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military relationship


Burma

in the south-eastern Asian region, the significance of her far flung and often hostile terrain, and the changing nature of military technology, has had a decisive impact on the evolution of both Thailand and her neighbours as modern nation states. In the post-war era, Thailand's military relationship with the United States has seen her play an important role in both the Cold War and the recent War on Terror, whilst her military's involvement in domestic politics has brought frequent international attention. The subsequent years saw constant warfare as numerous states attempted to exploit the collapse of Khmer hegemony. As none of the parties in the region possessed a technological advantage, the outcome of battles was usually determined by the size of the armies. The use of war elephants continued, with some battles seeing personal combat between commanders on elephants. For example the fight between Burmese crown prince Minchit Sra and by Siamese King Naresuan in the battle of Battle of Yuthahatthi on what is now reckoned as January 18, 1593, and observed as Armed Forces Day (Royal Thai Armed Forces). In 1592, Nanda Bayin king of Toungoo ordered his son Mingyi Swa to attack Ayutthaya Naresuan encamped his armies at Yuddhahatthi. The Burmese then arrived, leading to the Battle of Yuddhahatthi. Naresuan can killed Mingyi Swa during the battle. After that Burmese army withdrew from Ayutthaya. in 1599 Naresuan also occupied city of Pegu but Minye Thihathu Viceroy of Toungoo took Nanda Bayin and left for Toungoo. When Naresuan reached Pegu, what he found was only the city ruins. He requested Toungoo to sent Nanda Bayin back to him but Minye Thihathu refused. After each victorious campaign, Ayutthaya carried away a number of conquered people to its own territory, where they were assimilated and added to the labor force. To the south, Autthaya easily achieved domination over the outlying Malay states (History of Malaysia). To the north, however, the kingdom of Burma posed a potential military threat to the Siamese kingdom. Although frequently split and divided in the 16th century, during periods of unity Burma could, and did, defeat Ayuttahaya in battle, such as in 1564 and 1569. What followed was another prolonged period of Burmese disunity. During Ayutthayan King Narai's reign, conflicts with England's East India Company led to the Siam–England war of 1687 (France–Thailand relations#Siam-England war .281687.29). The English were subsequently banned from Siam until their defeat of Burma in the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826). ''A history of South-east Asia: 2. Ed'' Page 349 by Daniel George Edward Hall 1964 subsequent years saw constant warfare as numerous states attempted to exploit the collapse of Khmer hegemony. As none of the parties in the region possessed a technological advantage, the outcome of battles was usually determined by the size of the armies. The use of war elephants continued, with some battles seeing personal combat between commanders on elephants. For example the fight between Burmese crown prince Minchit Sra and by Siamese King Naresuan in the battle of Battle of Yuthahatthi on what is now reckoned as January 18, 1593, and observed as Armed Forces Day (Royal Thai Armed Forces). In 1592, Nanda Bayin king of Toungoo ordered his son Mingyi Swa to attack Ayutthaya Naresuan encamped his armies at Yuddhahatthi. The Burmese then arrived, leading to the Battle of Yuddhahatthi. Naresuan can killed Mingyi Swa during the battle. After that Burmese army withdrew from Ayutthaya. in 1599 Naresuan also occupied city of Pegu but Minye Thihathu Viceroy of Toungoo took Nanda Bayin and left for Toungoo. When Naresuan reached Pegu, what he found was only the city ruins. He requested Toungoo to sent Nanda Bayin back to him but Minye Thihathu refused. After each victorious campaign, Ayutthaya carried away a number of conquered people to its own territory, where they were assimilated and added to the labor force. To the south, Autthaya easily achieved domination over the outlying Malay states (History of Malaysia). To the north, however, the kingdom of Burma posed a potential military threat to the Siamese kingdom. Although frequently split and divided in the 16th century, during periods of unity Burma could, and did, defeat Ayuttahaya in battle, such as in 1564 and 1569. What followed was another prolonged period of Burmese disunity. During Ayutthayan King Narai's reign, conflicts with England's East India Company led to the Siam–England war of 1687 (France–Thailand relations#Siam-England war .281687.29). The English were subsequently banned from Siam until their defeat of Burma in the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826). ''A