Places Known For

place called

Villa de Leyva

of Granada Sr. Andres Díaz Venero de Leyva. Initially Villa de Leyva was established close to the Indian Astronomic Observatory in a place called Zaquencipá Valley, and then twelve years later was moved to its actual location. During the colonisation, Villa de Leyva was a principal producer of oil olive and some cereals, especially wheat and barley. It was chosen as a favorite place for Spanish families and especially as place to rest for viceroys. Villa de Leyva was home of the Captain Antonio

by the first president of the New Kingdom of Granada Sr. Andres Díaz Venero de Leyva. Initially Villa de Leyva was established close to the Indian Astronomic Observatory in a place called Zaquencipá Valley, and then twelve years later was moved to its actual location. During the colonisation, Villa de Leyva was a principal producer of oil olive and some cereals, especially wheat and barley. It was chosen as a favorite place for Spanish families and especially as place to rest for viceroys. Villa de


without any doubt. However, it is not clear again how Gelemso was elevated to a place of high social status with the establishment of Oda Bultum, pertaining that the place called so is 25 km away from the town. Some people say Gelemso was an administrative capital and the seat of the ''Mana Bokkuu'' (the President's Office) of the Eastern Oromo, with Oda Bultum serving as the place where Caffee Gadaa assembled only once in eight years. And others say that it was a place where the Oda Bultum itself was located prior to its move to the current place. Latter on, oral history says, Gelemso evolved to an important village of commerce when one of its counties called ''Qabri Lukku'' (now found in the south eastern tip of the town) was organized as a market center to accommodate traders who were coming from different regions. It is said that at that place, a local chief called ''Lukkuu'' had mastered over the caravan traders who used to sell the goods they brought from remote areas. Few elders, however, dispute this story and say rather ''Lukku'' was a man who in ancient times, left the traditional Oromo religion and accepted Islam so that when he was diseased, the Ittu Oromo sanctioned his dead body not to be buried with the mass, a reason why we see his grave on isolated ground. (''Qabrii Lukku'' mean ''grave of Lukku'') To conclude, when we consider oral histories which assert the town had ''Karra Torba'' (The Seven Gates) in ancient times, non existent in the case of other towns of West Harerghe save Gelemso, when we consider its presence closer to places of significant traditions like ''Halayya Buchuro'' and ''Laga Bera'' (retold as a place where once ruthless and contestant dictatorial queen called Akkoo Manoyye had built her palace), when we analyze its tie to Oda Bultum and the presence of the shrines of Aw-Seid both at Gelemso and Oda Bultum, we can deduce that ''Gelemso'' must had been a place of higher social and spiritual importance in the tradition of the Oromo people since ancient times. And to the least, we can say it existed on the ''line of history'' long before the appearance of many of the current towns of the Hararghe region. After the conquests of Menelik II In 1887, while campaigning to occupy the city state of Harar and the whole of Eastern Ethiopia, which he accomplished after his victory at the Battle of Chelenqo, Bahru Zewde, ''A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855-1991'', 3rd edition, Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, 2001, p. 72 Emperor Menelik II had arrived at the bottom of the current Gelemso town. The Ethiopian writer ''Tekletsadik Mekuria'' tells that Menelik arrived at Gelemso on December 18, 1886. Tekletsadik Mekuria , '' Emperor Yohannes and the Ethiopian Unity'', (written in Amharic), Kuraz Publishers, Addis Ababa, 1990, p. 291 Menelik was attracted by the landscape around Gelemso and ordered a garrison to be founded there, which his warlords had executed immediately. The garrison was established at the western part of the