composed of ancient Precambrian rock. This rock has been significantly affected by glaciation, which dominates much of the recent geologic history of the area. Popular culture Rainy Lake (Rainy River) plays a pivotal role in Tim O'Brien (Tim O'Brien (author))'s novel, ''The Things They Carried.'' Other novels set on Rainy Lake include * ''Wilder's Edge'' by Diane Bradley, published by North Star Press of St. Cloud, 2013. * ''Wilder's Foe'' by Diane Bradley, published by North
group. His time there is documented in his autobiography, ''An Island To Oneself''. Significant novels set on deserted islands include ''The Swiss Family Robinson'', ''The Coral Island'', ''The Mysterious Island'', ''Lord of the Flies'', ''The Cay (The Cay (novel))'' and ''The Beach (The Beach (novel))''. Maurice Channel '''Maurice Channel''' ( ) is a strait 1.5 nautical miles (2.8 km) wide between Bellingshausen and Cook
Monument of the Unknown Navy Soldier Two writers loom large over the modern literature of Alexandria: C.P. Cavafy, the Alexandria-born Greek poet, and the Indian-born Briton Lawrence Durrell, author of ''The Alexandria Quartet''. Cavafy incorporated Greek history and mythology and his homosexuality into his poetry. Durrell used the cosmopolitan city as a landscape to explore human desires. Of Arabic novels set in Alexandria, Naguib Mahfouz's '' Miramar (novel) Miramar
-alternate history (alternate history (fiction)) genre that could be dubbed "Alternative future"; whilst set in an alternate universe, they are still set in the future. In the first four novels, set in the 22nd century, the point of divergence is the Franco–Prussian War (Franco-Prussian War) of 1870, where Grimwood posits a reality where Napoléon III's France defeats Otto von Bismarck's Prussia, causing the German Empire never to form and the Second French Empire never to collapse. In the ''Arabesk'' trilogy (Arabesk trilogy), the point of divergence is in 1915, with Woodrow Wilson brokering an earlier peace so that World War I barely expanded outside of the Balkans; the books are set in a liberal (liberalism) Islamic Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) North Africa in the 21st century, mainly centring around El Iskandriya (Alexandria). By contrast, there is little in ''Stamping Butterflies'', ''9tail Fox'' or ''End of the World Blues'' to suggest that the books are not set in our reality; although the possibility of alternate futures in ''Stamping Butterflies'' suggests one must involve a time line not our own. ''The Fallen Blade'' is the first of three novels set in an alternative 15th Century Venice where Marco Polo's family have been hereditary dukes for five generations and the Mongol emperor Tamberlaine has conquered China, making him the most powerful ruler in the world. Locations * Library of Alexandria: Shepperton Studios, London, England * Pella Babylon Indian palaces and myths cave: Pinewood Studios, London, England style "text-align:center;" ~4 BC – ~33 AD In Wikipedia:Alexandria Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt Localities Alexandria commons:الإسكندرية
west-northwest of Anchorage (Anchorage, Alaska), and approximately 130 miles (210 km) southwest of Mount McKinley. They are accessed by small plane; the closest airports to the range are near Anchorage and in Talkeetna (Talkeetna, Alaska), which is also approximately 130 miles (210 km) away. This makes access to the range very expensive; the weather also creates the potential for delays in reaching the range (both to drop off climbers and to pick them up). *'''Daniel Schlereth''' (born in Anchorage, Alaska but would move to Highlands Ranch (Highlands Ranch, Colorado); alumnus of Highlands Ranch High School) – Relief pitcher for the Detroit Tigers Location They are located at the northeastern end of the Aleutian range, on the west side of Cook Inlet, roughly 120 miles (200 km) southwest of Anchorage (Anchorage, Alaska). The closest major towns to the range are Kenai (Kenai, Alaska) and Homer (Homer, Alaska), across Cook Inlet on the west side of the Kenai Peninsula. '''Mount Torbert''' is the highest point of the Tordrillo Mountains, a small, primarily volcanic range, northwest of Anchorage, Alaska. It is a heavily glaciated peak, and is not itself a volcano, although nearby Mount Spurr and Crater Peak are active volcanoes. *'''United States''' **Anchorage (Anchorage, Alaska) – Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport ''Secondary hub'' (cargo only) **Atlanta – Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (cargo only) Unfortunately, in the hours before the games were to start, eight cross-country skiers, a former gold medalist from Germany, and two Americans, were suspended for five days each after they failed blood tests. The tests say that they had elevated levels of hemoglobin, an enzyme within red blood cells that can increase endurance. However, the positives results could be due to the body's acclimation to mountain air, or dehydration. The American skiers are Kikkan Randall of Anchorage Alaska (w:Anchorage, Alaska), and Leif Zimmermann of Bozeman, Montana (w:Bozeman, Montana). Page, along with Briley Piper, 25, of Anchorage, Alaska (w:Anchorage, Alaska), pleaded guilty in 2001 for the March 13, 2000, killing. Both were sentenced to death. A third man, Darrell Hoadley, 26, of Lead, S.D. (w:Lead, South Dakota), also pleaded guilty and testified against Page and Piper. He was sentenced to life in prison (w:Life imprisonment).
