Places Known For

massive scale


Osh

to cotton production on a massive scale and the over-arching political structures meant that crossing borders was not a problem. Since 1991 this has changed, for the worse. Uzbekistan regularly closes its borders with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, causing immense difficulties for trade and for those who live in the region. Travellers from Khujand to Dushanbe, unable to take the route through Uzbekistan, have to cross a high mountain pass between the two cities instead, along a terrible road. Similarly communications between Bishkek and Osh pass through difficult mountainous country and are endangered by the attitude of President Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan. Ethnic tensions also flared at one stage, most notably in the town of Uzgen, near Osh, where were Uzbek-Kyrgyz riots in 1990 (Osh riots (1990)). There has been no further ethnic violence, and things appeared to have quietened down for several years. Weisbrode, K. (2001) ''Central Eurasia -- Prize or Quicksand?'' Oxford University Press, pp 46-48. However, the valley is a religiously conservative region which was particularly hard-hit by President Karimov's secularization legislation in Uzbekistan, together with his decision to close the borders with Kyrgyzstan in 2003. This devastated the local economy by preventing the importation of cheap Chinese consumer goods. The deposition of Askar Akayev in Kyrgyzstan in April 2005, coupled with the arrest of a group of prominent local businessmen brought underlying tensions to a boil in the region around Andijan and Qorasuv during the May 2005 unrest in Uzbekistan in which hundreds of protestors were killed by troops. Violence started to pick up again in 2010 in Kyrgyz part of the valley, heated by ethnic tensions, worsening economic conditions due to the global economic crisis, and political conflict over ousting of Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev in April 2010. In June 2010, about 200 people have been reported to be killed during clashes in Osh and Jalal-Abad, and 2000 more were injured. http: www.un.org apps news story.asp?NewsID 35071&Cr Kyrgyz&Cr1 Between 100,000 and 300,000 refugees, predominantly of Uzbek ethnic origin, attempted to flee to Uzbekistan, causing a major humanitarian crisis. The Soviet and post-Soviet periods In 1924 the new boundaries separating the Uzbek SSR and Kyrgyz SSR cut off the eastern end of the Ferghana Valley, as well as the slopes surrounding it. This was compounded in 1928 when the Tajik ASSR became a fully-fledged republic, and the area around Khujand was made a part of it. This blocked the valley's natural outlet and the routes to Samarkand and Bukhara, but none of these borders was of any great significance so long as Soviet rule lasted. The whole region was part of a single economy geared to cotton production on a massive scale and the over-arching political structures meant that crossing borders was not a problem. Since 1991 this has changed, for the worse. Uzbekistan regularly closes its borders with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, causing immense difficulties for trade and for those who live in the region. Travellers from Khujand to Dushanbe, unable to take the route through Uzbekistan, have to cross a high mountain pass between the two cities instead, along a terrible road. Similarly communications between Bishkek and Osh pass through difficult mountainous country and are endangered by the attitude of President Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan. Ethnic tensions also flared at one stage, most notably in the town of Uzgen, near Osh, where were Uzbek-Kyrgyz riots in 1990 (Osh riots (1990)). There has been no further ethnic violence, and things appeared to have quietened down for several years. Weisbrode, K. (2001) ''Central Eurasia -- Prize or Quicksand?'' Oxford University Press, pp 46-48. However, the valley is a religiously conservative region which was particularly hard-hit by President Karimov's secularization legislation in Uzbekistan, together with his decision to close the borders with Kyrgyzstan in 2003. This devastated the local economy by preventing the importation of cheap Chinese consumer goods. The deposition of Askar Akayev in Kyrgyzstan in April 2005, coupled with the arrest of a group of prominent local businessmen brought