Places Known For

original founding


Pazmiño

is an Ecuadorian Hispanic surname, though not a "Spanish" surname per se. It is relatively rare compared to other Hispanic surnames, even in Ecuador itself. As a Hispanic surname (Spanish naming customs), it is also rare in that its genesis places it among the few Hispanic surnames of solely judeo-converso origin. That is, Pazmiño as a compound surname is found only among the converso descendants of the original founding family of Jewish origin that converted to Christianity, identifying them as separate from other unrelated lineages of, both Jewish and gentile, Paz families and Miño families. This is in contrast to other Hispanic surnames (such as Sánchez, Pérez, Núñez, even Paz and Miño as separate surnames) which, though they may be found among persons of Sephardi Jewish descent, are in themselves Old Christian Spanish gentile surnames (thus occurring mostly among gentiles), and which only entered the Jewish population as a result of the deliberate adoption of Spanish Old Christian gentile surnames by Sephardic Jews (Jewish surname) (including Jewish converts to Christianity) to obscure their own origins, or because they were imposed on them upon baptism; forced or otherwise. Paz As a separate Hispanic surname, "Paz" can have three separate origins: Galician (Galicia (Spain)), Castilian (Crown of Castile), and Sephardi Jewish. Within each origin, numerous unrelated lineages exist, especially for patronymics. The surname also exists in Portuguese (Portuguese language) Galician Paz When "Paz" is of Galician (Galician language) origin, it is a patronymic surname. The Galician "Paz", together with "Páez", "Paes", and "Pais", are the Galician patronymic forms of the Galician given name "Paio." In Castilian, the given name is "Pelayo" and it's Castilian patronymic counterpart is "Peláyez", not "Paz." Castilian Paz When "Paz" is of Castilian (Castilian language) origin, it is a descriptive surname meaning 'peace' (from Latin (Latin language) 'pax', genitive 'pacis'), deriving from the Castilian language Marian (Infanta María de la Paz of Spain) epithet; "María de la Paz." With this same etymological history, the surname also exists in Portuguese (Portuguese language). Sephardi Paz "Paz" is also a rough translation of the Hebrew (Hebrew language) first name Shlomo (שלמה), meaning Solomon. This translation coincided with the pre-existing Castilian Spanish Old Christian surname "Paz" described above, and was thus often assumed by Jewish-origin New Christians to obscure their Sephardi Jewish origin. In these cases, "Paz" is found among Spaniards and Hispanics of Sephardic Jewish lineage converted to Catholicism. With this same etymological history, the surname also exists as a Sephardic origin Portuguese surname among Portuguese people and Brazilians. To this day, the surname Paz can be still be found among Sephardic Jews who descend from those who left Spain to remain within the Jewish fold. These emigrated to areas outside the Spanish Kingdom and it's colonial possessions in the Americas, beyond the reach of the Inquisition. They moved to various parts of the Ottoman Empire (North Africa, the Balkans in Southern Europe, and the Middle East, including Ottoman Palestine), as well as the Netherlands, England and elsewhere, where they could return to the religion. When the surname Paz is given a superficial transliteration into the Hebrew language (as פז), the surname in Hebrew is synonymous with "Gold" (Paz), although the literal word for gold is זהב (Zahav). However, a direct translation into Hebrew (as שלום) would render the surname as "Peace" (Shalom). The contextual translation renders it as Shlomo (שלמה, Solomon). Miño right thumb River Miño and Tui, Galicia (File:Tui Miño 060415 1.JPG) as seen from Valença (Valença, Portugal), Portugal The surname "Miño", conversely, has only one language origin. It is a Galician (Galicia, Spain) topographic surname adopted by, or imposed upon, a person originally from the banks of the Miño River, or several towns of the same name, traversing Galicia (Galicia (Spain)) in northeast Spain and flowing into northern Portugal. The river forms a natural border between the two countries. Etynologically, Miño is derived from a Latin comparative adjective (Latin grammar) that carries the meaning "Cinnabar-red" (from Latin (Latin language) 'minius', superlative 'minium'). Cinnabar itself is a mercuric sulfide mineral occurring in red crystals. Mercury sulfide is used as a red pigment. The Miño river was named after this mercuric sulfide mineral. In Spanish naming customs, people carry two surnames, the first paternal the second maternal. According to the National Statistics Institute of Spain, in the year 2010 there were a total of 1,733 people had "Miño" as a surname. Category:Spanish-language surnames Category:Patronymic surnames


