Places Known For

military sports

Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen

, among them youngsters in their early teens, had to go to fight to the fronts. Since players were not available, except in shoddily-organized military sports events in scattered frontline locations, sports life in Germany came practically to a standstill. The last ''von Tschammer und Osten Pokal'' football trophy was played in Vienna in 1943 and the following two years plunged the NSRL into irrelevance. The once mighty Nazi Sports Body had to give up its weight and its position of pride long before the war was lost. On May 31, 1945, after Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II (Aftermath of World War II), the American Military Government (Allied Occupation Zones in Germany) issued a special law outlawing the Nazi party and all of its branches. Known as "Law number five", this Denazification decree disbanded the NS Reichsbund für Leibesübungen along with all its facilities and departments. The disbandment of the NSRL meant that all the sports organizations of Germany had to be established anew during the postwar reconstruction (Reconstruction of Germany) of both West Germany and the DDR (East Germany). Even after German reunification in 1990, there has never been such a powerful and all-encompassing sports organization in Germany as the DRL NSRL was at its height. Structure As a sports governing body seeking to control and integrate all sport activities in Germany, the DRL NSRL provided a highly organized structure. This structuralization, whose nationalistic seriousness was often outright theatrical, was in line with the Nazi Party's goal of reminding Germans constantly that they were members of a large extended country, the Third Reich. According to Paragraph 2 of the DRL's Statutes: ''The purpose of the League of the Reich for Physical Exercise is the training of the body and character of Germans grouped together in member organizations through planned physical exercises and care of the national conscience (Volksbewußtsein) in the spirit of the National Socialist state''. Regarding method and purpose, and keeping aside the ideology, the well-ordered and solemn DRL NSRL system proved itself efficient. The 1936 Summer Olympics, as well as other key events, provided ample opportunity to test the good organization that the Sports Body of the Reich was able to provide. The NSRL's obvious competence succeeded in instilling a spirit of unity and pride among the German sportsmen and women as well as their supporters. Moreover, even if not duly credited, many of the NSRL's systemic improvements in sports are still in use in today's sports organizations. By Sport border "0" cellpadding "2" - valign "top" * Department 1: Artistic gymnastics, Gymnastics and ''Summer Games'' (1) * Department 2: Football (Association football), Rugby (Rugby union), and Cricket * Department 3: Light athletics (Track and field athletics) * Department 4: Handball (Team handball) * Department 5: Swimming (Swimming (sport)) * Department 6: Heavy athletics (Track and field athletics) * Department 7: Boxing * Department 8: Fencing * Department 9: Hockey * Department 10: Tennis * Department 11: Rowing (rowing (sports)) * Department 12: Canoeing * Department 13: Ice- (Iceskating) and Rollerskating * Department 14: Ski * Department 15: Deutscher Radfahrer-Verband, ''Bicycling'' Besides the departments above, certain competences of the NSRL as a league were served by sports federations some of which still exist today: border "0" cellpadding "2" - valign "top" * 16. Deutscher Segler-Verband ''(Sailing)'' * 17. Deutscher Bergsteiger-Verband ''(Mountaineering)'' * 18. Deutscher Wanderverband ''(Hiking)'' * 19. Deutscher Kegler-Bund ''(Bowling)'' * 20. Deutscher Schützen-Verband ''(Shooting)'' * 21. Deutscher Golf-Verband ''(Golf)'' * 22. Deutscher Bob- und Schlittensport-Verband (Bob- und Schlittenverband für Deutschland) ''(Bobsleigh, Luge and Skeleton)'' * 23. Deutscher Tisch-Tennis-Bund ''(Table-tennis)'' * 24. Deutscher Amateur-Billiard-Verband ''(Billiard (Cue sports))'' ''(1) The “Summer Games” include the following games known collectively as “Turnspiele“ in German: Schlagball (a German bat-and-ball sport), Fistball, Korbball (closely related to korfball), Schleuderball and Ringtennis.'' By region The regional structure of the NSRL followed the Nazi Party model. Often two or more gaue (Reichsgau) were included in one region where it was expedient to do so. border "0" cellpadding "2" - valign "top" * Region 1: East Prussia * Region 2: Pomerania * Region 3: Berlin-Brandenburg * Region 4: Silesia * Region 5: Saxony * Region 6: Mitte (1) * Region 7: Nordmark (2) * Region 8: Lower Saxony * Region 9: Westphalia * Region 10: Lower Rhine (Lower Rhine region (Germany)) * Region 11: Middle Rhine (Mittelrhein (wine region)) * Region 12: Hessen * Region 13: Southwest (3) * Region 14: Baden * Region 14a: Alsace * Region 15: Württemberg-Hohenzollern * Region 16: Bavaria * Region 17: Ostmark (4) * Region 18: Sudetenland * Region 19: Danzig-West Prussia (Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia) * Gau Wartheland (Reichsgau Wartheland) ''(1) Thuringia, Anhalt and the Province