current town, and had been called ''Gorgo'' (an ''Amharic'' name for a kind of tree). That was a second turn in the long history of Gelemso, by which it had leaped from a small village of cultural importance to a truly urbanized community. However, elderly people assert that the formation of the garrison had also some bad objectives behind. It is said that Menelik II had an aim of erasing the centrality and symbolism of early places like Gelemso from the mind and the heart of his Oromo subjects. Truly speaking, it was Emperor Menelik II who officially closed down all of the traditional Oromo institutions like Chaffe assembly and prohibited many other cultural feasts, a fact that Ethiopian writers of the early 20th century like Aleqa Tayye had recorded. Getachew Haile, '' The Works of Abba Bahrey with Other Records Concerning the Oromo '', Avon, Minnesota, p. 222 But the true urban feature of the town dates from Menelik's period. This will be agreeable when we know that in 1908, Gelemso was one of the few centers that the imperial government formally recognized as true towns. ''Mayor Berhanu Bekam's Speech on the inauguration of Gelemso public bus station'', 1990, and new data obtained from Gelemso Municipality, December 2009, Gelemso, West Harerghe. The Municipality recounts this year 1908 as the birth date of a town. But the elders do not agree with that, neither the writer of this article (Alladin Alevi) too. This may be justified by the fact that the Menilik's landing at Gelemso was in 1887, and it is assumed that the Emperor did not had rest at a village which cannot fulfill the subsistence needs of his huge army; and where marketing was inaccessible. That means Gelemso had at least certain appearance of a small town or it had been a market place prior to the Menelik's period. During the Italian occupation Gelemso stayed under a period of dwarfism and stagnancy in the reign of ''Ras Teferi Mekonnen'' (latter Emperor Haile Selassie I ) who had special sympathy for another town established in the Chercher highlands and named for his honor Asebe Teferi(which mean ''Teferi wished it'' in Amharic). Bahru Zewde narrates that in 1933, immediately after his ascension to the throne, Emperor Haile Selesie made Chercher Awraja the model of his future administration system. Bahru Zewde, ''A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855-1991'', 3rd edition, Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, 2007, p. 156 However, when Italy conquered Ethiopia and formed the Italian East Africa in 1935, Bahru Zewde, ''A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855-1991'', 3rd edition, Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, 2007, p. 169 Gelemso began to expand in every direction. During their five years administration, the Italians returned the seat of the Chercher province to Gelemso (which was moved first to ''Kunni'', then to Asebe Teferi or Chiro by the Haile Selassie officials) and made valuable change on its urban customs. They established new settlements in the northern and eastern parts of the town, starting from a hill called now ''Kambo'' (from Italian (Italian language) ''campo'' which mean a military camp). The Italian occupiers also constructed the first graveled road of the town, and connected it with Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa through all weather roads which run in the west to Awash (Awash, Ethiopia) (via small towns of Hardim and Bordode ), and in the east to Dire Dawa through Wachu and Bedessa. (the remnant of the western old road still exists with its decorated Italian style bridge built on the northern section of Aw Seid river ). The first modern buildings of the town were also attributed to the Italians, the most eloquent of them being ''St. Michael Catholic Church'' mentioned above. Scholars tell us that the Italians had focused on Gelemso because of its presence in the vicinity of Wachu (10 km east of Gelemso), a place where they intended to build Secondo Roma (Second Rome), a future city to be evolved from the agrarian community that would be brought