Tulancingo

; One distinctive neighborhood whose origins can be traced back to the original founding of the Spanish city is Colonia Francisco I. Madero. Located at the base of the Cerro del Tezontle, it began as an indigenous settlement outside the city proper. As the city grew, it eventually was incorporated. The initial separation of the indigenous from the Europeans allows native culture to survive for a time after the Conquest. Old religious practices were maintained in secret and traditional herbal medicine continued to be practiced. Some residents claimed to be nahuals or Mesoamerican demons, making the Spanish of the city afraid to go into this area. Since then, people of this area have been called derisively “nahuals.” More recently, crosses have been placed in this area, especially in the intersection of 16 de Septiembre and Avenide del Trabajo to “scare” the nahuals that supposedly still live here. The annual Feria de Tulancingo is the main event for the city featuring the commercial, agricultural and industrial activities of the area. The municipality File:ValleTulancingo01.jpg thumb right The Tulancingo valley As municipal seat, the city of Tulancingo is the local governing authority for over one hundred communities, commons:Tulancingo


Tegucigalpa

be divided into four sections: '''1''') Zona Centro (Downtown Comayagüela); '''2''') North Comayagüela; '''3''') South Comayagüela; and '''4''') West Comayagüela: *'''1''' - '''Zona Centro de Comayagüela''' is the downtown area of Comayagüela and also the original founding grounds formed by its oldest barrios. These barrios are formed in a grid street plan (grid plan) style. Several government offices are located in this district, including the Central Bank of Honduras Annex building


Jersey

settlers following that era were the families of Pierre Bois and Joseph Richard, who arrived in 1782, although both brothers John and Paul Chiasson along with many other French settlers like the AuCoin family were believed to have predated Bois, Richard and Robin by over 100 years. Chiasson is looked at today as the oldest family name on record in the town. Many of the original family names still reside in and around the small town. They like all the original founding family