of the coin commemorating the city's centennial in 1936. Other Bridgeporters who achieved fame far outside the city include: * '''Authors''': Ria Biley, author of ''Angel Country: Angelic Encounters: True Stories from Maine''; Maureen Howard, author of ''The Facts of Life'' and other novels set in the city. * '''Actors''': Robert Mitchum, Tony Musante, Brian Dennehy, Michael Jai White, Bob Crane, and John Ratzenberger, actor comedian Kevin Nealon and actor comedian Richard Belzer, who once worked as a reporter for The Connecticut Post (Connecticut Post). * '''Cartoonists''': Al Capp, who created ''Li'l Abner'', and Walt Kelly, who created ''Pogo (Pogo (comics))'', attended Bridgeport High Schools in the 1920s. * '''Entertainers''': P.T. Barnum, General Tom Thumb. * '''Industrialists''': George Gilman, founder of the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company, Harvey Hubbell, Edwin H. Land, Nathaniel Wheeler. * '''Military''': David Hawley, naval commander and privateer during the American Revolution; Henry A. Mucci, who led the raid that rescued survivors of the Bataan Death March in World War II; Michael Stacey, who is a native of the Black Rock Community and has been serving in the U.S Army since 1989, currently a master sergeant. * '''Model''': Keith Carlos, first male winner of America's Next Top Model 2014 * '''Musicians''': The Metropolitan Opera star Mimi Benzell, pianist Samuel Sanford and composer Jin Hi Kim. Before relocating to Fairfield, Grammy Award winner John Mayer grew up in Bridgeport. Antonio Pappano, Syesha Mercado, singer Jessica Delfino, and guitarist Vinnie Vincent and drummer J. Richard Neelans are all from Bridgeport. Fanny Crosby, composer of more than 8,000 Christian hymns, lived here for the last 15 years of her life, and is buried in the Mountain Grove Cemetery (Mountain Grove Cemetery, Bridgeport). * '''Politicians''': Jasper McLevy, first Socialist mayor of a city in New England. * '''Religious''': Fanny Crosby, known as the "Queen of Gospel Song Writers", lived in Bridgeport and is buried in the Mountain Grove Cemetery located on the West End of Bridgeport. Travelers from around the world visit this site each year. Neal Chase, a leader of a small Bahá'í sect, the Baha'is Under the Provisions of the Covenant was born here. Edward Egan, the former Roman Catholic bishop of Bridgeport, later became the cardinal archbishop of New York. * '''Sportsmen''': NFL player Mike L. Jones; NBA players Wesley Matthews, Charles Smith (Charles D. Smith), John Bagley (John Bagley (basketball)) and Chris Smith (Chris Smith (basketball, born 1970)); baseball players George "Kiddo" Davis (Kiddo Davis), Jim O'Rourke (Jim O'Rourke (baseball)) (first player to be credited with a hit in a professional baseball game), Rob Dibble, Charles Nagy, and Ed Wojna; lacrosse player Victor Ross. See also August 2, 2001 *National 23-18 American at The Ballpark at Harbor Yard, Bridgeport, Connecticut Mark Millon MVP.