history of South-east Asia: 2. Ed'' Page 349 by Daniel George Edward Hall 1964 First Anglo-Burmese War British victories over Burma in 1826 set the stage for a century in which the military history of Thailand was to be dominated by the threat of European colonialism. Initially, however, Siamese concern remained focused on its traditional rivals of Burma and Vietnam. Siam intervened in support of Britain against Burma in 1826, but her lackluster performance inspired Chao Anouvong's surprise attack on Korat (Nakhon Ratchasima#History). Lady Mo (Thao Suranaree)'s resistance established her as a cultural heroine, and General Bodindecha's victory two years later established him as a major figure in Thai military history. His successful campaign in the Siamese–Vietnamese War (1841–1845) reaffirmed Siamese power over Cambodia. In 1849, weakening Burmese power encouraged revolt amongst the Burmese controlled Shan states (Shan people) of Kengtung and Chiang Hung. Chiang Hung repeatedly sought Siamese support, and ultimately Siam responded with the initial despatch of forces in 1852. Both armies found difficulties campaigning in the northern mountainous highlands, and it took until 1855 before the Siamese finally reached Kengtung: though with great difficulty and the exhaustion of Siamese resources ultimately resulted in their retreat. Search-thais.com These wars continued to be fought in the traditional mode, with war elephants continued to be deployed in the field carrying light artillery during the period, De la Bissachere, cited Nossov, K. ''War Elephants'', 2003, p.40. often being a decisive factor in battle. Heath, I. ''Armies of the Nineteenth Century: Asia, Burma and Indo-China'', 2003, p.182. Meanwhile, the visible military weaknesses of China in the First (First Opium War) and Second Opium Wars with Britain and later France between the 1830s and 1860s encouraged Siam to reject Chinese suzerainty in the 1850s. Siam, however, was under military and trade pressure itself from the European powers, and as King Rama III reportedly said on his deathbed in 1851: ''"We will have no more wars with Burma and Vietnam. We will have them only with the West."'' . The Hmong are known in China as the ''Miao'', a designation that embraces several different ethnic groups. There is debate about usage of this term, especially amongst Hmong living in the West, as it is believed by some to be derogatory, although Hmong living in China still call themselves by this name. Chinese scholars have recorded contact with the Miao as early as the 3rd century BCE, and wrote of them that they were a proud and independent people. However, after the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty attempted to impose several new taxation systems and continued expansion of their empire, the Hmong are reported to have rebelled. Many wars were randomness fought, and eventually many Hmong were pushed from China into Burma (Myanmar), Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. The history of the Hmong people is difficult to trace; they have an oral tradition, but there are no written records except where other people have encountered them. Hmong history has been passed down through legends and ritual ceremonies from one generation to another. Najmul Millat was a contemporary of Ziauddin al-Iraqi, Kazim Tabatabai Yazdi and Abul Hasan Isfehani. He was a Faqih of the highest rank and trained several Ulama like Sibte Hasan, Adeel Akhtar and Kitayat Husain. CHAPTER 2 THE FUQAHA He will always be remembered for his services to the Shi'a (Shia Islam) of Tibet, Burma, Africa and countries in the West rendered through the missionaries trained in his Jamia Nazmia. He wrote several books. * Three novels effectively tell the story of Burma (w:Burma)'s recent history. The link begins with Burmese Days (w:Burmese Days), which chronicles the country's history under British colonialism. Not long after Burma became independent from Britain in 1948, a military dictator sealed off the country from the outside world, launched 'The Burmese Way to Socialism', and turned Burma into one of the poorest countries in Asia. The same story is told in ''Animal Farm (w:Animal farm)''. Finally in ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' Orwell's description of a horrifying and soulless dystopia paints a chillingly accurate picture of Burma today, a country ruled by one of the world's most brutal and tenacious dictatorships. In Burma there is a joke that Orwell wrote not just one novel about the country, but three: a trilogy comprised of ''Burmese Days'', ''Animal Farm'' and ''Nineteen Eighty-Four''. ** Emma Larkin (w:Emma Larkin), ''Finding George Orwell in Burma'', p. 3. *My attitude to peace is rather based on the Burmese (w:Burma) definition of peace - it really means removing all the negative factors that destroy peace in this world. So peace does not mean just putting an end to violence or to war, but to all other factors that threaten peace, such as discrimination, such as inequality (w:inequality), poverty. **Aung San Suu Kyi, in Suu Kyi gives Nobel speech in Norway, 21 years later *Ahoms, a tribe from Burma (w:Burma), who controlled the region from thirteenth to eighteenth centuries, who absorbed Hindu culture (w:Hindu culture), were the original builders of Guwahati’ most famous site, a shrine to the goddess Sati (w:Sati), also known as Kali (w:Kali), consort of Shiva (w:Shiva). **Anthony Levi, Trudy Ring, in Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda, "International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania", p. 308. *Experimental gardens Tree that bears Qunine were opened on the Nilgiri Mountains (w:Nilgiri mountains) of Southern India (w:South India), the Himalayas on the north of Bengal (w:Bengal), the hills of Assam (w:Assam) and the Northwest Provinces, and on the highlands of Burma (w:Burma). With the exception of the Nilgiri and Himalayas, these localities were found to be unfavorable. At Darjeeling (w:Darjeeling) in the Himalayas, four hundred miles north of Calcutta, near which the cinchona (w:Cinchona)-gardens are located, … Cinchona alkaloid (w:Qunine) is now largely used throughout the country, with a proportionate reduction in the demand for quinine (w:Qunine). **Quinine (w:Quinine) in “The Tree That Bears Quinine” by Otis Robinson Bacheler quoted in: Science Monthly Volume 21 May 1882 , Wikisource. right thumb Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge is worthy of eulogisation - Sama Veda (File:Mysore_Painting.jpg). '''Saraswati (w:Saraswati)''' (Sanskrit (w;Sankrit language): सरस्वती, Sarasvatī ?) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, arts, wisdom and nature. She is a part of the trinity of Saraswati, Lakshmi and Parvati. All the three forms help the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in the creation, maintenance and destruction of the Universe. The Goddess is also revered by believers of the Jain religion (w:Jain religion )of west and central India. She is known in Burmese (w:Burma) as Thurathadi or Tipitaka Medaw , in Chinese (w:Chinese language) as Biàncáitiān (辯才天), in Japanese as Benzaiten (弁才天 弁財天) and in Thai (w:Thai language) as Surasawadee (สุรัสวดี). Of the countries ratifying the treaty, the largest are (in order of decreasing population) India (w:India), Pakistan (w:Pakistan), Bangladesh (w:Bangladesh), Japan (w:Japan), Mexico (w:Mexico), Thailand (w:Thailand), France (w:France), and Burma (w:Burma). Nations that have signed but not yet ratified include China (w:China), USA (w:USA), Brazil (w:Brazil), Nigeria (w:Nigeria), Philippines (w:Philippines), Viet Nam (w:Vietnam), Germany (w:Germany), and Egypt (w:Egypt). The largest non-signers are Indonesia (w:Indonesia), Russia (w:Russia), Colombia (w:Colombia), Tanzania (w:Tanzania), and Uzbekistan (w:Uzbekistan). The Himalayan (w:Himalayas) kingdom of Bhutan (w:Bhutan) went beyond the treaty requirements when on December 17 it became the first country in the world to completely ban the sale of tobacco. Prominent guests included Viscount Slim (w:Viscount Slim) (son of the late Field Marshal Slim (w:William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim), commander of the British Fourteenth Army (w:British Fourteenth Army) in Burma (w:Burma)), Countess Mountbatten of Burma (w:Patricia Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma) (daughter of the late Lord Louis Mountbatten (w:Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma), Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia Theatre), and Dame Vera Lynn (w:Vera Lynn). The report comes just days ahead of an Asian political summit, where the foreign ministers of many of the countries already affected by the H5N1 (w:H5N1) virus are expected to agree to even closer co-operative measures to help stall the advance of the virus. The foreign ministers of Cambodia (w:Cambodia), Laos (w:Laos), Burma (w:Burma), Thailand (w:Thailand) and Vietnam (w:Vietnam) have already agreed to closer co-operation to contain the virus and develop a vaccine. Aung San Suu Kyi sentenced to another three years of house arrest Aung San Suu Kyi (w:Aung San Suu Kyi) has been sentenced by a court in Burma (w:Burma) to a further three years of house arrest (w:House arrest) for violating the terms of her previous sentence. However her sentence was immediately commuted to 18 months on the orders of Burmese head of state (w:Head of state) Senior-General Than Shwe (w:Than Shwe) out of respect for her father General Aung San (w:Aung San) and out of a desire for "national reconciliation".


