,is the metropolitan area associated with the city of Dammam and its suburbs. It is the area that is closely linked to the city through social, economic, and cultural ties. The Dammam metropolitan area: mainly known as greater Dammam, is the largest metropolitan area in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia formed by three main neighboring cities: Dammam, Dhahran, and Khobar. As a major metropolitan area, it is known for its fishing and pearl diving heritage, oil industry, arts, entertainment, popular music
militants attack two oil industry installations and a foreign workers' housing complex in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, killing at least 11 people and taking some 50 hostages. Saudi police attempt to storm the housing complex but withdraw after taking casualties. A previously unknown militant group styling itself "The Jerusalem Squadron" claims responsibility and says they are attacking "zionists and crusaders" who are there to "steal our oil and resources". (CNN) (BBC) * U.S. District Judge Nancy Gertner (in Massachusetts) rules that stating that someone is homosexual does not constitute libel or slander. (AP) * Pakistan test-fires a ballistic missile capable of carrying a nuclear (nuclear weapon) warhead, but claims it will not increase tensions with India. (PakistanLink) * Saudi (Saudi Arabia) commandos storm the Khobar housing compound where Islamic militants (Islamic terrorism) were holding several dozen hostages, ending with 22 dead. (BBC) * Thousands of Pakistani Sunni Muslims riot in Karachi, ransacking property, setting fire to four banks, and stoning vehicles after Mufti Nizamuddin Shamzai, an influential pro-Taliban cleric, is killed in a drive-by shooting. (NYT) (BBC) caption The Oasis Compound, 6 days later (bullet holes still visible). location Khobar, Saudi Arabia date May 29–30, 2004 Located in Dhahran, the campus is between the headquarters of the Saudi Arabian oil company, Saudi Aramco and the Dhahran Air Base (Dhahran International Airport). It is near the coast of the Persian Gulf and is 7 kilometers from Khobar city. The port city of Dammam is 20 kilometres away. The oil-producing town of Abqaiq is 70 kilometres west, and the oasis city of Al-Hasa is about 130 kilometers south of the campus. The Kingdom of Bahrain is 35 kilometres from the Saudi coastline accessed via King Fahd Causeway. The center is at the corniche of nearby Khobar city on 21,700 m 2 . The buildings area is 14,100 m 2 . It consists of seven main show halls, dealing with different sciences and technologies. There are more than 350 scientific exhibited pieces and the IMAX scientific dome (the only IMAX theater in Saudi Arabia), http: www.scitech.com.sa ?PUrl Pages&Page Dome the Astronomic Observatory, Educational Unit, Conference Hall, Temporary Exhibitions Hall and Administrative and Services Facilities. The center aims to cultivate the individuals of the Saudi society, especially teenagers, to let them know more about the principles of science, their application, and explanation; it simplifes them by presenting them in an interactive and interesting style, depending on education through entertainment education through experiment and observation. Al-Hilal stores Al-Hilal has a chain of luxury retail stores that sell the club's products. The first branch opened in February 2011 on the most expensive commercial street in Riyadh at a cost of SAR (Saudi riyal) 15 million (USD 4 million). It is the first store from any Saudi club, and the biggest club store in the Middle East. In the first week of opening, sales surpassed SAR 1 million (USD 266,000). Mobily plans to cover the kingdom's main cities with seven branches by the end of 2012. Khobar's branch is under development and expected to be opened in late August 2011 while Jeddah's branch is scheduled to open in September 2011. The stores offer thousands of high quality products including clothes, accessories, children toys and many other products. Menu thumb right 250px Chili's in Khobar (Image:Chiliskhobar.jpg), Saudi Arabia thumb right 250px Chili's in Lisbon (File:Restaurante Chili's de Telheiras.jpg), Portugal Boutiques Montblanc boutiques are found in Brisbane, Birmingham (Bullring), Venezia, Johannesburg, Hamburg, Guadalajara, Melbourne, Sao Paulo, Bogotá, London, Moscow, Caracas, Madrid, Cancun, Toronto, Montreal (Laval), Dubai, Santiago (Santiago, Chile), Alexandria, Sydney, Buenos Aires, Berlin, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Casablanca, Brasilia, Lima, Curitiba, Rio de Janeiro, Durban, Quito, Medellín, Rome, Panama City, Cairo, Riyadh, Jeddah, Khobar, Manama, Kuwait City, Beirut, Auckland, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Cologne, Paris, Marseille, Nice, Cannes, Lyon, Sevilla, Copenhagen, Manchester, Warsaw, Mexico City, Abu Dhabi, Hyderabad (Hyderabad, India), Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Pune, Ludhiana, New Delhi, Chandigarh, Ahmedabad, Boston, Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles, Dallas, Costa Mesa, San Jose (San Jose, California), San