Florence

'' that was formed in Florence in 1863, and in Milan on June 15, 1864. ''ITALY'S RED CROSS WORKS EFFICIENTLY'', New York Times, Page 53, Jan 6, 1918. Other committees were formed later. The Italian Red Cross was one of the original founding members of the International Red Cross in 1919. IFRC: ''Who We Are: History.'' In December 1798, Maria Beatrice left Turin with her parents and uncles due to French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. They fled to Parma, then Florence. They finally settled at Sardinia, the last dominion held by Kingdom of Sardinia, for refuge. Maria Beatrice spent most of her time at Cagliari in later 13 years. His father reacted at the Reichstag (Reichstag (Holy Roman Empire)) of Mainz in April 1098 by deposing Conrad and designating his younger son Henry (Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor) as successor. After this, Conrad could hardly influence the political events in Italy and in 1101 h'e died at the age of twenty seven in Florence. He was buried in Santa Reparata, now superseded by Santa Maria del Fiore. Life Born in Florence, he studied Greek (Greek language), rhetoric, poetry and philosophy at the Universities of Bologna (University of Bologna) and Rome (University of Rome La Sapienza). He received the degree of ''doctor'' from the University of Pisa and was chosen to accompany Cardinal (cardinal (Catholicism)) Neri Corsini (Neri Corsini (cardinal)) to Paris in 1621 where he became acquainted with Marin Mersenne and other literary persons. International Study Centers Richmond students have the opportunity to complement their studies in London with a semester, year or summer at one of Richmond's two international study centers. The centers are in Florence and Rome, Italy. Although each center has a specific academic focus, they both offer intensive study of Italian language and culture and a curriculum that is integrated with the degree requirements in London. Travels He received a two-year travel stipend from the Academy (1857-1858) for a student travel to Italy, which took him also to Dresden, Vienna, Switzerland and Paris, in addition to the Italian cities of Venice, Parma, Florence, Naples and Rome. He occasionally painted depictions of Italy, including his well-known "''En gondol''" ("A Gondola") from 1859, a view looking out from the dark interior of a covered gondola. A young woman at the left-hand side of the canvas peers out from the dark; a gondolier on the right-hand side of the central archway leans in towards the center of the painting, bathed in light. Beyond is a glimpse of the waterway and other boats. Casal also won one top-level singles title at Florence in 1985. He was a singles runner-up at Aix-en-Provence in 1983, and at the Paris Open (Paris Masters) in 1986. His career-high singles ranking was World No. 31. Life He was born in Florence. In 1505, around the time of his 13th birthday, he joined the choir of the church Ss. Annunziata in Florence, where his teacher was the distinguished composer to the Medici family, Bartolomeo degli Organi. Layolle eventually married his teacher's younger sister-in-law, Maddalena Arrighi. D'Accone, Grove online In 1518 he left Florence, settling in Lyon in 1521. While in Florence he also served as music teacher to sculptor Benvenuto Cellini, who referred to him as a superb organist, musician and composer. On August 23, 2008, Chait married former Italian military policeman Francesco Moracci in New Jersey and then on September 13, 2008 they had the second wedding in Florence, Italy. The two met at the 2006 Olympic Games in Torino, Italy, where Moracci was a member of the security detail assigned to protect the Israeli team. They have two daughters, Raffaella, born in 2009, and Gabriella, born in 2011. * Antonio Squarcialupi, Florentine (Florence) organist and composer to Lorenzo de Medici * The Squarcialupi codex, the richest source of Italian 14th century music, owned by Antonio Squarcialupi Career In July 1576 Wade was living in Paris and frequently supplied political information to William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, whose "servant" he is described as being. ''Lansd. MS. 23'', art. 75 He claimed "familiar acquaintance" with the celebrated French publicist Jean Bodin, from whom he seems to have derived some of the news he forwarded to Burghley. In the autumn of 1576 Amias Paulet took Wade to Blois. ''Cal. State Papers'', For. 1575-7 During the winter of 1578–79 he was in Italy, from where he forwarded to Burghley reports on its political condition. From Venice in April 1579 he sent Burghley fifty of the rarest kinds of seeds in Italy. ''Cal. Hatfield MSS.'' ii. 254 In May he was in Florence, and in February 1579 80 he was living in Strasbourg. In the following April he was employed on a delicate mission in Paris by Sir Henry Cobham. Early years Born in Berlin, and named Gerhard, he was the only child of a well-to-do Jewish couple, Hildegard and Ludwig Hoffnung. He was sent to England, where he attended Bunce Court School in 1938. Lesley Bellew, "Anna's children", ''Kent Messenger'' newspapers, ''Blitz Spirit'', special souvenir supplement (February 4, 2011), p. 11 In 1939, his parents left Germany, initially for Florence and then for London, and Hoffnung then attended Highgate School, while his father went to what was then the British Mandate of Palestine to enter the family's banking business. This temporary separation became permanent as a consequence of World War II. Biography Marseus van Schrieck spent the years 1648-1657 in Rome and Florence with the painters Matthias Withoos and Willem van Aelst, after which he settled in Amsterdam. He is best known for his paintings of forest flora (flora (plants)) and fauna (fauna (animals)). In Arnold Houbraken's biography of him, he mentions that he joined the Bentvueghels in Rome and was called the ''snuffelaer'', or "sniffer", because he was always sniffing strange lizards and snakes. He quotes his wife, who apparently survived him by two husbands and was still alive when he wrote the book. He wrote that she said that Otto kept snakes and lizards in a shed at the back of his house, and also on a piece of land outside the city that was walled in for this purpose. While Futurism staunchly rejected the past, other modern movements identified a nostalgia for the now faded Classical grandeur of Italy as a major influence in their art. Giorgio de Chirico first developed the style that he later