Saudi Arabia

; the navy, 15,500 (including 3,000 marines); and the SANG had 75,000 active soldiers and 25,000 tribal levies. In addition, there is an Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah military intelligence service. The kingdom has a long-standing military relationship


Vietnam

military history, dominated by her centrality in the south-eastern Asian region, the significance of her far flung and often hostile terrain, and the changing nature of military technology, has had a decisive impact on the evolution of both Thailand and her neighbours as modern nation states. In the post-war era, Thailand's military relationship with the United States has seen her play an important role in both the Cold War and the recent War on Terror, whilst her military's involvement in domestic politics has brought frequent international attention. By the end of the period, indigenous revolts amongst Khmer territories in Siam and Vietnam, and external attack from the independent kingdom of Champa, sapped Khmer strength. After the sack of the Khmer capital Angkor Wat by Champa forces in 1178-9, Khmer's ability to control its wider territories diminished rapidly. The first Siamese kingdom to gain independence, Sukhothai (Sukhothai kingdom), soon joined to the newly independent Ayutthaya kingdom in 1350. After 1352 Ayutthaya became the main rival to the failing Khmer empire, leading to Ayutthayan conquest of the Khmer in 1431. The British victories (First Anglo-Burmese War) over Burma in 1826 set the stage for a century in which the military history of Thailand was to be dominated by the threat of European colonialism. Initially, however, Siamese concern remained focused on its traditional rivals of Burma and Vietnam. Siam intervened in support of Britain against Burma in 1826, but her lackluster performance inspired Chao Anouvong's surprise attack on Korat (Nakhon Ratchasima#History). Lady Mo (Thao Suranaree)'s resistance established her as a cultural heroine, and General Bodindecha's victory two years later established him as a major figure in Thai military history. His successful campaign in the Siamese–Vietnamese War (1841–1845) reaffirmed Siamese power over Cambodia. In 1849, weakening Burmese power encouraged revolt amongst the Burmese controlled Shan states (Shan people) of Kengtung and Chiang Hung. Chiang Hung repeatedly sought Siamese support, and ultimately Siam responded with the initial despatch of forces in 1852. Both armies found difficulties campaigning in the northern mountainous highlands, and it took until 1855 before the Siamese finally reached Kengtung: though with great difficulty and the exhaustion of Siamese resources ultimately resulted in their retreat. Search-thais.com These wars continued to be fought in the traditional mode, with war elephants continued to be deployed in the field carrying light artillery during the period, De la Bissachere, cited Nossov, K. ''War Elephants'', 2003, p.40. often being a decisive factor in battle. Heath, I. ''Armies of the Nineteenth Century: Asia, Burma and Indo-China'', 2003, p.182. Meanwhile, the visible military weaknesses of China in the First (First Opium War) and Second Opium Wars with Britain and later France between the 1830s and 1860s encouraged Siam to reject Chinese suzerainty in the 1850s. Siam, however, was under military and trade pressure itself from the European powers, and as King Rama III reportedly said on his deathbed in 1851: ''"We will have no more wars with Burma and Vietnam. We will have them only with the West."'' Commons:Category:Vietnam


Pakistan

-NATO ally of the USA. It primarily import military equipments from China and USA. Commons:Category:Pakistan WikiPedia:Pakistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Pakistan


Soviet Union

Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


United States

'''Rhode Island''' (

also be produced in much smaller quantities. The arrival of the Cold War also emphasised to British military planners the need to modernise UK forces. Royal Air Force, 'A Short History, Chapter 5 - Focus On Europe', http: www.raf.mod.uk rafcms mediafiles F21E81DC_E902_D3CE_488720FE8488434D.pdf, p.1 Furthermore, the United Kingdom's uncertain military relationship with the United States, particularly in the immediate postwar years when American isolationism made


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