. Miller (National Review's National Political Reporter: In 1951, the Kauffman treaty was replaced by another one. The Thule Air Base at Thule (Qaanaaq) (now Qaanaaq) in the northwest was made a permanent air force base. In 1953, some Inuit families were forced by Denmark to move from their homes to provide space for extension of the base. For this reason, the base has been a source of friction between the Danish government and the Greenlandic people. Tensions mounted when
: www.nationalreview.com nr_comment nr_comment050701b.shtml National Review May 7, 2001 "Let’s Buy Greenland! – A complete missile-defense plan" By John J. Miller (National Review's National Political Reporter: In 1951, the Kauffman treaty was replaced by another one. The Thule Air Base at Thule (Qaanaaq) (now Qaanaaq) in the northwest was made a permanent air force base. In 1953, some Inuit families were forced by Denmark to move from their homes
; However, in 1950 Denmark did agree to allow the United States to establish the Thule Air Base, construction of which was begun in 1951 and completed in 1953, as part of a unified NATO Cold War
National Review May 7, 2001 "Let’s Buy Greenland! – A complete missile-defense plan" By John J. Miller (National Review's National Political Reporter: In 1951, the Kauffman treaty was replaced by another one. The Thule Air Base at Thule (Qaanaaq) (now Qaanaaq) in the northwest was made a permanent air force base. In 1953, some Inuit families were forced by Denmark to move from their homes to provide space for extension of the base. For this reason, the base
to be confirmed by Dynasty I and late Dynasty II royal tombs at Abydos, the principal regional necropolis. Old Kingdom 250px thumb right Mentuhotep II (File:Mentuhotep Seated edit.jpg), pharaoh of the Theban (Thebes, Egypt) Dynasty XI (Eleventh dynasty of Egypt), finally brought Thinis under Theban sway during his campaign of reunification. Such importance seems to have been short-lived: certainly, the national political role of Thinis ended at the beginning of Dynasty III (Third dynasty of Egypt) (c. 2686 BCE), when Memphis (Memphis, Egypt) became the chief religious and political centre. Najovits 2003: 171 Nonetheless, Thinis retained its regional significance: during Dynasty V (Fifth dynasty of Egypt), it was the probable seat of the "overseer of Upper Egypt", an administrative official with responsibility for the Nile Valley south of the Delta (Nile Delta), Bard 1999: 38 and throughout antiquity (Ancient Egypt) it was the eponymous capital of ''nome (nome (Egypt))'' VIII of Upper Egypt and seat of its nomarch. During the wars of the First Intermediate Period (c. 2181 – c. 2055 BCE), Ankhtifi, nomarch of Hierakonpolis, demanded recognition of his suzerainty from the "overseer of Upper Egypt" at Thinis, Hamblin 2006: 373 and although the city walls (Defensive walls), cited in Ankhtifi's autobiography, seem to have left Ankhtifi capable of only a show of force, he appears to have purchased Thinis' neutrality with grain (Cereal). Brovarski 1999: 44 Following Ankhtifi's death, Thinis was the northernmost ''nome'' to fall under the sway of Intef II, pharaoh of the Theban (Thebes, Egypt) Dynasty XI (Eleventh dynasty of Egypt) (c. 2118 – c. 2069 BCE). Hamblin 2006: 375 Progress north by the Theban armies was halted by Kheti III, pharaoh of the Heracleopolitan (Herakleopolis Magna) Dynasty IX (Ninth dynasty of Egypt), in a battle at Thinis itself that is recorded in the ''Teaching for King Merykara'', Parkinson 1999: 225 and, throughout Intef II's later years, his war against the Heracleopolitans and their allies, the nomarchs of Assyut, was waged in the land between Thinis and Assyut. As Thebes began to take the upper hand, Mentuhotep II (c. 2061 – c. 2010 BCE), on his campaign of reunification, brought Thinis, which had been in revolt, possibly at Heracleopolitan instigation and certainly with the support of an army under the command of the nomarch of Assyut, firmly under his control. Hamblin 2006: 385 During the Second Intermediate Period (c. eighteenth century BCE), Thinis may have experienced resurgent autonomy: Ryholt (Kim Ryholt) (1997) proposes that the Abydos dynasty of kings might better be called the "Thinite Dynasty" Ryholt 1997: 163 and that, in any event, their royal seat was likely at Thinis, already a ''nome'' capital. Ryholt 1997: 165 New Kingdom and Late Period The city's steady decline appears to have halted briefly during Dynasty XVIII (Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt) (c. 1550 – c. 1292 BCE), when Thinis enjoyed renewed prominence, based on its geographical connection to various oases (Oasis) Redford 2003: 176 n. 58 of possible military importance. Bryan 2006: 104 Certainly, the office of mayor of Thinis was occupied by several notable New Kingdom figures: Satepihu, who participated in the construction of an obelisk for Hatshepsut and was himself subject of an exemplary block statue (Block statue (Egyptian)); Wilkinson 1992: 30 the herald Intef, an indispensable member of the royal household and the travelling-companion of Thutmose III; Redford 2003: 176 and Min, tutor to the prince Amenhotep III. Bryan 2006: 100 Nonetheless, Thinis had declined to a settlement of little