;The Origins of EEG" ''International Society for the History of the Neurosciences'' (ISHN) and the discoverer of the alpha wave rhythm known as "Berger's wave". Grimwood's work tends to be of a quasi-alternate history (alternate history (fiction)) genre that could be dubbed "Alternative future"; whilst set in an alternate universe, they are still set in the future. In the first four novels, set in the 22nd century, the point of divergence is the Franco–Prussian War (Franco-Prussian War) of 1870, where Grimwood posits a reality where Napoléon III's France defeats Otto von Bismarck's Prussia, causing the German Empire never to form and the Second French Empire never to collapse. In the ''Arabesk'' trilogy (Arabesk trilogy), the point of divergence is in 1915, with Woodrow Wilson brokering an earlier peace so that World War I barely expanded outside of the Balkans; the books are set in a liberal (liberalism) Islamic Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) North Africa in the 21st century, mainly centring around El Iskandriya (Alexandria). By contrast, there is little in ''Stamping Butterflies'', ''9tail Fox'' or ''End of the World Blues'' to suggest that the books are not set in our reality; although the possibility of alternate futures in ''Stamping Butterflies'' suggests one must involve a time line not our own. ''The Fallen Blade'' is the first of three novels set in an alternative 15th Century Venice where Marco Polo's family have been hereditary dukes for five generations and the Mongol emperor Tamberlaine has conquered China, making him the most powerful ruler in the world. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS :'''George''': By Gum, this is interesting! I always loved history. The Battle of Hastings (w:Battle of Hastings), Henry VIII (w:Henry VIII of England) and his six knives (w:Wives of Henry VIII) and all that! :'''Blackadder''': You see, Baldrick, in order to prevent a war in Europe, two super blocs developed: us, the French and the Russians on one side (w:Allies of World War I); and the Germans and Austro-Hungary on the other (w:German Empire). The idea was to have two vast, opposing armies, each acting as the other's deterrent (w:Causes of World War I#Arms Race). That way, there could never be a war. :'''Baldrick''': Except, well, this is sort of a war, isn't it? First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995.
, and their father Reg absconded shortly after his wife's death, meaning Del effectively became Rodney's surrogate father and the family patriarch. Despite the difference in their ages, the brothers share a constant bond throughout. Writing She has written novels set in several different historical periods, though primarily the Tudor period and the 16th century. Reading a number of novels
set in the 17th century led her to write the bestselling Lacey trilogy — ''Wideacre'', which is a story about the love of land and incest, ''The Favoured Child'' and ''Meridon''. This was followed by ''The Wise Woman''. ''A Respectable Trade'', a novel of slave trade in England, set in 18th-century Bristol, was adapted by Gregory for a four-part drama series for BBC television. Gregory's script was nominated for a BAFTA, won an award from the Committee for Racial Equality, and the film was shown worldwide. Personal life Williams is one of a number of successful people in the entertainment industry to have come from Northern Secondary School in Toronto. Currently, Williams lives in Bristol with his fourth wife (Imogen Sutton) and two children (Leif and Natasha). Williams also has four children from two of his three previous marriages, including animator Alexander Williams (Alexander Williams (cartoonist)) and painter Holly Williams-Brock. The '''Kennet''' is a river in the south of England, and a tributary of the River Thames. The lower reaches of the river are navigable to river craft and are known as the '''Kennet Navigation''', which, together with the Avon Navigation, the Kennet and Avon Canal and the Thames, links the cities of Bristol and London. The former local government district of Kennet (Kennet (district)) in Wiltshire was named after it. Aviation Traders thumb right 250px Aer Lingus (Image:carvair.arp.750pix.jpg) Carvair (Aviation Traders Carvair) loading a car at Bristol Airport, Bristol, England, in 1965 Freddie Laker founded Aviation Traders in October 1947. It was based at Southend Airport (London Southend Airport), Essex, England and specialised in converting numerous war-surplus bombers and transporters into freighters. This included the