currency Denier (French denier) title_leader King of the Franks leader1 Clovis I leader2 Clotaire II leader3 Dagobert I leader4 Pepin the Younger leader5 Charlemagne year_leader1 481–511 year_leader2 613–629 year_leader3 629

and the Early Middle Ages. The kingdom was founded by Clovis I, crowned first King of the Franks in 496. Under the nearly continuous campaigns of Pepin of Herstal, Charles Martel, Pepin the Younger, Charlemagne, and Louis the Pious—father, son, grandson, great-grandson and great-great-grandson—the greatest expansion of the Frankish empire was secured by the early 9th century. The tradition of dividing patrimonies among brothers meant that the Frankish realm was ruled

in the late seventh century. During the brief minority of Sigebert II, the office of the Mayor of the Palace, which had for sometime been visible in the kingdoms of the Franks, came to the fore in its internal politics, with a faction of nobles coalescing around the persons of Warnachar, Rado (Rado (mayor of the palace)), and Pepin of Landen, to give the kingdom over to Chlothar in order to remove Brunhilda, the young king's regent, from power. Warnachar was himself already

Duchy of Gascony

father's, attacked Martel's successors, starting a war which was to last for two generations. In 743, the situation was further complicated by the arrival of Asturian (Kingdom of Asturias) forces attacking Vasconia from the west. In 744, Hunald abdicated to his son Waifer (Waifer of Aquitaine), who repeatedly challenged Frankish overlordship. After a campaign against the Umayyads in Septimania, the king Pepin the Short turned his attention to Aquitaine and Waifer, unleashing

a devastating war on Aquitaine (Pepin the Short#Expansion of the Frankish realm) (Vasconia included) that was to have dire consequences on its population, towns and society. Waifer and his Basque troops confronted Pepin several times but were defeated thrice in 760, 762, and 766, after which Aquitaine and Vasconia pledged loyalty to Pepin and Waifer was eventually murdered by desperate followers, or possibly by someone bribed by Pepin. Carolingian duchy (769-864

Duchy of Aquitaine

Gothia (Septimania), Vasconia (Duchy of Vasconia) (Gascony) and the Carolingian possessions in Spain (Marca Hispanica) as well. In 806, Charlemagne planned to divide his empire between his sons. Louis received Provence and Burgundy (Burgundy (historical region)) as additions to his kingdom. When Louis succeeded Charlemagne as emperor in 814, he granted Aquitaine to his son Pepin I (Pepin I of Aquitaine), after whose death in 838 the nobility of Aquitaine chose his son Pepin

II of Aquitaine (d. 865) as their king. The emperor Louis I, however, opposed this arrangement and gave the kingdom to his youngest son Charles, afterwards the emperor Charles the Bald. Confusion and conflict resulted, eventually falling in favor of Charles; although from 845 to 852 Pepin II was in possession of the kingdom, at Eastertide 848 in Limoges, the magnates and prelates of Aquitaine formally elected Charles as their king Later, at Orléans, he was anointed and crowned

by Wenilo, archbishop of Sens (Wenilo (archbishop of Sens)). Against this background of conflicted loyalties must be seen the career of Wenilo. In 852, Pepin II was imprisoned by Charles the Bald, who soon afterwards pronounced his own son Charles as the ruler of Aquitaine. On the death of the younger Charles in 866, his brother Louis the Stammerer succeeded to the kingdom, and when, in 877, Louis became king of the Franks, Aquitaine was fully absorbed into the Frankish


, on his defeat by Clovis in 531 retired to Hispania, leaving a governor in Septimania. In 719, the Saracens crossed the Pyrenees and maintained political hegemony of Septimania until their final defeat by Pepin the Short in 759, who went on to occupy Roussillon after conquering Narbonne (Siege of Narbonne (752-759)). On the invasion of Hispania in 778, Charlemagne found the Marca Hispanica wasted by war and the inhabitants settled in the mountains. He granted some

of Narbonne, Gaucelm of Roussillon, Odilo (Odilo, Count of Girona) of Girona, Guiscafred of Carcassonne, Ermengar of Empúries, Laibulf of Provence, and Erlin of Béziers. Several Visigoth (''hispani'') nobles had accused the Counts of Frankish Paternity and of imposing unjust tributes and excises on their lands. The Magnates defence was unsuccessful and Charlemagne decided in favour of the claimants Civil war of 831–832 In November 831 Pepin

of Aquitaine revolted against his father. While Berengar the Wise, Count of Toulouse, advised him against such a course of action, Bernard encouraged it. In early 832 Louis the Pious began the campaign against his rebellious son. Berengar, loyal to the Emperor, invaded the Bernard's ''honores'' and took Roussillon (with Vallespir) and probably also Rasez and Conflent. By 2 February, Berenguer was already in Elna. In November 831, Pepin revolted against his father

Merrill, Wisconsin

, Niagara (Niagara, Wisconsin), Odanah (Odanah, Wisconsin), Ogema (Ogema, Wisconsin), Ojibwa (Ojibwa, Wisconsin), Osceola (Osceola, Wisconsin), Osseo (Osseo, Wisconsin), Owen (Owen, Wisconsin), Park Falls (Park Falls, Wisconsin), Pearson (Pearson, Wisconsin), Pelican Lake (Pelican Lake, Wisconsin), Pembine (Pembine, Wisconsin), Pepin (Pepin, Wisconsin), Peshtigo (Peshtigo, Wisconsin), Phelps (Phelps, Wisconsin), Phillips (Phillips, Wisconsin), Phlox

Rainy Lake

Sueur reached the upper Mississippi from the south without making contact with Canada. In 1717 Zacharie Robutel de La Noue tried to reach Rainy Lake but was blocked by the Indians and only succeeded in establishing Fort Kaministiquia. In 1727 René Boucher de La Perrière and Michel Guignas established a post at Lake Pepin on the upper Mississippi. La Vérendrye questioned the Indians who came to trade. He learned of the Mandan country on the upper Missouri. These people were

Red Wing, Minnesota

-century America. Hamline’s first home was in Red Wing, Minnesota. The school’s charter stipulated that Hamline be located "at some point on the Mississippi between St. Paul (Saint Paul, Minnesota) and Lake Pepin." The city of Red Wing pledged about $10,000 to enable construction of a building and the beginning of an endowment, and it also donated a tract of land on a hillside overlooking the Mississippi River. Johnson W., David. ''Hamline University: A History 1854&

State Park''' is a state park of Minnesota, USA, on the Mississippi River steep limestone bluff overlooking Lake Pepin, a natural widening of the Mississippi. The bluff is variously called Garrard's Bluff or Point No-Point

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