Diego, Tampa, Orlando, Miami, Washington DC, Baltimore, Atlanta, and San Antonio. *InterContinental Al Jubail, Jubail, Saudi Arabia *InterContinental Al Khobar, Khobar, Saudi Arabia *InterContinental Amman, Amman, Jordan The first four scientific colleges wee: The College of Agricultural and Food Sciences and the College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry at the main campus in Al-Hasa; and the College of Architecture and Planning and the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences in Dammam. In later years, with the intent to meet the future needs of the Kingdom, with the issuance of Royal decree No. 7 b 11155, and with the consent of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques and the Chairman of the Board of Higher Education, the College of Education was founded in 1981, and the Faculty of Administrative Sciences and Planning in 1984. The teaching hospital, the King Fahd University Hospital, is in Khobar, although a newer hospital is currently under construction near the main campus of the university. 2004 Khobar massacre
for their children and other amenities. Before long, Dhahran, the corporate headquarters of Saudi Aramco, the largest oil company in the world, was spilling out into the desert in all directions. thumb upright left Dammam Highway (File:Dammam Highway.jpg) The growth of the oil industry in the region had a similar impact on the small fishing village of Dammam and the hamlet of Al-Khobar. Within two decades of the discovery of oil, the mudbrick huts of the fisherman that crowded the shore and which constituted the only permanent dwellings in the area had given way to concrete buildings, modern housing, highways and landscaped streets. Located to the east of Dhahran on the Persian Gulf coast, Al-Khobar briefly became the shipping point for Saudi Arabian crude oil to the refinery in Bahrain. In the years leading up to World War II, Saudi Arabian oil production was very limited, and since the company had no refinery of its own, most of the oil was sent by small tankers to Bahrain. With the construction of a pipeline to Bahrain and the subsequent expansion of the oil industry in the post-war years, the focus of the shipping and oil industries shifted away from Al-Khobar northward to Dammam and Ras Tanura, one of the largest oil storage and shipping centers in the world, located 25 km to the north of Dammam. As a result, Al-Khobar gradually found a new role as the commercial center for the entire region. In the early 1980s Dammam, the capital of the Eastern Region, was a separate city but so close to Al Khobar and Dhahran that the traveler could pass from one to the other in a few minutes. The discovery of oil in Dhahran and nearby fields and the growing importance of the entire region affected Dammam more than any other city in Saudi Arabia. Within three decades, the sleepy little fishing village had become the capital of the Eastern Province. The simultaneous growth of Dammam, Dhahran and Al-Khobar brought the three jurisdictions into physical contact, the three towns inevitably merged into one, creating a single municipality known as the Dammam Metropolitan Area, referred to simply as the Dammam Area. Each of the three towns which compose the Dammam Area retain their own character and some local administrative functions but, in terms of its place in the Kingdom, the Dammam Area forms a single administrative entity. The growth of the Saudi Arabian oil industry into the largest in the world brought about the rapid development of the region. As oil production increased, so did the number of people required to run the industry. The growing population needed more housing and services. First-rate hospitals and schools provided further incentives for people considering a move to the area. Service industries sprouted up to support the oil industry and meet the needs of people living in the Dammam Area. As a result, a region which had several hundred inhabitants some sixty years ago now boasts a population of well over 1.5 million, growing at a pace of over five percent a year. The key to the success of the Dammam Area is that unlike oil towns in other parts of the world, it has developed in all spheres. It is now a modern urban and industrial center which happens to be the headquarters of the Saudi Arabian oil industry. As this sector was growing in the early years, the Saudi Arabian government took steps to facilitate the evolution of the Dammam Area. New roads and highways connected the area to other urban and industrial centers in the Kingdom. A railway line connected Dammam to the agricultural center of Al-Kharj and on to Riyadh. Dhahran International Airport was established between Dhahran and Al-Khobar to connect the region to other parts of the Kingdom and the world. thumb Dammam and Khobar (File:Dammam and Khobar.jpg) To encourage the growth of non-oil industries, an industrial city was established in the open space between the three cities. Now home to more than 124 factories, the industrial complex is completely engulfed by an urban mass. As a result, a second industrial city was established further away from the Dammam Area along the highway to Riyadh. Located on nearly Dmoz:Regional Middle_East Saudi_Arabia Localities Dammam Commons:Dammam