from southern Italy under the resettlement program. On the other hand, one of the most important features of Gelemso town, the Sheikh Omar mosque, was built in that period while Sheikh Omar was Qadi of the Chercher province. After the Italian occupation In 1951, the Christian missionary group of ''American Adventist Church'' constructed the first school of the town at a place called ''Lode'' ( now separated from the main town by gorge created by gully erosion and called ''Tirso'' ). Although the group closed its missionary activities in the 1960s, the school they built has continued to function to this day, and the elderly people still call it ''Amerikaanii'' (The American). Gelemso was made a municipal town in 1952. And in the year 1958, while it remained still under the Chercher awraja administration, it was designated an electoral district (in Amharic called ''የምርጫ አውራጃ'') and had got 2 seats in the imperial parliamentary assembly of the Haile Seliasie regime, which was won in that very year by ''Haji Abdullahi Sheikh Ahmed'' and ''Mukhtar Mohammed''. ደጃዝማች፡ደምስ፡ወልደ፡ዐማኑኤል፣ ሕገ፡መንግሥትና፡ምክር፡ቤት ፣ሁለተኛ፡መጽሐፍ፣ ዐዲስ፡አበባ፣ ጥቅምት፡1951፡ዓ.ም.፣ገጽ፡163-185 However, the governmental projects were rarely planned and executed in the town then. But when it became the capital of Habro ''Awraja'' up on the splitting up of the former Chercher Awraja to Habro and Chercher-Adal-Gara Guracha Awrajas (Chiro or Asebe Teferi remained the latter's capital) in the year 1968 and afterwards, some improvements were made. For example, the town was equipped with electric light service for 6 hours a night, and its tap water supply system (built by Italians) was expanded. However, it was the efforts of Arabian, European and Asian traders that greatly helped Gelemso continue its long standing role as market center and ''social panorama''. The list of those foreign traders includes ''Nasir Sana'ani'', ''Abdallah Ubadi'', ''Ali Ahmed'', ''Ali Sa'ad'', ''Salah Muhsin'' who were all Yemen (Demographics of Yemen)is, the Greeks (Greece) ''Kostar Gragor'' and his brother ''Stafrol'', the Italians (Italy) ''Antonio Viccini'' and ''Francesco Berto'', the Sudanese ''Haji Abdullah'' and ''Sheikh Bashir Babikir'', and the Indian ''Usma'il Hindii''. Latter on, natives of the town like ''Mohammad Abdo (Lungo)'', ''Ahmed Yusuf'', ''Mohammed Beker'', ''Muteki Sheikh Mohammed'' and his brother Ahmad Taqi, ''Haji Ahmed Nure'', ''Haji Sani Abdulqadir'', ''Ahmed Alhadi'', ''Usmail Ahmayyu'', ''Nejash Usmail'', ''Belew Haile'', ''Mekonnen Metaferia'', ''Jemaneh Yimamu'', ''Tiruneh Gebremichael'', ''Omar Ghazali'' and his brother ''Mumme Ghazali'' etc....and well known Ethiopian entrepreneurs like Mohammed Abdullahi Ogsade also entered to the business and they altogether marked the town's classic commercial era. That was why the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia moved against its working rule of the time and opened a branch at Gelemso (according to its working rule of that time, the bank do not open its branch in a town found far away from the High Way). Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, ''Gelemso Branch Inauguration Ceremony'', December 1969, p. 17 In the late 1960s and early 1970s, General Taddese Birru, a well known Oromo nationalist and co-founder of ''Mecha-Tulama Self Help Association'', Bahru Zewde, ''A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855-1991'', 3rd edition, Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, 2007, p. 273 Geda Melba, ''Oromia: An Introduction to the History of Oromo People'', Khartoum, 1988, p. 183-184 had been in the town for his supposed ''ግዞት'' (Amharic for ''house arrest'') . Fortunately, the incident favored '' Tadesse'' to meet other early Oromo nationalists like ''Elemo Kiltu'', ''Ahmad Taqi'' and ''Mohammed Zakir Meyra'', with whom he could demonstrate his devotion for Oromo freedom, an act that became one of the main reasons for which Gelemso is heard so loudly. From the 1974 Revolution up to 1992 When the Dergue came to power in 1974, Bahru Zewde, ''A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855-1991'', 