of Saxony. — (2) Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg and Mecklenburg. — (3) The Palatinate (Palatinate (region)) and (from 1935 onwards) the Saar Region (Saar (League of Nations)). — (4) Austria from 1938 onwards .'' Distribution of members By January first 1937 the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen had 45,096 Associations with 3,582,776 active members (of which 517,992 were female and 3,064,784 male). On April first 1939 there were 44,622 Associations with 3,668,206 active members (of which 526,084 were female). The kind of sports practiced were the following: class "wikitable" - ! align "left" Sport !Associations Sections ! Total practising ! Total female - 1. Artistic gymnastics align "right" 12,773 align "right" 662,567 align "right" 234,190 - 2. Football align "right" 10,928 align "right" 483,302 align "right" 0 - 2. Rugby align "right" 52 align "right" 1,925 align "right" 0 - 2. Cricket align "right" 6 align "right" 88 align "right" 0 - 3. Light athletics align "right" 7,366 align "right" 268,183 align "right" 58,817 - 4. Handball align "right" 4,774 align "right" 152,943 align "right" 14,229 - 4. Basketball align "right" 156 align "right" 3,396 align "right" 522 - 5. Swimming align "right" 2,643 align "right" 129,142 align "right" 41,482 - 6. Weightlifting (Powerlifting) align "right" 809 align "right" 12.777 align "right" 0 - 6. Wrestling align "right" 748 align "right" 15,263 align "right" 0 - 6. Jiu-Jitsu (Jujutsu) align "right" 220 align "right" 7,957 align "right" 68 - 7. Boxing align "right" 872 align "right" 17,904 align "right" 0 - 8. Fencing align "right" 548 align "right" 9,088 align "right" 2,505 - 9. Hockey align "right" 411 align "right" 20,446 align "right" 5,748 - 10. Tennis align "right" 1,840 align "right" 79,932 align "right" 40,361 - 11. Rowing align "right" 757 align "right" 49,942 align "right" 11,433 - 12. Canoeing align "right" 1,155 align "right" 45,652 align "right" 8,183 - 13. Iceskating align "right" 369 align "right" 13,944 align "right" 4,907 - 13. Rollerskating align "right" 142 align "right" 4,409 align "right" 2,364 - 14. Ski align "right" 2,099 align "right" 88,395 align "right" 26,793 - 15. Bicycling align "right" 2,951 align "right" 61,131 align "right" 5,093 - 16. Sailing align "right" 460 align "right" 19,069 align "right" 832 - 17. Mountaneering align "right" 510 align "right" 168,450 align "right" 28,536 - 18. Hiking align "right" 2,961 align "right" 198,346 align "right" 30,683 - 19. Bowling align "right" 1,049 align "right" 50,325 align "right" 2,848 - 20. Shooting align "right" 14,310 align "right" 418,404 align "right" 2,730 - 21. Golf align "right" 59 align "right" 3,953 align "right" 1,401 - 22. Bobsleigh align "right" 21 align "right" 311 align "right" 29 - 22. Luge and Skeleton align "right" 67 align "right" 2,197 align "right" 682 - 23. Table tennis align "right" 777 align "right" 15,810 align "right" 3,937 - 24. Billiards align "right" 246 align "right" 5,046 align "right" 67 ''Numbering according to Departments and Departmental Federations.'' Events Championships in the individual types of sports were duly organized by the corresponding associations and federations. Among the events directly organized by the NS Reichsbund für Leibesübungen the most important were: * The 4th '''Deutsche Kampfspiele''', July 23 – 29 1934, in Nürnberg * '''Deutsches Turn- und Sportfest''', July 26 – 31 1938, in Breslau Trophy names *The name of today's DFB-Pokal, (Deutscher Fußball-Bund-Pokal (German Football Association) or German Football-Federation Cup), first contested in the 1934–35 season, was known between 1935 and 1943 as ''Tschammer-Pokal'' after then "Reichssportführer" (Sports Chief of the Reich) Hans von Tschammer und Osten. *The amateur Länderpokal (DFB), first established in 1909, was known between 1935 and 1942 as ''Reichsbundpokal''. See also The 1936 Winter Olympics were organized on behalf of the Sports Office of the Third Reich (Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen) (DRL) by Karl Ritter von Halt. Von Halt had been named President of the Committee for the organization of the Fourth Winter Olympics in Garmisch by ''Reichssportführer'' Hans von Tschammer und Osten. Doctrine The HJ were viewed as future "Aryan (Aryan race) supermen" and were indoctrinated in anti-Semitism. One aim was to instill the motivation that would enable HJ members, as soldiers, to fight faithfully for the Third Reich. The HJ put more emphasis on physical (body) and military training than on academic study. Hakim 1995 The ''Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen'' (NSRBL), the umbrella organization promoting and coordinating sport activities in Germany during the Nazi period, had the responsibility of overseeing the physical fitness development programs provided to the German youth. "Hitlerjugend: An In-Depth History." ''''. Retrieved: 1 February 2010. Carl Diem became the secretary of the all-German sports organization Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (:de:Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen) (DRL) the forerunner of the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, the Sports Organ of the Third Reich.