underlying tensions to a boil in the region around Andijan and Qorasuv during the May 2005 unrest in Uzbekistan in which hundreds of protestors were killed by troops. Violence started to pick up again in 2010 in Kyrgyz part of the valley, heated by ethnic tensions, worsening economic conditions due to the global economic crisis, and political conflict over ousting of Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev in April 2010. In June 2010, about 200 people have been reported to be killed during clashes in Osh and Jalal-Abad, and 2000 more were injured. http: www.un.org apps news story.asp?NewsID 35071&Cr Kyrgyz&Cr1 Between 100,000 and 300,000 refugees, predominantly of Uzbek ethnic origin, attempted to flee to Uzbekistan, causing a major humanitarian crisis. Until Soviet times and the construction of the Pamir Highway from Osh to Khorog in the 1920s the routes to Kashgaria and the Pamirs were mere bridle-paths over the mountains, crossing them by lofty passes (mountain pass). For instance, the passes of Kara-kazyk, 4,389 m (14,400 ft) and Tenghiz-bai 3,413 m (11,200 ft), both passable all the year round, lead from Marghelan to Karateghin and the Pamirs, while Kashgar is reached via Osh and Gulcha, and then over the passes of Terek-davan, 3,720 m (12,205 ft); (open all the year round), Taldyk, 3,505 m (11,500 ft), Archat, 3,536 m (11,600 ft), and Shart-davan, 4,267 m (14,000 ft). Other passes leading out of the valley are the Jiptyk, 3,798 m (12,460 ft), S. of Kokand; the Isfairam, 3,657 m (12,000 ft), leading to the glen of the Surkhab (Vakhsh River), and the Kavuk, 3,962 m (13,000 ft), across the Alai Mts. Until Soviet times and the construction of the Pamir Highway from Osh to Khorog in the 1920s the routes to Kashgaria and the Pamirs were mere bridle-paths over the mountains, crossing them by lofty passes (mountain pass). For instance, the passes of Kara-kazyk, 4,389 m (14,400 ft) and Tenghiz-bai 3,413 m (11,200 ft), both passable all the year round, lead from Marghelan to Karateghin and the Pamirs, while Kashgar is reached via Osh and Gulcha, and then over the passes of Terek-davan, 3,720 m (12,205 ft); (open all the year round), Taldyk, 3,505 m (11,500 ft), Archat, 3,536 m (11,600 ft), and Shart-davan, 4,267 m (14,000 ft). Other passes leading out of the valley are the Jiptyk, 3,798 m (12,460 ft), S. of Kokand; the Isfairam, 3,657 m (12,000 ft), leading to the glen of the Surkhab (Vakhsh River), and the Kavuk, 3,962 m (13,000 ft), across the Alai Mts. Administrative divisions In 1911 the province was divided into five districts, the chief towns of which were Fergana (New Marghelan (Fergana)), capital of the province (8,977 inhabitants in 1897), Andijan (49,682 in 1900), Kokand (86,704 in 1900), Namangan (61,906 in 1897), and Osh (37,397 in 1900); but Old Marghelan (Marghelan) (42,855 in 1900) and Chust (Chust, Uzbekistan) (13,686 in 1897) were also towns of importance. Later that year the IMU conducted its first verifiable operations, with an incursion into the Batken region of southern Kyrgyzstan - a region populated mainly by ethnic Uzbeks, and lying between Tavildara in Tajikistan and the Fergana Valley in Uzbekistan. Insurgents seized the Mayor of Osh (the regional capital) and successfully extorted a ransom from the ill-prepared Kyrgyz (Kyrgyzstan) government in Bishkek, as well as a helicopter to transport them to Afghanistan. Further incursions into Batken followed, with one raid seeing a number of Japanese geologists kidnapped - although denied by Japan, their subsequent release almost certainly followed a significant ransom payment. The results of the elections were disputed, with allegations of vote-rigging. Two of Akayev's children won seats. Serious protests broke out in Osh and Jalal-Abad, with protesters occupying administration buildings and the Osh airport. The government declared that it was ready to negotiate with the demonstrators. However an opposition leader said talks would only be worthwhile if the President himself took part. - Osh Oш Osh (Osh Province) 208,520 city - Transportation The Pamir Highway, the world's second highest international road, runs from Dushanbe in Tajikistan to Osh in Kyrgyzstan through the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province, and is the isolated region's main supply route. The Great Silk Road crossed a number of Pamir Mountain ranges.