3rd edition, Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, 2007, p. 241 more attention was given to Gelemso. Viewers and most of the residents say that the Dergue era was a prosperous time in the town's history where many governmental buildings were erected, and subsequent improvements were made in the town. This includes the health centre, two primary schools, the current Gelemso High school, the multi purpose city assembly hall (a unique at the time in all of Eastern Ethiopia), the public slaughter house, a stadium, youth recreation center, farmers training center and most notably, the Gelemso-Mechara high way. On the other hand, NGOs like CARE (CARE (relief agency)) international highly participated in the development activities of the Habro Awraja starting from the late 1980s. The 1984 Harerghe Province All Games Championship it hosted was the major sport festival in history of the town where all of the 13 awrajas in Hararghe participated in the contest. Gelemso was also the first town of Eastern Ethiopia where the Development Bank of Ethiopia had opened its branch (now this branch had moved to Chiro or Asbeteferi ). One of the main urban zones of the town, called in its Amharic name ''Addis Ketema'' (the New City), totally emerged during the Dergue time as well. It is worth having also to mention the former President Mengistu Haile-Mariam had visited Gelemso and its surrounding villages in 1985 which makes ''Mengistu'' the only Ethiopian ruler that came across the town for official visit while in office. However, the prosperous situation prevailing during the Dergue time must never be considered as an expression of sympathic view of the Dergue towards Gelemso. The motives behind the ''Dergue's'' considerable attention, as many people believe, were the economic importance of the Habro Awraja for whom Gelemso was a capital (among the 13 awrajas of the former Hararghe province), and to an equal importance, Gelemso's central location in the ''Chercher'' highlands, a region highly known for Oromo rebellion. Geda Melba, ''Oromia: An Introduction to History of the Oromo People'', Khartoum, 1988, p. 194 Indeed the ''Dergue'' era was also a period where brutal campaigns like the Red Terror Geda Melba, ''Oromia: An Introduction to History of the Oromo People'', Khartoum, 1988, p. 152 were undertaken in Gelemso and elsewhere in the country. For instance, the residents of Gelemso still have fresh memories of the Kara Qurqura Massacre where 70 people (half of them in the pretext of ''Amhara land lords who resist the land reform'', and half of them labeled ''Oromo secessionists who conspire against the state with Somali Expansionists'' ) Babile Tola, ''To Kill a Generation: The Red Terror in Ethiopia'', Amharic Translation by Awgichew Terefe, Addis Ababa, 1992, p. 96, - However, Babile did 2 mistakes in his book. a). He underestimated the number of the dead. b). He alleged the cause of the dead to EPRP, which had no strong support in Gelemso were taken away from town, executed, and then bulldozed to one grave in April 1970 at a place called ''Karra Qurqura''. (20 km east of Gelemso) On May 30, 1991, the town came under the control of the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) and was made the administrative center of the OLF-held areas in the former provinces of West Hararghe, Arsi (Arsi Province) and Bale (Bale Province, Ethiopia). The most memorable event of that time was the Oda Bultum festival, where about 800,000 ''Oromos'' came together at Gelemso and Oda Bultum to celebrate the resurrection of the ancient Chaffe Gadaa assembly tradition. Nonetheless, this time has also served as a period of atrocious detentions and executions of Amhara people in Gelemso and the surrounding regions by OLF. On June 21, 1992, when OLF quitted the transitional government, Gelemso was passed to the current Ethiopian government led by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front along with the other towns of the West Harerghe Zone. References Category:Populated places in the Oromia Region