Western Xia

;ref Qin, Wenzhong 秦文忠 , Zhou Haitao 周海涛 and Qin Ling 秦岭 (1998). "Xixia jun shi ti yu yu ke xue ji shu The military sports, science and technology of West Xia 西夏军事体育与科学技术." Ningxia da xue xue bao Journal of Ningxia University 宁夏大学学报 79 (2): 48-50. Name The full title of the Western Xia as named by their own state is "90px (File:Western Xia 2.svg)" reconstructed as *phiow¹-bjij²-lhjij-lhjij² which translates as "The Great Xia State of the White and the Lofty" (白高大夏國), or called "mjɨ-njaa" or "khjɨ-dwuu-lhjij" (萬秘國). The region was known to the Tanguts and the Tibetans as Minyak. Dorje (1999), p. 444. "Western Xia" is the literal translation of the state's Chinese name. It is derived from its location on the western side of the Yellow River, in contrast to the Liao (916–1125) and Jin (1115–1234) dynasties on its east and the Song in the southeast. The English term "Tangut" comes from the Mongolian (Mongolian language) name for the country, ''Tangghut'' (


it became the main official football club of the Polish Army – '''Wojskowy Klub Sportowy Legia Warszawa''' (''Military Sports Club Legia Warsaw''). In the years 1949–1957 Legia was known by the name '''CWKS Warszawa''' (''Central Military Sports Club Warsaw''). Today, it is one of two Warsaw-based football club participating in the Polish Ekstraklasa (Ekstraklasa) (alongside Polonia Warsaw). The club's home venue is the Polish Army Stadium. Legia is one of the most successful

in World War I Polish Legions . After World War I it became the main official football club of the Polish Army – '''Wojskowy Klub Sportowy Legia Warszawa''' (''Military Sports Club Legia Warsaw''). In the years 1949–1957 Legia was known by the name '''CWKS Warszawa''' (''Central Military Sports Club Warsaw''). Today, it is one of two Warsaw-based football club participating in the Polish Ekstraklasa (Ekstraklasa) (alongside Polonia Warsaw). The club's home venue is the Polish Army


CISM — Conseil International du Sport Militaire — International Military Sports Council publisher date 9 June 2011 accessdate 15 September 2011 Football (soccer) (Association football) is popular in Sarajevo; the city hosts ''FK Sarajevo'' and ''FK Željezničar (FK Željezničar Sarajevo)'', which both compete in European and international cups and tournaments and are have a very large trophy cabinet in the former Yugoslavia as well


