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of Brega repulsed by the rebels . On 15 March, government forces retook Brega (Second Battle of Brega), during their initial counter-offensive as the disorganised rebel forces were crushed by the Loyalist's heavy weapons and air power.

, the frontline had stabilised between Brega and Ajdabiya, with rebel forces launching numerous attacks on the town (Third Battle of Brega), which all resulted in hasty retreats. Eventually after pushing the Loyalists back from Ajdabiya, the rebels once again launched an assault (Fourth Battle of Brega) on the strategic oil

the Libyan civil war, oil export and activities at the oil refinery have been brought to a standstill. By the end of February, throughput at the oil terminal had diminished from 90,000 barrels of crude oil daily to a mere 11,000. Many employees at the terminal had left, following rumours that the regime of Muammar Gaddafi was going to bomb the plant.


as a part of Mopti region, encompassing about 60 percent of Mali's total land area. Azawad borders Burkina Faso to the south, Mauritania to the west and northwest, Algeria to the north and northeast, and Niger to the east and southeast, with undisputed Mali to its

9 June 2012 On 26 May, the MNLA and its former co-belligerent Ansar Dine announced a pact in which they would merge to form an Islamist state under sharia law. Some later reports indicated the MNLA had decided to withdraw from the pact, distancing itself

2012 accessdate 28 July 2012 Following the collapse of the short-lived accord, the MNLA and Ansar Dine continued to clash, culminating in the Battle of Gao on 27 June, in which the Islamist groups Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa and Ansar Dine took control of the city, driving out the MNLA


between Bin Jawad and Sirte. By 30 March, Gaddafi loyalists had forced the rebels out of Bin Jawad and Ra's Lanuf and once again removed the immediate threat of an attack on Sirte.

at level of city’s destruction date 20 October 2011 accessdate 20 October 2011 Many streets and buildings also experienced flooding as water mains were destroyed, though it was unclear by which side.

this will happen. Head, J. (9 February 2012). ''PKFHSPKFHS news world-africa-16961376 Should Libya rebuild Gaddafi hometown of Sirte?'' BBC News. Accessed 17 February 2012 See also


Saudi police open fire on protesters , RTHK, 11 March 2011 news world-middle-east-12708401 Saudi Arabia police open fire at protest in Qatif, BBC News, 10 Mar 2011 Further protests in Qatif continued throughout 2011.

rock Bahraini capital date 17 February 2011 work Al Jazeera url http: news middleeast 2011 02 201121714223324820.html accessdate 17 February 2011 archiveurl http: 5wZPVZfFG archivedate 17 February 2011 deadurl no

last Connolly url http: news world-middle-east-12514849 title Bahrain unrest: Protesters reoccupy Pearl Roundabout work BBC date 20 February 2011 accessdate 20 February 2011

National Transitional Council

Gaddafi regime of Muammar Gaddafi. The '''NTC''' governed Libya for a period of ten months after the end of the war, holding elections (Libyan General National Congress election, 2012) to a General National Congress on 7 July 2012, and handing power to the newly elected assembly on 8 August. news world middle-east 2012 08 08 libya-transitional-rulers-hand-over-power uMPkXd9vTSSHg589mU9ykJ story.html Libya's transitional rulers hand over power

2011 author Burgess, Joe; Fahim, Kareem Anti-Gaddafi forces marched on Sirte (Gaddafi (Muammar Gaddafi)'s hometown) on 28 September 2011. Gaddafi loyalists (Armed forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya) delayed the attack with the use of their snipers. The fight for Sirte (Battle of Sirte (2011)) ended on 20 October with the capture of the town and the death of Colonel Gaddafi.

representative of all Libya". Mustafa Abdul Jalil was named as chairman of the council. On 10 March, France became the first country to recognise the council as Libya's only legitimate government.

Islamic Courts Union

was supported by warlord Yusuf "Indho Ade" Mohamed Siad who ruled Lower Shabelle but later became defense chief of the ICU, who aided in the defeat of the Mogadishu world Somalia 15501 Warlord Yusuf "Indho Ade" Mohamed Siad, defense chief of the ICU Only the Northern regions (Puntland, Somaliland), and the furthest interior regions of the south were outside their control. In December 2006, the ICU lost much

firmly established in the Hawiye clan. As the courts began to assert themselves as the dispensers of justice they came into conflict with the secular warlords who

International Airport , which had been closed since the withdrawal of the international forces in 1995. The first airplane chartered by the Arab League flew from the airport for the first time in 11 years picking up Islamic Courts delegates to the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. Mohamed Abdi Farah,news world English 3290 Somalia: Reopening of Mogadishu's airport welcomed, ''SomaliNet'', July 15, 2006. ref>

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Georgian roots of Isis commander Omar al-Shishani date 9 July 2014 url http: news world-europe-28217590 accessdate 9 July 2014 publisher BBC News

established_event4 Claim of territory in the Levant established_date4 8 April 2013 established_event6 Separated from al-Qaeda established_date6 3 February 2014 ref name "al-Qaeda severs

: node 20378 title What does ISIS’ declaration of a caliphate mean? work Al Akhbar English accessdate 25 November 2014 and Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was named its "caliph".


on 2012-02-11. By 24 February, the city fell under the control of anti-Gaddafi forces in the Libyan uprising (2011 Libyan Civil War) against Gaddafi.

bank. Government Misrata is governed by a local council (local government) consisting of 28 seats. The city held its first free elections (Misrata municipal election, 2012) on 20 February 2012 after a month of organizing. It was the first major city to hold local elections in post-Gaddafi Libya while other cities had their municipal officials by the national interim government. Gatehouse, Gabriel. news world-africa-17107048

2011, a National Transitional Council (NTC) official told Al Jazeera that Gaddafi had been captured that day by Libyan forces near his hometown of Sirte.

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