conversion of Handley Page Halifax bombers into freighters, six of which were sold to Bond Air Services, an early post-war British independent independent from government-owned corporations airline. Bond Air Services based these planes at Wunstorf aerodrome in West Germany to carry essential supplies into West Berlin during the Berlin Blockade of 1948-49. Bond Air Services furthermore contracted Aviation Traders to service these planes. In return, Aviation Traders got half of Bond Air Services' freight charges. '', I'm Freddie!'', Eglin, R. and Ritchie, B., Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1980, p. 16 Following the end of the Berlin Airlift (Berlin Blockade) in 1949, Laker had most of the Halifaxes he had supplied to various independent airlines during the Airlift scrapped at its Southend (London Southend Airport) facilities. He also made use of these facilities for the subsequent conversion of several DC-4 C-54 Skymaster airframes into Carvair (Aviation Traders Carvair)s for various operators around the world. Bristol developed as a major port in the medieval period, straddling both sides of the River Avon (River Avon, Bristol) which formed the ancient boundary between Gloucestershire and Somerset. In 1373 Edward III (Edward III of England) decreed …that the said town of Bristol with its suburbs and their precinct, as the boundaries now exist, henceforward shall be separated and exempt in every way from the said counties of Gloucester and Somerset, on land and by water; that it shall be a county in itself and be called the county of Bristol for ever… Text of Bristol Royal Charter of 1373 Similar arrangements were later applied to Norwich (1404), Southampton (1447), Canterbury (1471), Gloucester (1483), Exeter (1537), and Poole (1571). The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, p.86 These counties became known as counties corporate. In 1280, a bridge was erected across the river to replace a ferry in what was then the hamlet of South Ellington. Commons:Category:Bristol Dmoz:Regional Europe United Kingdom England Bristol Wikipedia:Bristol
Sherawat has been frequently featured in the media as a sex symbol.
in the Nile Delta , with a population of approximately 442,000 inhabitants (2001 statistics). Such stories subsequently remained an oddity, with the current trend for historical whodunnits only really beginning in the late 1970s with the success of Ellis Peters and her Brother Cadfael novels, set in medieval Shrewsbury. Umberto Eco's ''The Name of the Rose'' (1980) was a one-off that helped popularise the concept. Although authors such as Anne Perry wrote in the genre
during the next decade, it wasn't until about 1990 that the genre's popularity saw a fairly quick ascent with works such as Lindsey Davis's Falco (Marcus Didius Falco) novels, set in the Roman Empire of Vespasian; Elizabeth Peters's Amelia Peabody (Amelia Peabody series) novels, in which the main character is not only a Victorian lady but an early feminist and an archaeologist working in early 20th century Egypt; Steven Saylor's "Roma Sub Rosa" novels, set in the Roman Republic at the time of Julius Caesar; John Maddox Roberts's SPQR series set during the Roman Republic; and P. C. Doherty's various series, including ''The Sorrowful Mysteries of Brother Athelstan'', ''the Hugh Corbett'' medieval mysteries, partly indebted to the hardboiled tradition, and ''the Canterbury Tales of Mystery and Murder''. Parsons adhered to the religion of Thelema, which had been founded in 1904 by the English occultist Aleister Crowley following a spiritual revelation that he had in the city of Cairo, Egypt, when - according to Crowley's own accounts - a spirit being known as Aiwass dictated to him a prophetic text known as ''The Book of the Law''. Beta 2008 (#Bet08). p. x-xi. With the demise of apartheid, beginning in 1990, SAA was able to shake off its pariah image, restoring services to former destinations, introducing services to new ones and expanding into the rest of Africa, and into Asia. Pirie, G.H., Southern African air transport after apartheid. ''Journal of Modern African Studies'', 30 (1992), 341–348. Pirie, G.H. ‘Africanisation’ of South Africa’s international air links, 1994–2003. ''Journal of Transport Geography'', 14 (2006), 3–14 1 June 1990 was an important day for SAA, as South African companies signed a domestic air travel deregulation act. Later that year, SAA was chosen as the ''Best Airline to Africa'' by London magazine ''Executive Travel'' Commons:Category:Egypt WikiPedia:Egypt Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt
except for the black-and-white head; they include among others ''P. a. michalowskii'' of the Caucasus, ''P. a. phaeonotus'' of Iran, or the Himalayan Coal Tit Bangs (1932) ''P. a. aemodius'' of southwestern China. The House of Niccolò ''The House of Niccolò'' is a series of eight historical novels set in the late-fifteenth century European Renaissance. The protagonist of the series is Nicholas de Fleury (Niccolò, Nicholas van der Poele, or Claes), a talented boy of uncertain birth who rises to the heights of European merchant banking and international political intrigue. The series shares most of the locations in Dunnett's earlier series, the ''Lymond Chronicles'', but it extends much further geographically to take in the important urban centres of Bruges, Venice, Florence, Geneva, and the Hanseatic League; Burgundy (Burgundy (region)), Flanders, and Poland; Iceland; the Iberian Peninsula and Madeira; the Black Sea cities of Trebizond and Caffa; Persia; the Mediterranean islands of Cyprus and Rhodes; Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula (Sinai); and West Africa and the city of Timbuktu. :Similar to ''guttata'', but less reddish. Face buff. * ''Tyto alba erlangeri'' W.L.Sclater, 1921 – Crete and southern Aegean islands to Cyprus; Near (Near East) and Middle East including Arabian Peninsula coastlands, south to Sinai and east to SW Iran. Might include African populations assigned to ''alba''. :Similar to ''ernesti''; upperparts lighter and yellower. thumb left 280px ''Crux ansata'' in Codex Glazier (File:Codex Glazier 2.JPG) The ankh also appeared frequently in coins from ancient (History of Cyprus) Cyprus and Asia Minor (particularly the city of Mallus in Cilicia). The Cambridge Ancient History, ''Cambridge University Press''; AsiaMinorCoins.com In some cases, especially with the early coinage of King Euelthon of Salamis (Salamis, Cyprus), the letter ''ku'', from the Cypriot syllabary, appeared within the circle ankh, representing ''Ku(prion)'' (''Cypriots''). To this day, the ankh is also used to represent the planet Venus (the namesake of which, the goddess Venus or Aphrodite, was chiefly worshipped on the island) and the metal copper (the heavy mining of which gave Cyprus its name). Greek folk music is found all throughout Greece Cyprus and several regions of Turkey, as well as among communities in countries like the United States, Canada and Australia.The island of Cyprus and several regions of Turkey are home to long-standing communities of Greeks in Turkey (ethnic Greeks) with their own unique styles of music. Greek folk music is found all throughout Greece Cyprus and several regions of Turkey, as well as among communities in countries like the United States, Canada and Australia.The island of Cyprus and several regions of Turkey are home to long-standing communities of Greeks in Turkey (ethnic Greeks) with their own unique styles of music. Nando's will allow anyone to eat free for life if they can prove they have been to all the Nando's restaurants. Nando's has locations in Australia, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Botswana, Canada, Cyprus, Fiji, India, Ireland, Kenya, Places to Eat Nairobi - Nairobi Eating Out Kuwait, Lebanon, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia, New Zealand, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Singapore, South Africa, Swaziland, Turkey, UAE (United Arab Emirates), UK (United Kingdom), USA (United States), Zambia and Zimbabwe. '''Desdemona''' is a character in William Shakespeare's play ''Othello'' (c.1601 – 1604). Shakespeare's Desdemona is a Venetian (Venice, Italy) beauty who enrages and disappoints her father, a Venetian senator, when she elopes with Othello (Othello (character)), a man several years her senior. When her husband is deployed to Cyprus in the service of the Republic of Venice, Desdemona accompanies him. There, her husband is manipulated by his ensign (Ensign (rank)) Iago into believing she is an adulteress (adultery), and, in the last act, she is murdered by her estranged spouse. Other popular and interesting bands are Ekhymosis, a group lead by Juanes, who began making music in 1988 and are known for doing Rock with a Colombian influence, The Hall Effect (The Hall Effect (band)) who make English pop rock linked with britpop influences, Proper Strangers avant-garde rock, Divagash electronic soft-rock, La Pestilencia (:es:La Pestilencia) post-hardcore, Bajo Tierra, Palenke Soultribe (traditional Colombin roots music fused with electronic beats). But, possibly, the