American Protestantism,'' Th.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1990, p. 168. United Kingdom and Egypt Kingdom of Kush 1070 BC – 350 AD. Later ruled by the Ottoman Empire, Egypt (Khedivate of Egypt), and then as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1899–1956. - In 1879, he was appointed the commander of Turkey's frontier with Greece (Kingdom of Greece) , before being sent in 1885 to serve as the Turkish High Commissioner in Egypt (Khedivate of Egypt). His final promotion was to Grand Vizier in July 1912, largely due to his prestige as an old military hero, but he resigned on 29 October 1912, since the First Balkan War that had erupted early that month had caught his administration off-guard and he was blamed for the sudden defeats.
Civil Administration Civil administration was restored on the 1 April 1946 and from the same date the Board of Commissioners of Currency Malaya was reconstituted by the authority or Ordinance No.4 of 1946 in Singapore and Ordinance No.5 of 1946 in the Malayan Union. The Board continued to operate in the same way as before the Japanese occupation (Japanese occupation of Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak). '''British Malaya''' loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British (United Kingdom) control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown. Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a single unified administration. Instead, British Malaya comprised the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States. Within a year after World War II, the loose administration of British Malaya was finally consolidated with the formation of the Malayan Union on 1 April 1946. Singapore however was not included and was considered a crown colony by itself. The new Union was greeted with strong opposition from the local Malays. The opposition revolved around two issues: loose citizenship requirements and reduction in the Malay rulers' power. Due to the pressure exerted, the Union was replaced with the Federation of Malaya on 31 January 1948. The Federation achieved independence on 31 August 1957. All Malayan states later formed a larger federation called Malaysia on 16 September 1963 together with Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo. Diplomatic career He was the first appointed Governor of the Malayan Union, Sir Edward also became the first Colonial Administrator to discuss openly to form a better government for the future of Malaya, where later the Federation of Malaya was established. He was an instrumental figure in the formation of the Malayan Union which was established on 1 April 1946 in Kuala Lumpur, and the first Governor of the Malayan Union. He remained in office until his death. When Malaysia achieved independence (Merdeka) from the United Kingdom, his widow Lady Gent, together with Lady Gurney, were invited to the ceremony as guests of honour. Summary This is a photo of a Malay protest against the formation of the Malayan Union, linked to the issue of ''ketuanan Melayu''. Its use is contended to be fair use for the purposes of articles on the English Wikipedia related to opposition of the Malayan Union because the image is sufficiently low-resolution as to avoid major detriment to the copyright owner's profits; and because it is a historical image of great significance that cannot be duplicated with a free replacement.
hostile to each other. Ukrainian leaders during the period were largely opportunists and men of little vision who could not muster broad popular support for their policies. The disintegration of Ukrainian statehood and general decline - Ruina. The third important state for Ukrainians is Cossack Hetmanate. The Cossacks of Zaporizhia (Zaporizhzhia (region)) since the late 15th century controlled the lower bends of the river Dnieper, between Russia, Poland and the Tatars of Crimea (Crimean Khanate), with the fortified capital, Zaporizhian Sich. Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky is one of the most celebrated and at the same time most controversial political figures in Ukraine's early-modern history. A brilliant military leader, his greatest achievement in the process of national revolution was the formation of the Cossack Hetmanate state of the Zaporozhian Host (1648–1782). Period of the Ruin (The Ruin (Ukrainian history)) in the late 17th century in the history of Ukraine is characterized by the disintegration of Ukrainian statehood and general decline. During the Ruin Ukraine became divided along the Dnieper River into Left-Bank Ukraine and Right-Bank Ukraine, and the two halves became hostile to each other. Ukrainian leaders during the period were largely opportunists and men of little vision who could not muster broad popular support for their policies. The disintegration of Ukrainian statehood and general decline - Ruina. date 27 June 1709 (O.S. (Julian calendar)) 28 June 1709 (Swedish calendar) 8 July 1709 (N.S. (Gregorian calendar)) place Poltava, Cossack Hetmanate (today Ukraine) result Decisive Russian victory Loss of Cossack Hetmanate autonomy In an attempt to finally end the war, Charles ordered a final attack (Charles XII invasion of Russia) on the Russian heartland with a possible assault on Moscow from his campaign base in Poland. The Swedish army of almost 44,000 men left Saxony (Electorate of Saxony) on 22 August 1707 and marched slowly eastwards. When they reached the Vistula River they waited for it to freeze and didn't cross until 30 December, then continued through a hostile Masuria and took Grodno (Hrodna) on 28 January 1708 after the Russians had left without a fight. At that time, the Russians had been dealing with a large rebellion of Don Cossacks, known as Bulavin Rebellion. The mutiny was contained in part by the forces of the Cossack Hetmanate led by Hetman Ivan Mazepa. The Swedes continued to the area around Smorgon (Smarhon) and Minsk where the army went into winter quarters. Left in western Poland were 8,000 dragoons under major-general von Krassow. Christer Kuvaja: ''Karolinska krigare 1660–1721'', p.179. Schildts Förlags AB 2008. ISBN 978-951-50-1823-6. As Charles forces were moving towards Ukraine, Peter sent his Moscow reserves to intercept them at Starodub and asked Mazepa to supply some reinforcements. Lewenhaupt followed south and was attacked while crossing a river near a small village that gave name to the Battle of Lesnaya. His forces met the Russian attack, but they were amazed to find that the new Russian army gave them a serious fight. Lewenhaupt, seeing that he was about to lose, decided to rejoin Charles with all speed, so he abandoned the cannon, the cattle and most of the food, driving the soldiers to mutiny. Stealing all of the alcohol, the soldiers became drunk, and Lewenhaupt was forced to leave about 1,000 men drunk in the woods. By the time they finally reached Charles and the main force in the winter, only 6,000 men without supplies remained. Mazepa was hesitant and gathered the Starshyna Council to decide the further course of actions. The council approved the negotiations with Charles. He left his last Cossack reserves in Baturyn and moved to the Desna River for negotiations with Charles. When Peter heard of that move he sent Aleksandr Menshikov to Baturyn and mercilessly razed the city. A series of repressions spread throughout the Cossack Hetmanate along with claims that Mazepa had deserted to the Swedes in order to subjugate Ukraine to Poland, provide Unia (Union of Brest), and root Orthodoxy out of Ukraine. Tsar decrees were sent to strashyna inviting them to Hlukhiv. In Hlukhiv Mazepa was figuratively dismissed as Hetman and replaced with the Starodub Colonel Ivan Skoropadsky. By the end of the century, Polish Baroque influences crossed the Dnieper into the Cossack Hetmanate, where they gave birth to a particular style of Orthodox architecture, known as the ''Cossack Baroque''. #...that the Ancient Greeks credited '''Broteas''', the ugly son of Tantalus, with an ancient rock-cut cliff-face carving of the Great Mother of the Gods in modern Turkey? (March 13, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 57 #...that the Cossack Hetman and the later Muscovite (Muscovy) voyevoda (Voivod) '''Petro Doroshenko''' signed a treaty with Sultan Mehmed IV recognizing the Cossack Hetmanate as a vassal of the Ottoman Empire? (March 8, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 56 #...that '''the Hood Event (Hood event)''' was an incident following the US invasion of Iraq (2003 Invasion of Iraq) where a group of Turkish (Turkish Armed Forces) special forces operating in northern Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan) was captured and interrogated by the US military (Military of the United States), later becoming the basis for the 2006 (2006 in film) film ''Valley of the Wolves Iraq''? (February 24, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 55