called Metaphysical Painting while in Milan. It was in the more sedate surroundings of Florence, however, that he subsequently developed his emphasis on strange, eerie spaces, based upon the Italian piazza. Many of de Chirico's works from his Florence period evoke a sense of dislocation between past and present, between the individual subject and the space he or she inhabits. These works soon drew the attention of other artists such as Carlo Carrà and Giorgio Morandi. He conquered Lucca in 1314 with the help of his protege Castruccio Castracani. On 29 August 1315 he delivered the Guelfs of Florence and their associates from Naples their worst defeat since 1260 in the battle of Montecatini in the Val di Nievole. De Koninck was born and died in Amsterdam. Little is known of his history except that he was said to be a pupil of Rembrandt, whose influence is to be seen in much of his work. He painted chiefly broad, sunny landscapes, full of space, light and atmosphere; they are seen from a high perspective, allowing a prominent view of the sky. Portraits by him, somewhat in the manner of Rembrandt, also exist (e.g. see Joost van den Vondel); there are examples of these in the galleries at Copenhagen and Oslo. Of his landscapes, the principal are ''View at the mouth of a river'' at the Hague, with a slightly larger replica in the National Gallery, London; ''Woodland border and countryside'' (with figures by Adriaen van de Velde) at Amsterdam; and landscapes in Brussels, Florence (the Uffizi), Berlin and Cologne. Koninck, a prosperous businessman, appears to have painted few pictures during the last decade of his life. ** Demetrios (Demetrius Chalcondyles) (Athens, 1423 - Milan, 1511), scholar. *** Theophilos (Theophilos Chalkokondyles) (Florence, 1486–1510). Demetrios' son. He taught Greek Literature at the University of Pavia (see Pavia) when he was very young and he translated some works of Cicero. He was murdered by some of his rivals. ** Laonikos (Laonikos Chalkokondyles) (Athens, before 1430 - possibly Italy, 1490), historian. Return to Denmark and an artistic career Wiedewelt left Rome on 1 July 1758, when his financial support was running out, and after he had been ordered home to Denmark by the Academy. He traveled back in the company of friend, neoclassical painter Johan Edvard Mandelberg. They traveled over Caprarola, Siena, Florence, Pisa, Carrara, Lucca, Bologna, Padua, Venice, and Trieste where they studied the local art collections and churches, and on through the Tyrol (county of Tyrol) and Germany. They arrived back to Copenhagen on 6 October 1758. Italy *Calcio Fiorentino — a modern revival of Renaissance football from 16th century Florence. For supplementary information see Football in Italy Outside Europe His work in Vienna includes about twenty tombs of the Habsburg imperial family in the Imperial Crypt, especially his masterpiece, the elaborate double sarcophagus in Rococo style of Empress Maria Theresa (Maria Theresa of Austria) and her husband Emperor Franz I Stephan (Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor) on which Moll worked from 1751 to 1772. The life-size imperial pair lie on the tin lid, awakened from their sleep of death by the Trumps of Doom. The two look at each other while a putto behind them holds a garland of stars above them. The reliefs on the sides of the sarcophagus depict important scenes of their lives : the ceremonial entrance in Florence as archduke of Tuscany, his coronation in Frankfurt am Main, his coronation in Prague as King of Bohemia, and the coronation ceremony in Bratislava of Maria Theresia. Of the four corners of the sarcophagus, grieving statues show the crowns and blasons of their most important titles : Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, Bohemia and Jerusalem. thumb left 225px Sarcophagus of emperor Karl VI (detail with the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire (Image:KarlVI.02.jpg)) Return to Paris He traveled back to his home via Naples, Florence and Bologna, and arrived back in Valenciennes in the beginning of March 1749. The works he had sent home had received such positive attention that his hometown commissioned a full standing portrait of King Louis XV (Louis XV of France) from him. The marble statue was erected in 1752, and destroyed in 1792. A plaster bust of Louis XV was also made that same year. On July 1, 1758 he traveled back to Denmark in the company of Wiedelwelt. They traveled over Caprarola, Siena, Florence, Pisa, Carrara, Lucca, Bologna, Padua, Venice, and Trieste where they studied the local art collections and churches, and on through the Tyrol (county of Tyrol) and Germany. They arrived back to Copenhagen on October 6, 1758. right thumb ''Aurora Leigh's Dismissal of Romney ("The Tryst")'' by Arthur Hughes (artist) Arthur Hughes (Image:Arthur Hughes 002.jpg) '''''Aurora Leigh''''' (1856 (1856 in literature)) is an eponymous epic novel poem by Elizabeth Barrett Browning. The poem is written in blank verse and encompasses nine books (the woman's number, the number of the prophetic books of the Sibyl). It is a first person narration, from the point of view of Aurora; its other heroine, Marian Erle, is an abused self-taught child of itinerant parents. The poem is set in Florence, Malvern (Malvern, Worcestershire), London, and Paris. She uses her knowledge of Hebrew and Greek, while also playing off modern novels, such as ''Corinne ou l'Italie'' by Anne Louise Germaine de Staël and the novels by George Sand. Through Book 5, Aurora narrates her past, from her childhood to the age of about 27; in Books 6-9, the narrative has caught up with her, and she reports events in diary form. Elizabeth Barrett Browning styled the poem "a novel in verse", and referred to it as "the most mature of my works, and the one into which my highest convictions upon Life and Art have entered." Biography Born in Civitanova Marche, province of Macerata, he became tutor to the wealthy family of Lodovico Gaddi in Florence, and then secretary to Lodovico's brother Giovanni (Giovanni Gaddi (priest)). At Gaddi's death, he entered the service of the Farnese family, and became confidential secretary to Pier Luigi Farnese (Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma), duke of Parma, and to his sons, Duke Ottavio (Ottavio Farnese) and cardinals Ranuccio (Ranuccio Farnese (Cardinal)) and Alexander (Alessandro Farnese (cardinal)). birth_date Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