, during the Khmelnytsky Uprising, the Cossacks stormed the city and its cathedral. Most of the local Poles, as well as the Greek Catholics and the Jews, were murdered at the time, while some managed to survive in the Bell tower not taken in the raid. The 1772 partition of Poland (Partitions of Poland) gave the city to Austria (Austria-Hungary). As the significant oil (Petroleum) resources were discovered in the area, the city became an important center of the oil (oil industry) and natural gas industries. Following World War I, the area became part of a short-lived independent state, the West Ukrainian People's Republic(''Zakhidnoukrayins’ka Narodna Respublyka''; ZUNR). In 1919, the ZUNR was taken over by the Second Polish Republic and Drohobych became part of the Lwow Voivodeship. In 1928 the Ukrainian private gymnasium opened in the center of the city and is currently operational. In late 1920s town's population was some 40 000 and its oil refinery Polmin was one of the biggest in Europe, employing 800 people. Numerous visitors came there to see beautiful wooden Greek Catholic churches, among them the Church of St. Yur, which was regarded the most beautiful such construction in the Second Polish Republic, with frescoes from 1691. Drohobych was also a major sports center (see: Junak Drohobycz). In September, 1939, the city was attached to Soviet Ukraine when the territory of the interwar Poland (Second Polish Republic) was divided between the Nazi Germany and the USSR. In Soviet Ukraine Drohobych became a center of the Drohobych Oblast (province (Oblast)). Its local Polish boyscouts created the White Couriers organization, which in late 1939 and early 1940 smuggled hundreds of people from Soviet Union to Hungary, across the Soviet-Hungarian border in the Carpathians. In early July, 1941, during the first weeks of the Nazi invasion of the USSR (Operation Barbarossa), the city was occupied by the Nazi Germany. As Drohobych had a significant Jewish population, the city became the site of a large ghetto (Drohobych ghetto) which the Nazis liquidated in June 1943. The Nazi Crimes in the territory of the USSR On August 6, 1944, the Nazi German occupation of Drohobych ended, however, it was immediately reoccupied by the Soviets. Following the war, the city remained an oblast center until the Drohobych Oblast was incorporated into the Lviv Oblast in 1959. In Soviet times, Drohobych became an important industrial center in Western Ukraine with highly developed oil-refining industry, machine building, woodworking industry, light industry, and food industry. thumb Town Hall (File:Drogobych.jpg) thumb Sixteenth-century Church of the Holy Cross, Drohobych (File:Україна Львівщина мiсто Дрогобич, Церква Чесного Хреста XVI ст. (4).jpg) thumb Basilian monastery of Saints Peter & Paul (File:Drohobych2.JPG) Demographics thumb 225px Drohobych Bell Tower (File:Дрогобыч. Колокольня костела Св. Варфоломея..jpg) thumb 225px St. George's Church, Drohobych (File:DrohobychCer3.JPG) (ca. 1500). The population of Drohobych throughout the years was: * 1931 — 32,300 inhabitants * 1959 — 42,000 inhabitants * 1978 — 65 998 inhabitants * 1989 — 77 571 inhabitants * 2001 — 79,119 inhabitants * 2010 — 78 368 inhabitants In the middle of eighteenth century, the town had a population of 2,200 (58,8%) Jews, 1,274 (34%) Roman Catholics, and 263 (7%) Greek Catholics. J. Motylkiewicz. "Ethnic Communities in the Towns of the Polish-Ukrainian Borderland in the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, and Eighteenth Centuries". C. M. Hann, P. R. Magocsi ed. ''Galicia: A Multicultured Land''. University of Toronto Press. 2005. p. 37. In 1869, of the town's 16,880 inhabitants 28.7% were Ukrainian, 23.2% were Polish or Roman Catholic, and 47.7% were Jewish; in 1939, when the population was 34,600, the respective figures were 26.3%, 33.2%, and 39.9%. By 1959 Ukrainians constituted 70% of the town's population, Russians 22%, Poles 3%, and Jews 2%. In 1931, the total population of the Drohobych district was 194,456, distributed among different languages: Genealogy of Halychyna Eastern Galicia * Polish: 91,935 (47.3%) * Ukrainian: 79,214 (40.7%) * Yiddish: 20,484 (10.5%) In January 2007, the total population of the metropolitan area was over 103,000 inhabitants. Economy Industries currently based in the city include oil-refineries (refinery), chemicals (chemical industry), machinery, metallurgy, and food processing. Sights * St. George's Church, Drohobych (ca. 1500) * Ascension Church, Drohobych (late 15th century) * Holy Cross Church, Drohobych (early 16th century) * City Hall, Drohobych (1920s) * Synagogue, Drohobych (1842–1865) * St. Peter's and Paul's Monastery, Drohobych * Drohobych Museum Notable people from Drohobych thumb 225px Yuriy Drohobych (File:Дрогобыч. Памятник Юрию Дрогобычу..jpg) Monument Politics * Hryhoriy Kossak, Ukrainian