Places Known For

political resistance

Sa Pa

direct colonial military administration so as to curtail banditry and political resistance on the sensitive northern frontier. Michaud J., 2008 "Flexibilité de l'économie chez les Hmong de la haute région du Viêt-nam septentrional", ''Aséanie'' 22:151-83. The first permanent French civilian resident arrived in Sa Pa in 1909. With its attractive continental climate, health authorities believed the site had potential. By 1912 a military sanatorium for ailing officers had been erected along with a fully fledged military garrison. Then, from the 1920s onwards, several wealthy professionals with enough financial capital also had a number of private villas built in the vicinity. At the end of the Second World War a long period of hostilities began in Tonkin that was to last until 1954. In the process, nearly all of the 200 or so colonial buildings in or around Sa Pa were destroyed, either by Việt Minh sympathisers in the late 1940s, or, in the early 1950s by French air raids. The vast majority of the Viet population fled for their lives, and the former town entered a prolonged sleep. In the early 1960s, thanks to the New Economic Zones migration scheme set up by the new Socialist regime, new inhabitants from the lowlands started to migrate to the region. The short 1979 occupation of the northern border region by Chinese troops (Sino-Vietnamese War) had little impact on Sa Pa town, but did force the Kinh (lowland Vietnamese) population out for a month. In 1993 the last obstacle to Sa Pa's full rebirth as a prominent holiday destination was lifted as the decision was made to open the door fully to international tourism. Sa Pa was back on the tourist trail again, this time for a newly emerging local elite tourist crowd, as well as international tourists. Michaud J., S.Turner, 2006 "Contending Visions of a Hill-Station in Vietnam". ''Annals of Tourism Research''. 33(3): 785-808. Sapa is now in full economic boom, mainly from the thousands of tourists who come every year to walk the hundreds of miles of trekking trails between and around the villages of Dao villages of Ta Van and Ta Phin. In 2006, the Chairman of The People's Committee of Sapa Province was elected to The Communist Party Central Committee as the youngest ever member (born in 1973). Geography Sa Pa District is located in Lào Cai Province, north-west Vietnam, and 380 km north-west of Hanoi, close to the border with China. The Hoàng Liên Son range of mountains dominates the district, which is at the eastern extremity of the Himalayas. This range includes Vietnam's highest mountain, Fan Si Pan, at a height of 3143 m above sea level. The town of Sa Pa lies at an altitude of about 1500 meters (4921 feet) above sea level. The climate is moderate and rainy in summer (May—August), and foggy and cold with occasional snowfalls in winter. thumb left 300px View on the mountains from downtown Sapa (Image:SapaMountains.jpg) Sa Pa is a quiet mountain town and home to a great diversity of ethnic minority peoples. The total population of 36,000 consists mostly of minority groups. Besides the Kinh (Viet) people (15%) there are mainly 5 ethnic groups in Sapa: Hmong 52%, Dao 25%, Tay 5%, Giay 2% and a small number of Xa Pho. Approximately 7,000 live in Sapa, the other 36,000 being scattered in small communes throughout the district. thumb right 300px Terrace (agriculture) Terraced fields (Image:Terraced fields Sa Pa Vietnam.JPG) in Sa Pa Most of the ethnic minority people work their land on sloping terraces since the vast majority of the land is mountainous. Their staple foods are rice and corn. Rice, by its very nature of being a labour-intensive crop, makes the daily fight for survival paramount. The unique climate in Sapa has a major influence on the ethnic minorities who live in the area. With sub-tropical summers, temperate winters and 160 days of mist annually, the influence on agricultural yields and health related issues are significant. The geographical location of the area makes it a truly unique place for many interesting plants and animals, allowing it to support many inhabitants. Many very rare or even endemic species have been recorded in the region. thumb right 300px Sa Pa town hall (Image:Sapa4.jpg) The scenery of the Sa Pa region in large part reflects the relationship between the minority people and nature. This is seen especially in the paddy fields carpeting the rolling lower slopes of the Hoàng Liên Mountains. The impressive physical landscape which underlies this has resulted from the work of the elements over thousands of years, wearing away the underlying rock. On a clear day, the imposing peak of Fan Si Pan comes into view. The last major peak in the Himalayan chain, Fan Si Pan offers a real challenge to even the keenest walker, the opportunity of staggering views, and a rare glimpse of some of the last remaining primary rain forest in Vietnam. Geology, climate and human activity have combined to produce a range of very distinct habitats around Sa Pa. Especially important is Sa Pa's geographic position, at the convergence of the world's 14 “biomes” (distinct biographic areas), producing an assemblage of plant and animal species unique in the world. In 2014, Sapa is ranked #9 in the top 10 rice terrace destinations of the world by SpotCoolStuff Ecological life thumb left A black pig (Image:Black pig in Sa Pa, Vietnam.jpg) in Sapa The Hoàng Liên Mountains are home to a rich variety of plants, birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles and insects, many only found in northwestern Vietnam. For this reason, the Hoàng Liên Nature Reserve was made a National Park (Hoàng Liên National Park) in 2006, and covers much of the mountain range to the immediate south of Sa Pa. Forest type and quality change with increasing altitude. At 2000 meters the natural, undisturbed forest begins to be seen. Above 2500 meters dwarf conifers and rhododendrons predominate in the harsh “elfin forest” (Elfin forest), so called because a lack of topsoil and nutrients means that fully mature trees grow to measure only a few meters in height. Higher still, only the hardiest of plant species are found. At over 3000 meters, Fan Si Pan's summit can only support dwarf bamboo. Topography The Hoang Lien Mountains lie at the southeastern extent of the Himalayan chain. The national park is located on the northeast flank of these mountains and includes Vietnam's highest peak, Fansipan, at 3,143 m (see map). The lowest point is 380 m but most of the national park lies above 1,000 m. The flanks of the mountains are very steep and many areas are almost inaccessible on foot. Between Fansipan Mountain and Sa Pa town, lies the Muong Hoa valley, which has been terraced for wet rice agriculture. This valley becomes wider towards the east of the national park. Climate The climate of Hoàng Liên National Park is unique to Vietnam. It is highly seasonal, with a subtropical climate in the summer and a temperate climate during the winter. Under the Köppen climate classification, Sa Pa has a subtropical highland climate (''Cwb''). Mean annual temperature for Sa Pa town is Commons:Category:Sa Pa Wikipedia:Sa Pa