Ado Ekiti

. the sword bearer (Oluda) who accompanied Ewi Awamaro to settle in Ado before he was allocated land to the West of Ado town and settled in a place called Uro where he was later joined by people of Ibedoyin, Oketoro and Okelawe in forming a total of 16 quarters which later truncated into one town. The essence here is that Iyin people were part of Ado Kingdom that gained royal autonomy to co-exist as separate community under the realm of the Ewi without severing traditional ties and blood

to fight…The Benin soldiers stormed Igbara-Odo and Ilawe and took them. At this time, Ado town had been vacated. Aroloye took the people to a place called Oke Oko Axis between Ifaki and Iworoko. Most of the gods Ado worshipped on that side: Olua at Eyio, Obanifon at Esure and Are, Ogbese and Orisala at Iworoko. The soldiers pitched their camps near Uyin (Iyin)…Ogbesi Okun, the then Oluyin …was conquered and killed. They proceeded to Igede, Awo and Esure and took them. The inhabitants of Igede then uder

Okiribiti were driven in a north-easternly direction to a place called Oke Asha…Edo troops then marched to Iworoko…The soldiers entered Are…The same fate befell Afao. They were all taken to Ikere. The soldiers moved to Igbemo …entered Igbo-Omoba (now Ilu-Omoba)…The soldiers left Aisegba for Agbado and without delay took it and evacuated the people. Agbado was the last place under the Ewi. With the conquest, of Agbado, the soldiers seemed to have finished their job…’ Isola Olomola (2005:8-12

Alon Shvut

Biblical names, Judea and Samaria. "We knew we were coming to a place called 'territories' because we know other Peruvians who immigrated earlier and are living in the settlements," said a kippa-wearing convert who carried a Spanish-Hebrew prayer book. "But I have no problem because I don't consider the territories to be occupied. You cannot conquer what has belonged to you since the time of the patriarch Abraham." Rosenthal, 2005 p.197. A third


align center DSE align center HADC style "background:#DCDCDC" Combolcha Airport # align center -


Claros , Minas Gerais

San Gil

. To get back to San Gil, you first need to take a Piedecuesta bound bus that will drop you at on the San Gil - Bucaramanga road at a place called Los Curros (5,000 COP). Flota Cachira goes there but Transporte Mesa de Los Santos takes a different route to Piedecuesta, check with your driver to be sure. From there flag down a bus to San Gil (12,000 COP). Other option is to go to the nacional park Chicamocha and cross the canyon with the Teleferico. From there you can flag down a bus going back to San

Tequila, Jalisco

guachimonton complexes were built nearby such as Huitzilapa to the west and Amatitan to the east. The Epiclassic saw an intrusion of peoples from the Bajio region during a period of intense drought bringing with them many Central Mexican characteristics. By the Postclassic a variety of ethnic identities were in the region such as Caxcan, Cora, and Huichol. The major pre-Hispanic settlement was not where the town of Tequila is today, but rather in a place called Teochtinchán. After the Spanish Conquest

Monastir, Tunisia

territories lead into a place called Route de la Falaise, through which you will reach its most notable suburb, Skanes, which is 6 miles from Monastir's town centre. Hugging Tunisia's coastline, Skanes is a holiday resort known mostly for its professional golf courses, never-ending strips of white, sandy beaches, clear blue sea and hotels that fuse Moorish architecture with modern designs, and is frequented throughout the Summer by tourists from around the World


the train departure and wait for a mini-bus with someone shouting "Вокзал, вокзал" ("Vokzal, vokzal": "Station, station"). They will charge 800 MNT. Coaches Èrdènèt has 2 coach stations. The one for Darkhan (city) and Ulaanbaatar is at East of the city centre, at the extremity of Sùhbaatar street, in Builders square (Барилагчдын талбай, Barilagčdyn talbai). The one for Bulgan and Mörön is at the South-East of the city, in a place

called Dômôg, with a "Дөмөг ХХК" red sign at the top of a building. Four daily coach services to Ulaanbaatar, coach service to Bulgan City. '''There are days with no coach''', correlated with national holidays but not exactly the same. They undergo about the same government temporary bans as trains against epidemics (last one lifted in November 2009). Microbuses and cars MicroBuses and cars (public "taxis") to Ulaanbaatar and Darhan, with no schedule: they leave when full. Microbus to Darhan: 8 000 MNT person (Autumn 2009), car to Darhan: 10 000 MNT person (Summer 2009). Car to Ulaanbaatar: 20 000 MNT person (November 2009). Microbuses and official taxis undergo about the same government temporary bans as trains and coaches against epidemics (last one lifted in November 2009). WikiPedia:Erdenet Commons:Category:Erdenet

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