military leader (born here) * Zenon Kossak, Ukrainian military and political leader (born here) * Andriy Melnyk, Ukrainian military and political leader (born near Drohobych) * David Horowitz (economist), Israeli economist and the first Governor of the Bank of Israel. The Arts * Ivan Franko, Ukrainian poet and writer, born in Nahuievychi, near Drohobych * Leopold Gottlieb, Jewish-Polish painter * Maurycy Gottlieb, Jewish-Polish painter * Ephraim Moses Lilien, Jewish-Zionist painter * Alfred Schreyer, Jewish-Polish vocalist and violinist * Bruno Schulz, Polish-Jewish writer, graphic artist and literary critic * Kazimierz Wierzyński, Polish poet and writer Other fields * Yuriy Drohobych, first doctor of medicine in Ukraine, 1481–1482 rector of the University of Bologna * Yaroslav Popovych, cyclist (born here) International relations Rabbi '''Yekusiel Yehuda Teitelbaum''' (1808–1883), known as the ''Yetev Lev'', was a Hasidic (Hasidic Judaism) ''Rebbe'' in Austria-Hungary. He was the son of Rabbi Eliezer Nison Teitelbaum, rabbi of Drubitsh (Drohobych), who was the son of the ''Yismach Moshe'' (Rabbi Moshe Teitelbaum; famous Orthodox (Orthodox Judaism) rabbis are sometimes known by the titles of their religious works) of Ujhel (Sátoraljaújhely), Hungary. He was to become the grandfather of Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum, the rebbe of Satmar (Satmar (Hasidic dynasty)) who migrated to the United States after the Holocaust. Born near Drohobych, Galicia (Galicia (Central Europe)) into a peasant family. Between 1912 and 1914 he studied at the Higher School of Agriculture in Vienna. With the outbreak of the First World War, Melnyk served as an officer in the Austro-Hungarian army as a volunteer with the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen where he commanded a company. Due to his kind demeanor, he was referred to affectionately as "Lord Melnyk" by fellow Ukrainian and Austrian officers, who felt that he embodied the English concept of a gentleman which at that time had been an ideal in Central Europe. John Armstrong (1963). ''Ukrainian Nationalism''. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 36-39 Melnyk was taken prisoner by the Russians (Imperial Russia) in 1916. In captivity, Melnyk became a close associate of Yevhen Konovalets and joined the Ukrainian independence movement. The ''Pachad Yitzchok's'' youngest son, Rabbi Mordechai Shlomo (Mordechai Shlomo Friedman), remained in Vienna with his mother until the latter's death in 1922. Friedman, ''The Golden Dynasty'', p. 111. At that point he considered an offer to head the Hasidic community of Drohobych in Western Ukraine, and another offer to lead an organized ''chaburah'' (group) of Boyaner Hasidim on the Lower East Side of New York City. Brayer, ''The House of Rizhin'', p. 442. He embarked on an 11-month pilot trip to America in December 1925, and then spent another year weighing the pros and cons of moving to America before acceding to the request of the Boyaner Hasidim of New York to establish his court with them. He and his family arrived in New York in November 1927. Brayer, ''The House of Rizhin'', p. 443. There is a growing trend among some Israelis to visit Ukraine on a "roots trip" to follow the footsteps of Jewish life there. ''A mile in their shoes, By Moshe Gilad, RISU'' Among the place of interest are usually mentioned Kiev, where it is possible to trace the paths of Sholem Aleichem and Golda Meir; Zhytomyr and Korostyshiv, where one can follow the steps of Haim Nahman Bialik; Berdychiv, where one can trace the life of Mendele Mocher Sforim; Rivne, where one can follow the course of Amos Oz; Buchach - the path of S.Y. Agnon; Drohobych - the place of Maurycy Gottlieb and Bruno Schulz. - Drohobych Дрогобич (:uk:Дрогобич) Lviv Oblast align right O align right 79,119 - This site mentions three Josefbergs in Galicia. I havent got a detailed map to hand to check where they are in relation to Lviv. Presumably Josefsberg was a village in one of the three raions - Drohobych, Strochabiez or Stryi. Jameswilson (User:Jameswilson) 00:39, 22 March 2006 (UTC) '''Junak Drohobycz''' was a Polish (Poland) soccer team, located in Drohobycz (now Drohobych, Ukraine), on the historic territory of Kresy Wschodnie (Polish Eastern Borderlands). It was disbanded by the Soviet (Soviet Union) occupying authorities in the fall of 1939, following Soviet attack on Eastern Poland (Polish September Campaign). In early months of the war, members of Junak created the White Couriers, a boyscouting organization, which smuggled hundreds of persons from the area of Lwow to Hungary, across the Soviet-Hungarian border in the Carpathians. Oil industry According to the media, Privat Group owns significant shares in Ukrnafta and NPK Halychyna, controlling their business. Ukrnafta is the half-state-owned national oil company, dealing with extraction of petroleum and gas condensate (natural gas condensate), as well as retailing gasoline through its large gas station network. NPK Halychyna owns and operates an oil refinery in Drohobych, Lviv Oblast.