most successful "indie" band is Sidestepper, with its fusion of Colombian traditional music, electronic and African rhythms, who already appeared in Coachella Festival in 2006. Some musical groups in the death metal genre are Carnivore Diprosopus, Mindly Rotten, Suppuration, Ethereal and Amputated Genitals. Colombia is also the birthplace of the well known black metal band Inquisition (Inquisition (Colombian band)), now based in Seattle, Washington. Miguel Fernando Trapezaris, the bassist of Cyprus-based Epic Power Metal band Winter's Verge, is of Colombian descent. *''P. m. niethammeri'', described by von Jordans in 1970, is found on Crete. *''P. m. aphrodite'', described by Madarász (Gyula Madarász) in 1901, is found in southern Italy, southern Greece, Cyprus and the Aegean Islands. *''P. m. terrasanctae'' was described by Hartert (Ernst Hartert) in 1910. It is found in Lebanon, Israel, Jordan and Syria. Assassination In April 1192, the kingship was put to the vote. To Richard's consternation, the barons of the Kingdom of Jerusalem unanimously elected Conrad as King. Richard sold Guy the lordship of Cyprus (where he continued to use a king's title) to compensate him and deter him from returning to Poitou, where his family had long had a reputation for rebelliousness. Richard's nephew Henry II of Champagne brought the news of the election result to Tyre on 24 April, then returned to Acre. A '''naval battle''' is a battle fought using boats, ships or other waterborne vessels. Most naval battles have occurred at sea, but a few have taken place on lakes or rivers. The earliest recorded naval battle took place in 1210 BC near Cyprus. There have been few large significant battles since World War II, as navies have taken on more of a policing role, performing search-and-rescue operations, enforcing trade sanctions, and fighting piracy and smuggling. In popular culture StWC is mentioned in the fictional 2004 publication by Sue Townsend: ''Adrian Mole and the Weapons of Mass Destruction''. In the satirical story, the protagonist, Adrian Mole, writes to Tony Blair in an attempt to retrieve his bond, after canceling a holiday to Cyprus due to the Blair Government's controversial 45 minute claim (September_Dossier#The 45 minute claim) from the 2002 September Dossier. Mole wrote to the Prime Minister after his travel adviser refused to return his bond, whom Mole suspected of attending a StWC march when phoning his office, rather than being "away from his desk". Adrian Mole and the Weapons of Mass Destruction Scribd.com, 2004. Retrieved: 2010-11-09. Success in the military sphere was accompanied by Tiberios’ attempt to strengthen the empire militarily by reorganizing its administration. Moore, ''Tiberius III'' Tiberius then turned his attention to the Island of Cyprus, which had been underpopulated since the reign of Justinian II. Bury, pg. 356 He sent a delegation to the Caliph at Damascus, asking for the return of many Cypriot prisoners who had been captured near the Propontis, and subsequently returned them to their place of birth. He strengthened the defence of the island at the same time by increasing the garrison numbers with troops from the Taurus Mountains. Bury, pg. 356 He also reorganized the Cibyrrhaeotic Theme Bury, pg. 356 and repaired the sea walls of Constantinople. Kazhdan, pg. 2084 In 746, profiting by the unstable conditions in the Umayyad Caliphate which was falling apart under Marwan II, Constantine invaded Syria and captured Germanikeia (modern Maraş, his father's birthplace). He organised the resettlement of a part the local Christian population into imperial territory in Thrace. In 747 his fleet destroyed the Arab fleet off Cyprus. In 752 Constantine led an invasion into the new Abbasid Caliphate under As-Saffah. Constantine captured Theodosioupolis and Melitene (Malatya), and again resettled some of the population in the Balkans. These campaigns failed to secure any concrete gains (apart from additional population employed to strengthen another frontier), but it is important to note that under Constantine V the Empire had gone on the offensive. International students come from China, India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Cyprus, Greece, Nigeria, the Irish Republic, Romania, Malaysia and Bulgaria. With its three colleges, 12 schools, nearly 20,000 students, and over 2,500 staff, Salford had a turnover of some £156m in 2006 07. During the Third Crusade, the Crusaders founded the Kingdom of Cyprus. Richard I of England (Richard the Lionheart) conquered Cyprus on