Ecuador

http: www.elpais.com articulo deportes 23 millones menor edad elpepidep 20060601elpepidep_1 Tes His performance was well received by the press, http: edant.clarin.com diario 2003 07 06 d-06215.htm http: old.ole.com.ar diario 2003 07 06 c-585306.htm http: www.lanacion.com.ar 509319-muy-frio-san-lorenzo-gano-un-clasico-pobre Despite his early debut, Agüero was not selected again by Ruggeri, and his replacement Osvaldo Sosa, for the remainder of 2002–03 season (2002–03 Argentine Primera División), having only made just one appearance in the Torneo Clausura (2002–03 in Argentine football). Following the arrival of coach Jose Omar Pastoriza, seven months after Agüero's first match he returned to the club's first-team in 4-2 win against Peru's (Peru) Cienciano during the group stages of the 2004 Copa Libertadores. This meant that Agüero also became the youngest player to participate in the Copa Libertadores, a record that he held for three years. http: www.cronica.com.mx nota.php?id_nota 341620 One month later, Agüero again featured in a Copa Libertadores fixture against Ecuador's (Ecuador) Club Deportivo El


Tokyo

the Forbes richest people in the world. He is the third son of Samsung Group founder Lee Byung-chull. History Originally formed in 1971 as an avant-garde music group by bassist Reck, saxophonist Chico Hige, and drummer Sakuro Watanabe in Tokyo, Japan. They changed the bands name to 3 3 in the mid 70s, and Reck and Chico later moved to the United States, where they would join the band Teenage Jesus and the Jerks, and later became the original founding members of James Chance and the Contortions before returning to Japan. http: pitchfork.com features interviews 5904-james-chance International Nordion has a European TheraSphere Customer Support Office in Belgium, and Asia Pacific Sales Offices in Hong Kong and Tokyo, Japan. - NTV (Nihon TV) Nihon TV 日本テレビ JOAX-DTV Tokyo, Kanagawa (Kanagawa Prefecture), Saitama (Saitama Prefecture), Chiba (Chiba Prefecture), Gunma (Gunma Prefecture), Ibaraki (Ibaraki Prefecture), and Tochigi (Tochigi Prefecture) - The ''' WikiPedia:Tokyo Dmoz:Regional Asia Japan Prefectures Tokyo Commons:Category:Tokyo