as official data includes non-native soldiers who died in Tyumen's hospitals). After the discovery of rich oil and gas (natural gas) fields in Tyumen Oblast in the 1960s, Tyumen became the focus of the Soviet oil industry. The activities of the oil industry caused a second economic and population boom in Tyumen. While most of the oil and gas fields were hundreds of kilometers to the north of the city, near the towns of Surgut and Nizhnevartovsk, Tyumen was the nearest railway junction as well as the oblast administrative center. These advantages made Tyumen the natural site for numerous oil related enterprises which contributed to the city's development between 1963 and 1985. These years saw the arrival in Tyumen of tens of thousands of skilled workers from across the Soviet Union. thumb Old Tyumen in summer 2008 (File:Tyumen Title Monastery.jpg) The rapid growth of the city also brought a host of problems, as the growing population quickly outstripped Tyumen's limited social infrastructure. As well, the lack of city planning has resulted in uneven development which Tyumen has continued to struggle with into the present. Administrative and municipal status Tyumen is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions (subdivisions of Russia#Administrative divisions), it also serves as the administrative center of Tyumensky District, even though it is not a part of it. Law #53 As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the '''City (City of federal subject significance) of Tyumen'''—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts (administrative divisions of Tyumen Oblast). As a municipal division (subdivisions of Russia#Municipal divisions), the City of Tyumen is incorporated as '''Tyumen Urban Okrug'''. Law #263 City divisions thumb Leninsky Okrug Administration building (File:Tyumen UpravaLeninskiyDistrict.JPG) Tyumen is divided into four administrative okrugs: *Kalininsky (Kalininsky Administrative Okrug) *Leninsky (Leninsky Administrative Okrug, Tyumen) *Tsentralny (Tsentralny Administrative Okrug, Tyumen) *Vostochny (Vostochny Administrative Okrug, Tyumen) Government City government thumb Tyumen Town Hall, July 2009 (File:Tyumen town hall July 2009.jpg) The legislative authority of Tyumen is the City Duma. In addition to legislative activities, the City Duma appoints the Head of the Tyumen City Administration, who is the chief executive officer of the city. Oblast government Since Tyumen is the administrative center of the oblast, all the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city. They include: *Elected Legislative Assembly (Duma) of Tyumen Oblast is the legislature of Tyumen Oblast. The Duma also confirms the appointment of the Governor of Tyumen Oblast, who is nominated by the President of Russia *Office of the Governor - Head of the executive authority of Tyumen Oblast *Government of Tyumen Oblast - Executive authority of Tyumen Oblast *Arbitration Tribunal of Tyumen Oblast - Judiciary Climate Tyumen has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification ''Dfb'') with warm, somewhat humid summers and long, cold winters. The weather in town is very changeable, and the temperature in town is always higher than in the surrounding area by a few degrees. The town area also attracts more precipitation. The average temperature in January is wikipedia:Tyumen
the Producer to the Neighbour) which was originally an idea of neighbours from the North Zone (mainly Caleta Córdova) of extarcting fresh seafood, processing it and introducing it into the community at a much lower price than big markets. This project had a very good acceptation in the city and its surroundings, and it is now helped and improved by the local Town Hall as a brand of Comodoro Rivadavia. Oil Industry The oil production started in Chubut in 1907, when a drilling rig which
was looking for water discovered oil instead. The Argentine oil industry started in Comodoro Rivadavia, and was facilitated by the 1886 National Mining Code (''Codigo de Mineria de la Nación (Mining in Argentina)''). This code established that the oil fields belonged to the State, and that they could also be exploited by the private sector by concession. In 1922 YPF (''Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales''), the first state-owned oil company in the world, was created by President Hipólito Yrigoyen's government. This company helped the society by improving the construction of houses, providing new jobs and health care. Engineer Enrique Mosconi was in charge of running the company. By 1933, 1,648 wells had been drilled in Comodoro Rivadavia; 88.9% of them were economically productive. left thumb The PCR petrochemical company, a leading local employer (File:Petro en km8.JPG) In 1935 the First Oil Law was passed. It established that the National and provincial States would receive as contribution the 12% of the Gross Product from all oil drilling, which is still in effect. In 1958, Law Number 14,773 was signed by President Arturo Frondizi, establishing that the Government had exclusive ownership over all oil fields. The most important oil fields discovered during the 60's were El Huemul and Piedra Clavada. At the beginning of the same decade twenty wells were drilled. Between 1977 and 1986, 100 million m³ oil were drilled from San Jorge gulf, in the meantime the oil reserves reached 40 million m³; in 1979 the San Jorge gulf production reached 10,124,022 m³ of oil. Until 2001, 5,300 wells were drilled, of which 3,000 were economically productive. As a result of the exploratory activities developed during the century, the remaining reserves reach 182.017 million m³ of oil. San Jorge gulf is the leader in oil extraction. 