significance by the historic period. Maspero 1903: 331 The misleading reference on a seventh-century BCE Assyrian stele to "Nespamedu, king of Thinis" is nothing more than a reflection of Assyrian "ignorance of the subtlety of the Egyptian political hierarchy". Leahy 1979 Certainly, by the Roman period (Egypt (Roman province)), Thinis had been supplanted as capital of its ''nome'' by Ptolemais (Ptolemais Hermiou), perhaps even as early as that city's foundation by Ptolemy I (Ptolemy I Soter). Religion 250px thumb right A tableau from the ''Book of the Dead (File:BD Hunefer.jpg)'' (''green-skinned Osiris is seated to the right''). In ancient Egyptian religious cosmology, Thinis features as a mythical place in heaven. As each ''nome'' was home to the tomb and mummy of its dead ''nome''-god, so at Thinis was the temple and last resting-place of Anhur, whose epithets included "bull of Thinis", Pinch 2002: 177 worshipped after his death Maspero 1903: 163 as Khenti-Amentiu, and who, as ''nome''-god, was placed at the head of the local ennead. Maspero 1903: 205 The high priest of the temple of Anhur at Thinis was called the first prophet, Maspero 1903: 177 or chief of seers, Kitchen 2003: 108 Frood 2007: 108 a title that Maspero (1903) suggests is a reflection of Thinis' decline in status as a city. Maspero 1903: 177 n.1 One such chief of seers, Anhurmose, who died in the reign of Merneptah (c. 1213 – c. 1203 BCE), broke with the tradition of his New Kingdom predecessors, who were buried at Abydos, and was laid to rest at Thinis itself. Frood 2007: 107 The lion-goddess Mehit was also worshipped at Thinis, Pinch 2002: 164 Frood 2007: 267 and the restoration of her temple there during Merneptah's reign was probably overseen by Anhurmose. There is evidence that succession (Order of succession) to the office of chief of seers of Anhur at Thinis was familial: in the Herakleopolitan period (Eleventh dynasty of Egypt), one Hagi succeeded his elder brother, also called Hagi, and their father to the post; Fischer 1987 and, in the New Kingdom, Wenennefer (Parennefer called Wennefer) Frood 2007: 97 was succeeded in the priestly office by his son, Hori. Frood 2007: 189 In ancient Egyptian religious cosmology, Thinis played a role as a mythical place in heaven. In particular, as set out in the ''Book of the Dead'', its eschatological (Eschatology) significance can be seen in certain rituals: when the god Osiris triumphs, "joy goeth its round in Thinis", a reference to the celestial Thinis, rather than the earthly city. References This is a list of Egyptian capitals in a chronological order. * Thinis (Actual Location Unknown)(before 2950 BC) the first capital of Upper and Lower Egypt * Memphis (Memphis, Egypt): (2950 BC - 2180 BC) - I - VIII dynasties State formation began during this era and perhaps even earlier. Various small city-states arose along the Nile. Centuries of conquest then reduced Upper Egypt to three major states: Thinis, Naqada, and Nekhen. Sandwiched between Thinis and Nekhen, Naqada was the first to fall. Thinis then conquered Lower Egypt. Nekhen's relationship with Thinis is uncertain, but these two states may have merged peacefully, with the Thinite royal family ruling all of Egypt. The Thinite kings are buried at Abydos (Abydos, Egypt) in the Umm el-Qa'ab cemetery. - align center about 3080 BCE bgcolor #DDFFDD Narmer (or Menes) unites '''Lower Egypt''' and '''Upper Egypt''' under the '''First Dynasty of Egypt'''. Thinis becomes the capital of all '''Egypt (Ancient Egypt)'''. - - align center about 3200 BCE bgcolor #DDFFDD The city-states of '''Thinis''', '''Naqada''', and '''Nekhen''' dominate Upper Egypt. -
government. Hussein's attempt failed. In May 1962, however, Egal and another northern SNL minister resigned from the cabinet and took many SNL followers with them into a new party, the Somali National Congress (SNC), which won widespread northern support. The new party also gained support in the south when it was joined by an SYL faction composed predominantly of Hawiye. This move gave the country three truly national political parties and further served to blur north-south differences. Pan-Somalism The most important political issue in post-independence Somali politics was the unification of all areas traditionally inhabited by ethnic Somalis (Somali people) into one country – a concept identified as Pan-Somalism, or Greater Somalia (''Soomaaliweyn''). Politicians assumed that this issue of Somali nationalism dominated popular opinion and that any government would fall if it did not demonstrate a desire to reappropriate occupied Somali territory. thumb right 300px Approximate extent of Greater Somalia (File:Somali map.jpg). Preoccupation with Greater Somalia shaped the character of the country's newly formed institutions and led to the build-up of the Somali military (Somali Armed Forces) in preparation for campaigns to retrieve Somali land. By law, the exact size of the National Assembly was not established in order to facilitate the inclusion of representatives of the contested areas after unification. The national flag (Flag of Somalia) also featured a five-pointed star, whose points represented areas traditionally inhabited by ethnic Somalis: the former Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland, the Ogaden, French Somaliland, and the Northern Frontier District (North Eastern Province (Kenya)). Somalia Flag Moreover, the preamble to the constitution (Constitution of Somalia) approved in 1961 included the statement, "The Somali Republic promotes by legal and peaceful means, the union of the territories." The constitution also provided that all ethnic Somalis, no matter where they resided, were citizens of the republic. The Somalis did not claim sovereignty over adjacent territories, but rather demanded that Somalis living in them be granted the right to self-determination. Somali leaders asserted that they would be satisfied only when their fellow Somalis outside the republic had the opportunity to decide for themselves what their status would be. In 1948, under pressure from their World War II allies (Allies of World War II) and to the dismay of the Somalis, Federal Research Division, ''Somalia: A Country Study'', (Kessinger Publishing, LLC: 2004), p. 38 the British "returned" the Haud (an important Somali grazing area that was presumably 'protected' by British treaties with the Somalis in 1884 and 1886) and the Ogaden to Ethiopia, based on a treaty they signed in 1897 in which the British ceded Somali territory to the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II (Menelek II of Ethiopia) in exchange for his help against raids by Somali clans. Laitin, p. 73 Britain included the proviso that the Somali inhabitants would retain their autonomy, but Ethiopia immediately claimed sovereignty over the area. Zolberg, Aristide R., et al., ''Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World'', (Oxford University Press: 1992), p. 106 The Somali government refused in particular to acknowledge the validity of the Anglo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1954 recognizing Ethiopia's claim to the Haud or, in general, the relevance of treaties defining Somali-Ethiopian borders. Somalia's position was based on three points: first, that the treaties disregarded agreements made with Somali actors that had put them under British protection; second, that the Somalis were not consulted on the terms of the treaties and in fact had not been informed of their existence; and third, that such treaties violated the self-determination principle. This prompted an unsuccessful bid by Britain in 1956 to buy back the Somali lands that it had turned over. Hostilities grew steadily, eventually involving small-scale actions between the Somali National Army (Somali Armed Forces) and Imperial Ethiopian Armed Forces (Ethiopian National Defense Force) along the border. In February 1964, armed conflict erupted on the Somali-Ethiopian frontier, and Ethiopian aircraft (Imperial Ethiopian Air Force) raided targets in Somalia. The confrontation ended in April through the mediation of Sudan (Republic of Sudan (1956–1969)), acting under the auspices of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). Under the terms of the cease-fire, a joint commission was formed to examine the causes of frontier incidents, and a demilitarized zone ten to fifteen kilometers wide was established on either side of the border. At least temporarily, further military confrontations were prevented. A referendum (French Somaliland overseas territory referendum, 1958) was held in neighboring Djibouti (then known as French Somaliland) in 1958, on the eve of Somalia's independence in 1960, to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France. The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, largely due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar (Afar people) ethnic group and resident Europeans. There was also widespread vote rigging, with the French expelling thousands of Somalis before the referendum reached the polls. Kevin Shillington, ''Encyclopedia of African history'', (CRC Press: 2005), p. 360. The majority of those who had voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later under mysterious circumstances. Barrington, Lowell, ''After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States'', (University of Michigan Press: 2006), p. 115 United States Joint Publications Research Service, ''Translations on Sub-Saharan Africa'', Issues 464-492, (1966), p.24. At the 1961 London talks on the future of the Kenya Colony, Somali representatives from the Northern Frontier District (NFD) demanded that Britain arrange for the region's separation before Kenya was granted independence. The British government appointed a commission to ascertain popular opinion in the NFD on the question. The informal plebiscite demonstrated the overwhelming desire of the region's population, which mainly consisted of Somalis and Oromos (Oromo people), to join the newly formed Somali Republic (Somalia). David D. Laitin, ''Politics, Language, and Thought: The Somali Experience'', (University Of Chicago Press: 1977), p.75 A 1962 editorial in ''The Observer'', Britain's oldest Sunday newspaper, concurrently noted that "by every criterion, the Kenya Somalis have a right to choose their own future ... they differ from other Kenyans not just tribally but in almost every way ... they are Hamitic, have different customs, a different religion (Islam), and they inhabit a desert which contributes little or nothing to the Kenya economy ... nobody can accuse them of trying to make off with the national wealth". Rebels began to surrender to the Ethiopian government at the end of 1969; Waqo Gutu, who had been the foremost of the insurgents, was surrounded with his command of barely 200 men in Arana (Arana, Ethiopia) by the Ethiopian army in February 1970 and surrendered. Pacification was complete by the next year. The details of this paragraph are based on Paul B. Henze ''Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia'' (New York: Palgrave, 2000), pp. 263f. - align center July 1 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Somali Republic''' (Somalia) is created from a merger of the former colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. Mogadishu is the capital. -
activity under the Soviet government, he never abandoned his political positions and led, from 1926, the underground conspirative (Conspiracy (political)) group of the Georgian national political organization Tetri Giorgi (Tetri Giorgi (organization)). Earlier, on May 26, 1922, on the fourth anniversary of the independence of Georgia, he was one of the organizers of the first mass anti-Soviet demonstration in Tbilisi and was arrested by the GPU (State Political Directorate). In 1922, he
.", "Geno", etc.). In spite of continuing social activity under the Soviet government, he never abandoned his political positions and led, from 1926, the underground conspirative (Conspiracy (political)) group of the Georgian national political organization Tetri Giorgi (Tetri Giorgi (organization)). Earlier, on May 26, 1922, on the fourth anniversary of the independence of Georgia, he was one of the organizers of the first mass anti-Soviet demonstration in Tbilisi
''Obajewanung''. The tribe moved to Parry Sound (Parry Sound, Ontario) around 1866 Socialist Party of Ontario The '''Socialist Party of Ontario''' (later "Socialist Party of Canada") was a provincial political party in Ontario, that merged in 1905 into a national political party, the Socialist Party of Canada (SPC). It was founded at a convention of the Ontario Socialist League held on Thanksgiving Day 1903, at which the League changed its name to the Socialist Party of Ontario
. In the 17th and 19th centuries, the Romanians in Șchei campaigned for national, political, and cultural rights, and were supported in their efforts by Romanians from all other provinces, as well as by the local Greek merchant community. In 1838 they established the first Romanian language newspaper ''Gazeta Transilvaniei'' and the first Romanian institutions of higher education (''Școlile Centrale Greco-Ortodoxe'' - "The Greek-Orthodox Central Schools", today named after
September 2010. 400px thumb Bush's "axis of evil" included Iran (Image:Axis of Evil map.svg), Iraq (Ba'athist Iraq), and North Korea (red). "Beyond the Axis of Evil" included Cuba, Libya (History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi), and Syria (orange). The three 'outposts of tyranny' described by Condoleezza Rice: Belarus, Zimbabwe, and Myanmar are green. The United States is blue. frame right John R. Bolton (Image:John R. Bolton.png) On May 6, 2002, then-Undersecretary of State John R. Bolton gave a speech entitled "Beyond the Axis of Evil". In it he added three more nations to be grouped with the already mentioned rogue states: Libya (History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi), Syria, and Cuba. The criteria for inclusion in this grouping were: "state sponsors of terrorism that are pursuing or who have the potential to pursue weapons of mass destruction (WMD) or have the capability to do so in violation of their treaty obligations". The speech was widely reported as an expansion of the original axis of evil. Politics In the Libyan civil war, Gaddafi forces (History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi) maintained control of large parts of the district and city longer than elsewhere in the country. The National Transitional Council took control of the city on 11 September 2011. BBC News "Libya conflict: Anti-Gaddafi fighters take Sabha" - accessed 9.23.2011. Records found in Muammar Gaddafi's former intelligence headquarters in Tripoli, shortly after the overthrow (2011 Libyan civil war) of the Gaddafi regime (History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi) in 2011, indicated that in late September 2003, British intelligence (MI6) officials told then-Libyan intelligence chief Musa Kusa that Bout had a "considerable commercial presence in Libya" and aimed to expand his interests there. Khadafy records tie Russian arms dealer to Libya, U.S. experts hunt for anti-aircraft missiles Associated Press, 5 Nov 2011.
The village was part of the Duchy of Carinthia until 1918. It was the only settlement already ceded by the Carinthian Landtag assembly to the newly established State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, before it was officially adjudicated together with the Meža Valley and Dravograd to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) by the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain (Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919)).