to Nazi policies led the Gestapo to carefully monitor church organizations. For the most part, members of the church did not offer political resistance but simply wanted to ensure that organizational doctrine remained intact. McDonough (2005). ''Opposition and Resistance in Nazi Germany'', pp. 30-40. However, the Nazi regime sought to suppress any source of ideology other than its own, and set out to muzzle or crush the churches in the so-called Kirchenkampf. When Church

East Germany

numbers of second-generation Turks have opted for German citizenship and are becoming more involved in the political process. Goethe Institute, Washington DC: website notes for showing of both films on December 13 and 15, 2010. In East Germany, a school in Klausdorf as well as a street in Wismar were named after Bruno Tesch. Despite political resistance


, 1962, Jagan wrote to Harold Drayton, then in Ghana, to ask him to seek the advice of W.E.B. DuBois on starting a new university.political-resistance-to-the-birth-of-ug Kaieteur News Online . altname Togo Remnant, Central Togo region Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Togo familycolor Niger-Congo The '''Ghana–Togo Mountain languages''', formerly called ''Togorestsprachen'' (Togo Remnant languages) and ''Central Togo languages'', form a grouping of about fourteen languages spoken in the mountains of the Ghana–Togo borderland. They are part of the Kwa (Kwa languages) branch of the Niger–Congo (Niger–Congo languages) family. The '''Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital''' (KATH) in Kumasi, Ghana, is the second-largest hospital in the country