46,000 m³ per day are extracted in the zone, representing 46% of total crude oil production in the nation. Thanks to the oil sector, commercial activity was developed. A big number of foreign people, and from other provinces of Argentina, moved to the city to set up their shops. For this reason Comodoro Rivadavia is considered one of the cities with the highest rate of consumption. This has helped different businesses to develop. This progress is reflected in the downtown: there is a lot of commercial activity, different options in entertainment, restaurants and very busy four-star hotels. Geography of Comodoro Rivadavia thumb 500px Viteaux and Chenque Hills, the city's most distinctive geographic features (File:Antonio chenque.40.jpg) Comodoro Rivadavia is situated in the south of Argentina in the province of Chubut, on the coast of San Jorge Gulf. It was necessary to create a port in the area of San Jorge Gulf in order to have shorter routes for transporting products from and to the town of Sarmiento, situated 180 km away from the city of Comodoro Rivadavia. Information for Navigation '''Geographic location:''' Comodoro Rivadavia: Latitude 45° 51´ S; Longitude 67° 28´ W. Caleta Olivia: Latitude 45° 46´ S; Longitude 67° 22´ W. Caleta Córdova: Latitude 45° 43´ S; Longitude 67°31´ W. Time zone: GMT -3 '''Nautical information:''' Argentine map course: Part 2. Cartography S.H.N. Letters N ° 30.75 H314 and H310. Foundation and History of the Port thumb The Port Zone from Chenque Hill (File:Puerto desde el chenque.JPG) '''History of Comodoro Rivadavia Port''' Since 1908, the small and weak port Maciel received passengers and shipments that arrived at the city of Comodoro Rivadavia. It was built of wood and only could support small ships. Comodoro Rivadavia needed a port in order to transport and receive shipments especially to the north, because the sea was the only way to do that. The Engineer Enrique Ducos presented a project to gain land from the sea, between Coronel Restinga, situated 3 km away from the port, to the coast close to downtown, where shipsides would be built. In 1923, the construction of the port started and Engineer Ducos led the works, but he had to deal with a lot of troubles. The most important was the fact that the provincial government didn’t provide enough money to pay workers, so Ducos had to manage the construction with only one group of workers all the year long. In spite of having lots of obstacles, the dock was finished and it could finally be used for long passenger ships and battleships. This was very much celebrated by the people of Comodoro Rivadavia. A few years later, the port received around 100.000 people per year. They traveled to Bahía Blanca or Buenos Aires. On the other hand, the port allowed to transport near 200.000 tons of fruits and other kind of shipments. In 1926 the construction was stopped, but in 1928 it was resumed. The inhabitants of Comodoro Rivadavia held high hopes and saw the port as a necessary tool for the growth of the city. In 1934 Maciel Port was finally destroyed, but the construction of the new port had to deal again with lots of problems, because the national authorities did not send the necessary funds to support Ducos’s project. The role of the port in the tourism sector Besides being an attractive supply for the international trade and its privileged condition of head of Ocean to Ocean Corridor, it presents advantageous characteristics for the tourist activity. The Port of Comodoro Rivadavia is in excellent conditions to be inserted in the integrated circuits of worldwide cruises. The port facilities, activities and services are together with tourism essential benefits that contribute to promote a new marine awareness. Besides the port offers recreation and cultural activities. The reevaluation of the port has derived in an increase of tourist activities. Tourist guide offers, to the inhabitants and tourists, interpretative and explanatory information comprising different axes of information. '''Free trade zone''' The port project has been complemented with other productive possibilities. The free trade zone has been one of them. It is a special area, free of taxes, that has become an attractive location for productive projects which are focused on exportation. This subject has been discussed extensively by the local politicians since the last decade of 20th century. '''Diversified supplies''' The spectacular surroundings of the harbour, together with the geologic and morphologic characteristics of the area, extensive beaches and ample landscape, invite people to develop outdoor activities. Among these attractive activities we can mention: fishing, beach sports, landyachting, sailing, navigation with oar, surfing, speedboat racing and water-skiing. Tourism is gradually becoming a productive sector. In that respect, a planning of natural and cultural sustainable development of all resources has been elaborated. The port was inserted in that plan as patrimony of the region. Port Facilities Comodoro Rivadavia’s port is the most complete port of Patagonia. The transportation of regional commodities, is the most important activity connected with the ocean to ocean corrirdor. National Route 3 (National Route 3 (Argentina)) runs along the east coast and the National Road Number 26 connects the city with Chile, to the West. This becomes an important communication line connectig east and west, or the Atlantic with the Pacific Ocean and it is made mostly by paved roads. The ocean to ocean corridor is fundamental for commerce, tourism and passengers circulation. It joins, in less than 600 km and a few hours