Republic of Crimea

to return to Crimea in the mid-1980s under perestroika. "The Crimean Tatars began repatriating on a massive scale beginning in the late 1980s and continuing into the early 1990s. The population of Crimean Tatars in Crimea rapidly reached 250,000 and leveled off at 270,000 where it remains as of this writing 2001 . There are believed to be between 30,000 and 100,000 remaining in places of former exile in Central Asia." Greta Lynn Uehling, ''The Crimean Tatars'' (Encyclopedia of the Minorities, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn) iccrimea.org Ukraine restored Crimea's autonomous status (Autonomous Republic of Crimea) in 1991. Crimea's autonomous status was further reiterated in 1996 with the ratification of Ukraine's current constitution (Constitution of Ukraine), which designated Crimea as the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea", but also an "inseparable constituent part of Ukraine".


Novorossiysk

, Ukraine * The Southern front (Volunteer Army): Started on November 15, 1917 (creation officially announced on December 27 both O.S. (Old Style and New Style dates) ) by General Mikhail Alekseev and commanded by General Lavr Kornilov, later headed by General Denikin and named the "Armed Forces of the South of Russia". The Southern Front featured massive-scale operations and was the most dangerous threat to the Bolshevik Government. At first, it was based entirely upon volunteers in Russia proper, mostly the Cossacks, among the first to oppose the Bolshevik Government. In 1919, after General Denikin’s attack upon Moscow failed, the Armed Forces of the South of Russia retreated. On March 26 and March 27, 1920 the remnants of the Volunteer Army were evacuated from Novorossiysk to the Crimea, where they merged with the army of Pyotr Wrangel. The first '''HMS ''Montrose''''' was one of eight Admiralty-type destroyer leaders (Admiralty type destroyer leader), sometimes known as the ''Scott'' class. They were named after figures from Scottish (Scotland) history and were ordered under the Wartime Emergency Construction Programme. She was laid down at Hebburn-on-Tyne on 17 September 1917, launched in June 1918 and completed on the 14th September that year, too late for her to be actively involved in the First World War (World War I). She was sent to the Mediterranean Fleet where she would be stationed for an astonishing ten years, being involved in a number of operations during her attachment to the Fleet. One of her first duties was assisting in the evacuation of the remnants of the White Army at Novorossiysk, a harbour near the Black Sea, in March 1920. Many other Royal Navy warships assisted in the evacuation, along with British forces on land. Rivers The Volga (Volga River) and Sura Rivers connect Chuvashia to a national and international water network. To the south, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan, the Caspian Sea, and Black Sea are directly reachable. To the west, the Volga River connects Cheboksary with Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Moscow and the northern regions of Russia. By using river-sea vessels, cargo transportation is possible from Chuvash river ports all the way to Saint Petersburg, Novorossiysk (on the Black Sea), Astrakhan, and ports situated on the Danube River. However, the river is frozen from December through April. Because the Volga River runs through Chuvashia, Cheboksary is a frequent stop on the many boat tours that travel along the major cities up and down the Volga. To the south, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan, the Caspian Sea, and Black Sea are directly reachable. To the west, the Volga River connects Cheboksary with Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Moscow, and the northern regions of Russia. By using river-sea vessels, it is possible to take cargo from Chuvash riverports all the way to Saint Petersburg, Novorossiysk (on the Black Sea), Astrakhan, and ports situated on the Danube river. However, the river is frozen from December to April. Geography Krasnodar Krai encompasses the western part of the Forecaucasus and a part of the northern slopes of Caucasus Major. Krasnodar Krai borders, clockwise from the west, Ukraine—from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch and the Sea of Azov—Russia's Rostov Oblast, Stavropol Krai, and the Karachay–Cherkess Republic (Karachay–Cherkessia), and Georgia (Georgia (country))'s breakaway republic of Abkhazia. The krai territory encircles the Republic of Adygea. Krasnodar Krai's southern border is formed by what is left of Russia's Black Sea coast, with the most important port (Novorossiysk) and resort (Sochi) in this part of the country. thumb right A hilly landscape near Goryachy Klyuch (File:Goryachiy Kluch.jpg) '''Krasnodar''' ( wikipedia:Novorossiysk


Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

personnel who interrogated him already knew this, and it becomes clear to Smiley that the operation was a trap set by Moscow Center to discredit Control and remove the threat to their mole 'Gerald'. The original stadium dates from the First Republic (Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)) between the World Wars and served as a venue for Sokol displays of synchronized gymnastics on a massive scale. It was later used for large displays during the communist era (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic). Performances with several hundred gymnasts making various complex formations and exercising identically while accompanied by tunes from traditional folk music attracted the attention of many visitors. Each time, among the widely popular shows were those of young well-trained recruits who wore only boxer shorts while on the display or women dancing in miniskirts. The groups of gymnasts (unlike the soldiers, who were ordered to practise and participate) were put together from keen local athletic association members who regularly trained for the show throughout the year prior to the event, which repeated every five years. The name of the performance, Spartakiáda, referred to the power and strength of the slave uprising led by Spartacus (Third Servile War).