contract for the Intercampo oilfield and East Caracoles oilfield in Venezuela. Kazakhstan CNPC is heavily involved in the development of Kazakh (Kazakhstan) oil after the acquisition of Alberta-based PetroKazakhstan, a company with all operations in Kazakhstan. The company was purchased for $4.18 billion. Political resistance in Kazakhstan to the deal was placated by the sale of a minority stake in PetroKazakhstan by CNPC to KazMunaiGaz, the Kazakh state-owned oil


фронт, ОФ ) was originally a Bulgarian political resistance movement during World War II. The Zveno movement, the communist Bulgarian Workers Party, a wing of the Agrarian Union and the Bulgarian Social Democratic Workers Party (Bulgarian Social Democratic Workers Party (Broad Socialists)), were all part of the FF. The constituent groups of the FF had widely contrasting ideologies and had only united in face of the pro-German, militarist dictatorship in Bulgaria. Still


Energy Commission (AEC) from 1950 to 1953. * In 1983, he was awarded Delta Chi of the Year. * With his death in office, the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport was initially renamed Henry M. Jackson International Airport, but political resistance to the change led to this being reversed in favor of Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. It wasn't that the public didn't want to honor the late Senator, but rather leaders in both Seattle and Tacoma (Tacoma, in particular), fearing the loss of convention business, demanded that both cities' names be included in the name of the airport. The airport lies between the two cities in the municipality of SeaTac (SeaTac, Washington). * One of Jackson's last acts as Senator was to sponsor legislation creating what became the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, which was named after him after his death. Television Butte shares its Neilsen market with nearby Bozeman (Bozeman, Montana), with which it forms the 194th largest TV market in the United States. Butte has the distinction of being near the dividing line in terms of Pro-Sports markets, so the city receives both Seattle and Denver teams games on local cable TV channels. The earliest container ships were converted tanker (Tanker (ship))s, built up from surplus T2 tankers after World War II. In 1951 the first purpose-built container vessels began operating in Denmark, and between Seattle and Alaska. The first container ship in the United States was the ''Ideal X'', Levinson, 2006, p.1. a T2 tanker, owned by McLean, which carried 58 metal containers between Newark, New Jersey and Houston, Texas on its first voyage, in April 1956. Meurn, 2004, p. 1-3. The crisis in general was part of a global backlash against the Washington Consensus and institutions such as the IMF and World Bank, which simultaneously became unpopular in developed countries following the rise of the anti-globalization movement in 1999. Four major rounds of world trade talks since the crisis, in Seattle, Doha, Cancún, and Hong Kong, have failed to produce a significant agreement as developing countries have become more assertive, and nations are increasingly turning toward regional or bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) as an alternative to global institutions. Many nations learned from this, and quickly built up foreign exchange reserves as a hedge against attacks, including Japan, China, South Korea. Pan Asian currency swaps were introduced in the event of another crisis. However, interestingly enough, such nations as Brazil, Russia, and India as well as most of East Asia began copying the Japanese model of weakening their currencies, restructuring their economies so as to create a current account surplus to build large foreign currency reserves. This has led to an ever increasing funding for US treasury bonds, allowing or aiding housing (in 2001–2005) and stock asset bubbles (in 1996–2000) to develop in the United States. Development The area surrounding Lake Sammamish has been, in recent times, the most rapidly growing suburban district in the Greater Seattle Metropolitan Area