of traveling, Chacabuco Port in the Pacific Ocean with the Comodoro Rivadavia Port in the Atlantic Ocean. There is a border pass called “Hito 50” or Paso Huemules (480 meters above sea level) which can be used all year round because it is not affected by the winter snow, due to its lower position. This route has an enormous relevance because it links communities, integrates and projects two countries promoting the regional growth. The port has a shipyard in a privileged area. The shipyard has two parallel industrial facilities of 70 meters long and 4 meters wide. This allows the repair and building of ships in a roofed space without the weather affecting the activity. The shipyard has three travelling cranes of 8 tons each. Works made in the shipyard include the building of eolic mill towers and oil buoys. '''The port facilities include:''' • The principal Port situated near the downtown. Its extreme point called Punta Borja, was designed to receive ships up to 181 meters length and 10 meters depth. The port has a pier of 216 meters long, which was built to meet the demand of the transportation of commodities, deep-sea fishing and naval repairs. • Caleta Cordova's low tide pier is located in the north of Comodoro Rivadavia city, over the coast of Caleta Cordova’s neighborhood. This pier meets the demand of artisan fishing. • Repsol-YPF's pier, located in the south of General Mosconi neighbourhood, is used for unloading fuel. The total fuel unloaded is over 29,000 liters per month. • Caleta Olivares's facilities are used to load crude oil. It has four mooring buoys and one bell buoy. The depth of this area is 9 meters. • Caleta Cordova's facilities for loading crude oil include one charge buoy and four mooring buoys. These facilities located . *Chubut (Chubut Province) **Comodoro Rivadavia (General Enrique Mosconi International Airport) CRD '''(main hub)''' x8 **Puerto Madryn (El Tehuelche Airport) PMY x1 '''Gimnasia y Esgrima (Gimnasia y Esgrima de Comodoro Rivadavia)''' Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut (Chubut Province) Estadio Socios Fundadores '''Lanús (Club Atlético Lanús#Basketball)''' Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut (Chubut Province) Microestadio Antonio Rotili * Autódromo Parque Ciudad de Río Cuarto, Río Cuarto, Córdoba * Automóvil Club Comodorio Rivadavia, Comodoro Rivadavia, Patagonia * Autódromo Aldea Romana de Bahía Blanca, Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires Awarded a contract to build a 1,600 km (1,000 mi) gas pipeline from Comodoro Rivadavia to Buenos Aires in 1949 by President Juan Perón, Techint became a leading government contractor during Perón's ambitious infrastructure program. Establishing subsidiaries in Brazil (1947), Chile (1951), and Mexico (1954), the company opened its first seamless steel tube plant in Campana (Campana, Buenos Aires), in 1954; in 1969, Techint's Ensenada (Ensenada, Buenos Aires) plant became the only Argentine manufacturer of cold rolled steel. DATE OF BIRTH 1981-12-23 PLACE OF BIRTH Comodoro Rivadavia , Argentina DATE OF DEATH In the city of Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut (Chubut Province), there is a neighbourhood (General Mosconi neighbourhood) which was named after the engineer. Following the signing of the Communications Agreement, on 3 July 1971 the Argentine Air Force broke the islands' airways isolation by opening an air route with an amphibious flight from Comodoro Rivadavia with Grumman HU-16B Albatross (HU-16 Albatross) aircraft operated by LADE, Argentina's military airline. In 1972, after an Argentine request, the United Kingdom agreed to allow Argentina to construct a temporary air strip near Stanley. On 15 November 1972 a temporary runway was inaugurated with the first arrival of a Fokker F-27 with subsequent flights arriving twice weekly. Flights were improved in 1978 with Fokker F-28 jets following the completion of a permanent runway funded by the British Government. This service, representing the only connection by air to the islands, was maintained until the 1982 war. H.Cámara de Diputados de la Nación. Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. 25 August 2006 ''Grumman HU-16B Albatross''. Asociación Tripulantes de Transporte Aéreo. Argentine Air Force ''Fokker F-27 Troopship Friendship''. Asociación Tripulantes de Transporte Aéreo. Argentine Air Force. Argentina celebrates '''Immigrant's Day''' on September 4 since 1949, by a decree of the Executive Branch. The National Immigrant's Festival is celebrated in Oberá, Misiones (Misiones Province), during the first fortnight of September, since 1980. There are other celebrations of ethnic diversity throughout the country, such as the National Meeting and Festival of the Communities (Encuentro y Fiesta Nacional de Colectividades (Rosario, Argentina)) in Rosario (typically at the beginning of November). Many cities and towns in Argentina also feature monuments and memorials dedicated to immigration. There are also Immigrant's Festivals (or Collectivities Festivals) throughout the country, for example: Bariloche, Berisso, Esperanza (Esperanza, Santa Fe), Venado Tuerto, and Comodoro Rivadavia have their own Immigrant's festivals. These festivals tend to be local, and they are not advertised or promoted nationally like the festivals in Rosario and Oberá *8XXX Buenos Aires Province South, Río Negro, Neuquén (EG: B8000 Bahía Blanca, R8400 Bariloche, R8500 Viedma, Q8300 Neuquén). *9XXX Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego (EG: U9000 Comodoro Rivadavia, U9200 Esquel, V9410 Ushuaia, Z9400 Río Gallegos). In 1971, the Argentine Air Force broke the islands' isolation starting