ke xue ji shu The military sports, science and technology of West Xia 西夏军事体育与科学技术." Ningxia da xue xue bao Journal of Ningxia University 宁夏大学学报 79 (2): 48-50. the Xia army maintained a powerful stance in opposition to the Song (Song Dynasty), Liao (Liao Dynasty) (916-1125), and Jin (Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)) (1115–1234) empires to its east, the last of which was founded by the Jurchens, who were the predecessors of the Manchus to found the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912) later. The Xia territory encompassed the present Ningxia, Gansu, eastern Qinghai, northern Shaanxi, northeastern Xinjiang, southwest Inner Mongolia, and southernmost Outer Mongolia, measuring about 800,000 square kilometers. Wang, Tianshun 王天顺 (1993). Xixia zhan shi The Battle History of Western Xia 西夏战史. Yinchuan 银川 , Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社. Bian, Ren 边人 (2005). Xixia: xiao shi zai li shi ji yi zhong de guo du Western Xia: the kingdom lost in historical memories 西夏: 消逝在历史记忆中的国度. Beijing 北京 , Wai wen chu ban she Foreign Language Press 外文出版社. Li, Fanwen 李范文 (2005). Xixia tong shi Comprehensive History of Western Xia 西夏通史. Beijing 北京 and Yinchuan 银川 , Ren min chu ban she People's Press 人民出版社; Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社. In the beginning of the thirteenth century, Genghis Khan unified the northern grasslands of Mongolia and led the Mongol troops to carry out six rounds of attacks against Western Xia over a period of twenty two years. As Western Xia resisted vehemently, more and more of its people crossed the Qilian Mountains to join the earlier establishments in Qinghai and Gansu in order to avoid the Mongol assaults, which gave rise to the current settlements of the Monguor. During the last round of the Mongol attacks, Genghis died in Western Xia. The official account of the Mongol history attributed his death to an illness, whereas legends accounted that he died from a wound inflicted in the battles. After the Xia capital was overrun in 1227, the Mongols inflicted devastating destruction on its architecture and written records, killing the last emperor and massacring tens of thousands of civilians. The Xia troops were later incorporated into the Mongol army in their subsequent military conquests in central and southern China. Due to the fierce resistance of the Xia against the Mongol attacks, especially in causing the death of Genghis, they were initially suppressed in the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). Toward the middle and later phases of the Yuan, they received equivalent treatment as the ruling Mongols and attained highest offices in the Central Court. After the Yuan fell, the Xia who followed the Mongols into the northern grassland were immersed among and later classified into the "Mongols." Mongols, Khitans, and Jurchens When the Mongols emerged as a mighty power in the thirteenth century, a reverse occurred in the ethnonyms of the Xianbei and Mongols. This was represented in the reference of the Xianbei descendants as "Chaghan Monguor" (or "White Mongols"), which gave rise to the ethnonym of "Monguor" known in the Western publications. The term "White Mongols," or "Bai Menggu," first occurred when Genghis Khan united the Mongols to rise up in Mongolia in 1206. The Xianbei descendants who resided near Mt. Yin self proclaimed to be "White Mongols" and joined them. They received the same treatment as the Mongols and partook in their westward conquests in Central Asia and Europe. Lü, Jianfu 呂建福 , 2002. Tu zu shi The Tu History 土族史. Beijing 北京 , Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Press 中囯社会科学出版社. p. 311–312. Current status The Flemish (Flanders) Catholic missionary, Schram, who wrote about the Monguor based on residence in the current Qinghai Province in the early twentieth century, cited Comte de Lesdain, Lesdain, Jacques (1908). From Pekin to Sikkim through the Ordos, the Gobi Desert and Tibet. London: J. Murray. who characterized the Monguor as "the most authentic reminder of the primitive race from which the Chinese sprung." Schram, Louis M. J. (1954). "The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier. Their Origin, History, and Social Organization." Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 44(1): 1-138. p. 25. This characterization reflected that the Monguor culture under their observation has embodied "a high civilization fortified by its own history and distinctive social structure" Nietupski, Paul (2006). Louis Schram and the Study of Social and Political History. The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier. Louis M. J. Schram and Kevin Charles Stuart (editor). Xining, Plateau Publications: 30-36. p. 32. developed by the Xianbei forefathers from their extensive rulings over China and preserved by the "Monguor" "Tu". As early as the Tuyühu period, Confucianism served as the core ideology to govern the country, and the Chinese Buddhism and Shamanism functioned as the principle religions. In Western Xia, Confucianism was further strengthened, and Taoism was made into the national religion along with Buddhism. As the Yellow Sect of Buddhism, also known as the Tibetan Buddhism, became