, Jamiat-e-Islami became the dominant political resistance party in northeastern Afghanistan. In 1980, Jamiat was the second most popular resistance front and enjoyed strong support from the Tajik (Tajik people) communities of Badakshan, the Panjshir Valley and Herat Province in the west. Ahmad Shah Massoud, Ismail Khan, Mullah Naqibullah and Zabibullah, all influential Jamiat military commanders, would help galvanize Jamiat into one of the most formidable resistance movements of the Soviet-Afghan war. The failure of the Soviet Army to pacify the Panjshir Valley despite seven massive military offensives against the region between 1980 and 1984 solidified Ahmad Shah (Ahmad Shah (Taliban)) as a legendary commander and helped preserve popular support for Jamiat throughout the region. In general, Jamiat is considered to be a moderate Islamist movement that drew recruits from those educated in government schools (both religious and secular) and among the ulema (in the north) and the naqshbandi Sufi order found throughout the north. Although multiple ethnic groups including Pashtuns formed comprised Jamiat, it is most commonly referred to be dominated by Tajiks from the northeast. Naval Postgraduate School, Program for Culture and Conflict Studies, Afghanistan, Sar-e Pol Province '''Supervisory Council of the North''' (SCN): In 1984, top resistance commanders operating the northern provinces of Takhar, Badakhshan, Balkh and Kunduz formed a council under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Massoud. The Supervisory Council of the North became an integrated military unit with both political and security components and posed the greatest threat to the communist occupation of Afghanistan in the north. Although many of the SCN leaders were affiliates of Rabbani (Burhanuddin Rabbani)’s Jamiat-e-Islami, the SCN established deep ties with local communities and ran its affairs independently from the Jamiat leadership based in Pakistan. Many former SCN commanders and fighters continue to exert influence and power at various levels throughout the Northern provinces. Naval Postgraduate School, Program for Culture and Conflict Studies, Afghanistan, Sar-e Pol Province Economy Afghanistan signed a deal with China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) for the development of oil blocks in the Amu Darya basin, a project expected to earn billions of dollars over two decades; the deal covers drilling and a refinery in the northern provinces of Sar-e Pol and Faryab and is the first international oil production agreement entered into by the Afghan government for several decades. Commons:Category:Afghanistan WikiPedia:Afghanistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Afghanistan


Dmoz:Regional Asia Indonesia Commons:Category:Indonesia Wikipedia:Indonesia


published an essay entitled “On the Border of Two Worlds” (Op de grens van twee werelden), in which he called for accepting German leadership in Europe. his was immediately after the Royal House had fled to England, leaving him behind. His view was influenced by the tremendous show of force the German blitzkrieg had shown and the relative weakness of the Allied forces. Soon thereafter, he tried to organize political resistance but was arrested in June 1941 and taken to Berlin for interrogation. The Germans tried to have him confess that he had conspired with the British to invade the Netherlands to serve as an excuse for the German invasion . Late in the war after the tide had turned against the Germans, According to Colijn (grandson of Hendrikus), during a visit by Hendrik in June 1943, reported that Himmler wanted to keep Colijn available as a possible intermediary with the British as he had done earlier for Wilhelm II The very fact that the Gestapo allowed the visit in Ilmenau suggests that Himmler was already making contingency plans in case of a German loss. Tatarchev was born in the town of Resen (Resen (town)) in Ottoman Macedonia (Ottoman Vardar Macedonia) to a rich family. His father Nikola Tatarchev was a successful banker, and his mother Katerina was a descendant of a prominent family. Hristo Tatarchev received his initial education in Resen, then he moved to Eastern Rumelia and studied in Bratsigovo (1882) and eventually at the Secondary school for boys in Plovdiv (1883–87). It was at that time when he participated in the Unification of Bulgaria and enrolled in a students' legion, which took part in the Serbo-Bulgarian War of 1885. Tatarchev was expelled from school because of "insubordination" and he moved to Romania, where he continued his secondary education. Later he studied medicine at the University of Zurich (1887–1890) and completed his degree in Medicine in Berlin (July 1892). He moved to Thessaloniki in 1892, where he worked as physician at the local Bulgarian secondary school for boys. Commons:Category:Berlin Wikipedia:Berlin Dmoz:Regional Europe Germany States Berlin

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