with amphibious flights from Comodoro Rivadavia with Grumman HU-16B Albatross (HU-16 Albatross) aircraft operated by LADE, Argentina's military airline. In 1973, the United Kingdom signed a Communications Agreement with Argentina to fund an airstrip on the islands. Flights took place again from Comodoro Rivadavia, this time with Fokker F-28 aircraft. This service was maintained until 1982 representing the only connection to the islands. At first, these flights landed at a temporary airstrip at Hookers Point at the east end of Port Stanley where the runway was constructed of Pierced Runway Planking (Marsden Matting). This situation continued until 1978, when a storm tore up large areas of the runway, rendering it unusable. By this time however a permanent solution was in hand and on 1 May 1979 a new airport was opened at Cape Pembroke by Vivian Fuchs Sir Vivian Fuchs with a 4000 foot paved runway. It immediately became home to FIGAS with its Islanders (Britten-Norman Islander) and Beavers (de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver). The Falkland Islands Government Air Service (FIGAS) operates internal flights within the Falkland Islands from the airport. The British Antarctic Survey also uses the airport. Stanley Airport is used by internal flights and provides connections to British bases in Antarctica. A temporary airstrip predating Stanley Airport was opened by the Argentine Air Force on November 15, 1972 (previously, international flights were by seaplane from Comodoro Rivadavia). In 2003 Argentine president Néstor Kirchner ended all flights from Argentina to the Falklands Islands and since then most flights to the Falklands come from Punta Arenas (Punta Arenas, Chile) in Chile. LAN Airlines provide these weekly flights to RAF Mount Pleasant from Carlos Ibanez Del Campo International Airport in Punta Arenas. History of discovery From 1985 onwards the ''Laboratorio de Paleovertebrados'' of the Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia "San Juan Bosco" (UNPSJB) organised excavations in the late Cenomanian (Cenomanian)-early Turonian (Turonian)-age Bajo Barreal Formation of the San Jorge Basin, northern Chubut (Chubut Province), Patagonia. At Buen Pasto near Comodoro Rivadavia a partial juvenile (juvenile (organism)) skeleton lacking the skull, was found. **Ushuaia - Ushuaia – Malvinas Argentinas International Airport (Via Puerto Montt-Punta Arenas) **Comodoro Rivadavia - General Enrique Mosconi International Airport (Via Balmaceda) **Neuquén - Presidente Perón International Airport (Via Temuco) * '''SAVB''' (EHL) – El Bolsón Airport – El Bolsón (El Bolsón, Río Negro), Río Negro Province * '''SAVC''' (CRD) – General Enrique Mosconi Airport – Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut Province * '''SAVD''' (EMX) – El Maitén Airport – El Maitén, Chubut Province Transport The 220 kilometers separating Calafate from El Chaltén on the other side of the Lake Argentino in the national park are paved, as well as the 315 kilometres to Río Gallegos. Other distances are: to Bariloche 1400 km ; to Esquel 1108 km (mostly dirt road); Comodoro Rivadavia 959 km; Puerto Madryn 1388 km; Buenos Aires 2727 km; Ushuaia 863 km and in Chile Puerto Natales 362 km and Punta Arenas 605 km.
) (6 March 1911, Sabunchu, near Baku, Russian Empire – 31 March 2008, Moscow) was a Soviet statesman, economist and Hero of Socialist Labor. He finished secondary school in 1928 and entered the Azerbaijan Oil and Chemistry Institute, from which he graduated in 1931 as a mining engineer. In 1935, he was drafted into the armed forces. After completing his military service, he was appointed chief of an oilfield production department in an industrial complex in the USSR. Later, he was promoted to chief engineer, then general director. He was in charge of evacuating oil industry facilities to the eastern regions in the Nazi invasion era. Then he was appointed as narkom of the oil Industry of the USSR in 1944 till 1946. Because of his success in the planning of the oil industry sector of the Soviet Union and experience in economics, he was appointed as the head of Gosplan (State Planning Committee) of the USSR twice (1955–1957, 1965–1985).
gifts from an offshore drilling contractor. "This deeply disturbing report is further evidence of the cozy relationship between MMS and the oil and gas industry," Salazar said. Regulators Accepted Gifts From Oil Industry, Report Says (Wall Street Journal, May 25, 2010) Investigative Report, Office
general for the Justice Department, to head up efforts to restructure BOEMRE. Bob Abbey, then director of the Bureau of Land Management, took over as Acting Director of BOEMRE until his replacement could be confirmed.oil-industry-watchdog-has-little-43108.html Interior's New Oil Industry Watchdog Has Little Energy Experience (New York Times, June 16, 2010) Amidst efforts to reorganize the beleaguered
, Kansas . During World War I, Landon served in the Army as a first lieutenant in chemical warfare. By 1929 the oil industry had made him a millionaire. After a brief stay in Independence, Kansas, Post returned to Springfield, where he remained for over a decade working as a salesman and manufacturer of agricultural machinery. During this interval Post invented and patented several farm implements, including a plow, a harrow (harrow (tool)), and a hay
, 2011.The opportunity in the rapidly expanding petroleum oil industry saw him become a lease broker and acquire an interest in the White Oil Company. In 1904, Sinclair married Elizabeth Farrell of Independence, Kansas. By the time he was thirty, he had become a millionaire. birth_date birth_place Independence, Kansas