his way to Holy Land. He subsequently sold the island to the Knights Templar who were unable to maintain their hold because of a lack of resources and a rapacious attitude towards the local population which led to a series of popular uprisings. The Templars promptly returned the island to Richard who resold it to the displaced King of Jerusalem Guy of Lusignan in 1192. Guy went on to found a dynasty that lasted until 1489, when the widow of King James III The Bastard, Queen Catherine Cornaro, a native of Venice, abdicated her throne in favour of the Republic of Venice, which annexed the island. Edbury P.W., The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades 1191 - 1374, Cambridge University Press (1991) For much of its history under the Lusignan Kings, Cyprus was a prosperous Medieval Kingdom, a commercial and trading hub of Western Christendom in the Middle East. Edbury P.W., The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades 1191 - 1374, Cambridge University Press (1991) The Kingdom's decline began when it became embroiled in the dispute between the Italian Merchant Republics of Genoa and Venice. Indeed the Kingdom's decline can be traced to a disastrous war with Genoa in 1373-74 which ended with the Genoese occupying the principal port City of Famagusta. Eventually with the help of Venice, the Kingdom recovered Famagusta but by then it was too late and in any event, the Venetians had their own designs on the island. Venetian rule over Cyprus lasted for just over 80 years until 1571, when the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Selim II Sarkhosh invaded and captured the entire island. The battle for Cyprus between Venice and the Ottoman Empire was immortalized by William Shakespeare in his play Othello, most of which is set in the port city of Famagusta on the eastern shores of the island. After the fall of Edessa (Siege of Edessa) in 1144, Antioch was attacked by Nur ad-Din (Nur ad-Din Zengi) during the Second Crusade. Much of the eastern part of the Principality was lost, and Raymond was killed at the battle of Inab in 1149. Baldwin III of Jerusalem was technically regent for Raymond's widow Constance until 1153 when she married Raynald of Châtillon. Raynald, too, immediately found himself in conflict with the Byzantines, this time in Cyprus; he made peace with Manuel I Comnenus, however, in 1158, and the next year Manuel arrived to take personal control of the Principality. Henceforth, the Principality of Antioch was to be a vassal of Byzantium until Manuel's death in 1180. Although this arrangement meant that the Principality had to provide a contingent for the Byzantine Army (troops from Antioch participated in an attack on the Seljuk Turks in 1176), it also safeguarded the City against Nur ad-Din (Nur ad-Din Zengi) at a time when it was in serious danger of being overrun. The '''Kingdom of Cyprus''' was a Crusader kingdom on the island of Cyprus in the high and late Middle Ages, between 1192 and 1489. It was ruled by the French House of Lusignan. Pretenders of the Kingdom of Cyprus thumb Plate of the House of Lusignan (File:LusignanPlateEarly14thCentury.JPG), with coat of arms at the center. Early 14th century, Cyprus. Louvre Museum. thumb Glazed ceramics, Cyprus, 14th century. (File:CyprusGlazedCeramic14thCentury.jpg) thumb Rural municipality (Image:Weight limit sign.JPG) weight limit sign on a Canadian dirt road. thumb right Speed camera sign used in Canada (Image:Traffic Camera.svg), Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Hong Kong, Iceland, Iran, Ireland, Latvia, Malta, Ukraine, United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates Directional signs have not been harmonised under the Convention, at least not on ordinary roads. As a result, there are substantial differences in directional signage throughout Europe. Differences apply in typeface, type of arrows and, most notably, colour scheme. The convention however specifies a difference between motorways and ordinary roads, and that motorways use white-on-green (e.g., Italy, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Slovenia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Republic of Macedonia, Albania) or white-on-blue (e.g., Norway, Germany, the Republic of Ireland, France, United Kingdom, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Latvia). Hungary switched from white-on-green to white-on-blue in the early 2000s during the reconstruction of existing and construction of new motorways. WikiPedia:Cyprus Dmoz:Regional Middle East Cyprus Commons:Category:Cyprus