Berlin

Günzel joined Stone, by now the only original founding member in the band. The band worked as a trio on what would become their next album, recorded in Berlin and Gran Canaria, with Stone acting as producer this time under his real name. Shortly after, Tyronne Silva had to quit drumming for a longer period due to health reasons, and after some provisional drummers filling the spot, Tobi Fröhlich (previously in Limbic) joined the band in 2004. The Chicago (Chicago, Illinois)-based German architect '''Helmut Jahn''' is best known for his efficiently-designed office blocks in modernist (modernism) style. While many of these glass-and-steel buildings don't stand out, some of Jahn's most eye-catching projects—such as the Sony Center in Berlin, with its tent-like roof covering the central forum—border on post-modernism (Postmodern architecture). * 1932 (1932 in aviation) - 14-28 - the third International Tourist Aircraft Contest ''Challenge 1932'' in Berlin, won by the Polish crew Franciszek Zwirko and Stanislaw Wigura on the RWD-6 plane. Commons:Category:Berlin Wikipedia:Berlin Dmoz:Regional Europe Germany States Berlin


Poland

Haredi organization in America. Its roots go back to the establishment of the original founding of the Agudath Israel movement in 1912 in Katowitz, Prussia (now Katowice, Poland). The American Agudath Israel was founded in 1939. There is an Agudat Israel (Hasidic) in Israel, and also Degel HaTorah (non-Hasidic "Lithuanian (Lithuanian Jews)"), as well as an Agudath Israel of Europe. These groups are loosely affiliated through the World Agudath Israel, which from time to time holds a major gathering in Israel called a ''knessia''. Agudah unites many rabbinic leaders from the Hasidic Judaism wing with those of the non-Hasidic "yeshiva" world. It is generally non-nationalistic and ambivalent towards the modern State of Israel. Agudath Yisrael More on Agudath Yisrael *1465 – Wallachian voivode Radu cel Frumos, younger brother of Vlad Ţepeş, issues a writ from his residence in Bucharest *1582 – Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain. *1586 – Mary, Queen of Scots, goes on trial for conspiracy against Elizabeth I of England. *1492 – Christopher Columbus's expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean, specifically in The Bahamas. The explorer believes he has reached India *1582 – Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain. *1654 – The Delft Explosion (Delft Explosion#Delft_Explosion) devastates the city in the Netherlands, killing more than 100 people. *1550 – Foundation of Concepción (Concepción, Chile), city in Chile. *1582 – Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain. *1665 – The University of Kiel is founded. * 404 – Byzantine Empress Eudoxia (Aelia Eudoxia) has her seventh and last pregnancy who ends in a miscarriage. She is left bleeding and dies of an infection shortly after. *1582 – Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day is skipped in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain. *1600 – Jacopo Peri's ''Euridice (Euridice (opera))'', the earliest surviving opera, receives its première performance in Florence, signifying the beginning of the Baroque Period *1573 – End of the Spanish siege of Alkmaar, the first Dutch victory in Eighty Years War. *1582 – Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain. *1600 – San Marino adopts its written constitution. *1978 – Australia's Ken Warby sets the current world water speed record of 317.60mph at Blowering Dam, Australia. *1982 – Poland bans Solidarity (Solidarity (Polish trade union)) and all trade unions. *1990 – Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: In Jerusalem, Israeli police kill 17 Palestinian (Palestinian people)s and wound over 100 near the Dome of the Rock mosque on the Temple Mount. *1558 – Mérida (Mèrida (Mérida)) is founded in Venezuela. *1582 – Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain. *1595 – The Spanish army captures Cambrai. *1332 – Rinchinbal Khan, Emperor Ningzong of Yuan becomes the Khagan of the Mongols and Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, reigning for only 53 days. *1582 – Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain. *1710 – Port Royal (Port Royal, Nova Scotia), the capital of French Acadia, falls in a siege (Siege of Port Royal (1710)) by British forces. *1529 – The Siege of Vienna ends as the Austrians rout the invading Turks, turning the tide against almost a century of unchecked conquest throughout eastern and central