prevalent in the northwest, their religious lives shifted from the Chinese toward Tibetan Buddhism. After Western Xia fell, its territory centered in Ningxia was fragmented by the successive establishments of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai provinces, which increasingly weakened the political and military powers of the Monguor. Through the Ming (Ming Dynasty) (1368–1644) and Qing (Qing Dynasty) (1644–1912) dynasties, the Monguor continued to play important roles in the national defense, and political and religious affairs of China. Starting in the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the ranches of the Monguor were taken into the state possession, and their horses became the subject of being drafted into the national army and looted by the Mongols from the north, resulting in the eventual shift of their lifestyles toward sedentary agriculture, supplemented by minimum animal husbandry, as the original Monguor groups became settled into the form of different villages. In the last two centuries, the areas formerly occupied by the Monguor were encroached upon by increasing inland Chinese migrations. Throughout this period, the Monguor maintained a high degree of political autonomy and self governance under the local chiefdom system of Tusi. Li, Peiye 李培业 (1995). "Xi xia huang zu hou yi kao Investigation on the descendants of the Royal Family of Western Xia 西夏皇族后裔考." Xi bei da xue xue bao Journal fo Northwest University 西北大学学报 88 (3): 46-52. Da, Song 大松 (1996). "Li pei ye shi xi xia huang zu hou yi Li Peiye is the descendant of the Royal Family of Western Xia 李培业是西夏皇族后裔." Qi lu zhu tan Qilu Abacus Forum 齐鲁珠坛 (6): 26. Li, Peiye 李培业 (1997). "Xi xia huang zu hou yi zai kao Reinvestigation on the descendants of the Royal Family of Western Xia 西夏皇族后裔再考." Xi Qiang wen hua West Qiang Culture 西羌文化. Li, Peiye 李培业 (1998). Xi xia li shi shi pu Genological records of Li Clan of Western Xia 西夏李氏世谱. Shenyang 沈阳 , Liaoning min zu chu ban she Liaoning Nationalities Press 辽宁民族出版社. Lü, Jianfu 呂建福 (2005). "Li tu si xian shi bian zheng A Textual Analysis of the Ancestral Origins of Li Tusi 李土司先世辨正." Xi bei min zu yan jiu Northwest Ethno-National Studies 西北民族研究 46(3): 119-129. the Monguor troops led by their Tusi defended not only their own homeland but also joined the national army to participate in wars that took place as far as in eastern Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Yunnan, Mongolia, and Dunhuang, Schram (1961). The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier: Part III. Records of the Monguor Clans. History of the Monguors in Huangchung and the Chronicles of the Lu Family. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society. which progressively weakened their military power. Their political power came to the ultimate decline when the Tusi system was abolished in 1931, which exacerbated more Monguor to lose their language. By the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, only about fifty thousand of the Monguor have maintained to speak their language, primarily in Qinghai and Gansu. During the Chinese classificatory campaigns carried out in the 1950s, those who could no longer speak their language were classified into "Han (Han Chinese)," those who could not speak their language but adopted the Islamic religion were classified into "Hui (Hui people)," those who followed the Mongols into the northern grassland were classified into "Mongols," and those who spoke their language and adopted the Islamic religion were classified into "Dongxiang (Dongxiang people)," "Bao’an," and "Yügu," the last of which represented the intermixture of the Xianbei and Sari Uigur. The Turkic speaking Yugurs are considered to be the descendants of a group of Uyghurs who fled from Mongolia southwards to Gānsù, after the collapse of the Uyghur Empire in 840 AD, and soon established there a prosperous Ganzhou Kingdom (870-1036 AD) with capital near present Zhangye city on the foots of Nan Shan Mountains (Qilian Mountains) in the valley of the Ejin River (Black River). Commons:Category:Mongolia WikiPedia:Mongolia Dmoz:Regional Asia Mongolia


, and U.S. (United States) company Occidental Petroleum. The pipeline is long. In 1979, Kim won the gold medal in the flyweight division at the CISM Amateur Boxing Championships (International Military Sports Council) in Caracas, Venezuela, beating Oudahi Mohammad Amin of Algeria via first round knockout in the final bout. In 1965, by granting a Decree of Praise, Pope Paul VI granted Mother Teresa's request to expand her congregation to other countries


was French territory). One of his superior officers noticed El Ouafi's outstanding athletic abilities, and decided to send him to a military sports competition in France. He made a good impression there, and was allowed to enter qualification for the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris in the marathon event. In a note, persons claiming to represent the ODESSA claimed responsibility for a 9 July 1979 car bombing in France, which was aimed at anti-Nazi activists Serge and Beate Klarsfeld. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France

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