Europe by the Ottoman Empire. *1582 – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15. *1764 – Edward Gibbon observes a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter (Temple of Jupiter (Capitoline Hill)) in Rome, which inspires him to begin work on ''The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire''. *1983 – Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada (b. 1944) *1984 – Jerzy Popiełuszko, Polish (Poland) priest, associated with the Solidarity (Solidarity (Polish trade union)) union, murdered by the agents of internal intelligence agency (b. 1947) *1985 – Alfred Rouleau, French Canadian businessman (b. 1915) '''Old Prussian''' (Prussian: ''Prūsiskan'' or ''Prūsiskai Bilā'') is an extinct Baltic (Baltic languages) language, once spoken by the Old Prussians the indigenous peoples of the Prussia (Prussia (region)) (not to be confused with the later and much larger German state (Prussia) of the same name), now north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia. The original territory also included eastern parts of Pomerelia (some parts of the region east of the Vistula River). It was also spoken much further east and south in what became Polesia and part of Podlasia with the conquests by Rus and Poles starting in the 10th century and by the German colonisation (Ostsiedlung) of the area which began in the 12th century. According to Gimbutas, the entire area has thousands of river names that can be traced back to an original Baltic language, even though they have undergone Slavicization. In addition to the German colonists, groups of people from Poland, ''A Short History of Austria-Hungary and Poland'' by H. Wickham Steed, et al. Historicaltextarchive.com "For a time, therefore, the Protestants had to be cautious in Poland proper, but they found a sure refuge in Prussia, where Lutheranism was already the established religion, and where the newly erected University of Königsberg became a seminary for Polish ministers and preachers." Ccel.org, Christianity in Poland "Albert of Brandenburg, Grand Master of the German Order in Prussia, called as preacher to Konigsberg Johann Briesaman (q.v.), Luther's follower (1525); and changed the territory of the order into a hereditary grand duchy under Polish protection. From these borderlands the movement penetrated Little Poland which was the nucleus for the extensive kingdom. ... In the mean time the movement proceeded likewise among the nobles of Great Poland; here the type was Lutheran, instead of Reformed, as in Little Poland. Before the Reformation the Hussite refugees had found asylum here; now the Bohemian and Moravian brethren, soon to be known as the Unity of the Brethren (q.v.), were expelled from their home countries and, on their way to Prussia (1547), about 400 settled in Posen (Poznań) under the protection of the Gorka, Leszynski, and Ostrorog families." Lithuania, France, WikiPedia:Poland Commons:Category:Poland Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland


Germany

) descend from a pietist (Pietism) movement in Schwarzenau (Bad Berleburg), Germany, in 1708, when Alexander Mack founded a fellowship with seven other believers. They are one of several Brethren groups that trace themselves to that original founding body. These emerged from the German Reformed and Lutheran Churches, and are historically known as German Baptists rather than English Baptists. Other names by which they are sometimes identified are '''Dunkers, Dunkards, Tunkers''', and '''Täufer''', all relating to their practice of baptism by immersion. They are part of the post-reformation Anabaptists (which include, among others, the Amish and Mennonites), who rejected baptism of infants as a biblically valid form of baptism. Because of persecution, many Brethren emigrated to America, with the greatest influx being between 1719 and 1729. Political uses of the concept The Albanian question in the Balkan peninsula is in part the consequence of the decisions made by Western Powers in late 19th and early 20th century. The Treaty of San Stefano and the 1878 Treaty of Berlin (Treaty of Berlin (1878)) assigned Albanian inhabited territories to other States, hence the reaction of the League of Prizren. Jelavich, p.361 One theory posits that the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Austro-Hungary wanted to maintain a brittle balance in Europe in the late 19th century. Commons:Category:Germany Wikipedia:Germany Dmoz:Regional Europe Germany


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