Giza

this time that the most famous pyramids, those near Giza, were built. Over time, as authority became less centralized, the ability and willingness to harness the resources required for construction on a massive scale (Egyptian pyramid construction techniques) decreased, and later pyramids were smaller, less well-built and often hastily constructed. thumb 300px Aerial view of Giza pyramid complex (Image:Giza-pyramids.JPG) Giza is the location of the Pyramid of Khufu (Great Pyramid of Giza) (also known as the "Great Pyramid" and the "Pyramid of Cheops"); the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Kephren); the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices known as "Queen's pyramids"; and the Great Sphinx. *Cairo (Tower of Cairo (Cairo Tower)) Thus she returned to Cairo and resumed her singing career, marrying the Egyptian director Ahmed Badrkhan, though they were to divorce soon after. * Format: CD September 15 – 16, 1978 Sound and Light Theater, Giza, Egypt align "center" 35 thumb right Stay away from w:Restaurants restaurants (File:6x8_80dpi_-_Piment_rouge_-_view_of_cellar_fm_mezz_stairs_to_Peel.JPG) that have menus in five languages. That's always a tourist trap. You want to eat where the locals eat - Curtis Stone (w:Curtis Stone). right thumb Herodotus (File:Kheops-Pyramid.jpg)’s book made Giza (w:Giza) famous in ancient Greece. When a list of the Seven Wonders of the World was created, ancient historians included the Great Pyramid (w:Great Pyramid of Giza).... Michael Woods (w:Michael Woods). *For the general public, my work is sometimes easier than a painting because there is someone addressing you; it can actually be a relief. What's interesting is the idea of a tourist randomly coming in and the experience they'll have. *Herodotus’s book made Giza (w:Giza) famous in ancient Greece. When a list of the Seven Wonders of the World was created, ancient historians included the Great Pyramid (w:Great Pyramid of Giza).... Thousands of tourists from all over the world visit the Great Pyramid each year. It is the only one of the original Seven Wonders of the World that still exists. Tourism and time have taken a toll on the buildings at Giza. **Michael Woods (w:Michael Woods), Mary B. Woods in: ''Seven Wonders of the Ancient World,'' Twenty-First Century Books, 1 September 2008, p. ,15 "There is avian flu now in Egypt," Hassan el Bushra, regional adviser for emerging diseases at the eastern Mediterranean regional office of the WHO said. His response was to the reported presence of H5N1 virus in dead birds in three areas in Egypt - namely Cairo (w:Cairo), Giza (w:Giza), and Al-Minya (w:Al-Minya).


Dushanbe

became a fully-fledged republic, and the area around Khujand was made a part of it. This blocked the valley's natural outlet and the routes to Samarkand and Bukhara, but none of these borders was of any great significance so long as Soviet rule lasted. The whole region was part of a single economy geared to cotton production on a massive scale and the over-arching political structures meant that crossing borders was not a problem. Since 1991 this has changed, for the worse. Uzbekistan regularly closes its borders with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, causing immense difficulties for trade and for those who live in the region. Travellers from Khujand to Dushanbe, unable to take the route through Uzbekistan, have to cross a high mountain pass between the two cities instead, along a terrible road. Similarly communications between Bishkek and Osh pass through difficult mountainous country and are endangered by the attitude of President Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan. Ethnic tensions also flared at one stage, most notably in the town of Uzgen, near Osh, where were Uzbek-Kyrgyz riots in 1990 (Osh riots (1990)). There has been no further ethnic violence, and things appeared to have quietened down for several years. Weisbrode, K. (2001) ''Central Eurasia -- Prize or Quicksand?'' Oxford University Press, pp 46-48. However, the valley is a religiously conservative region which was particularly hard-hit by President Karimov's secularization legislation in Uzbekistan, together with his decision to close the borders with Kyrgyzstan in 2003. This devastated the local economy by preventing the importation of cheap Chinese consumer goods. The deposition of Askar Akayev in Kyrgyzstan in April 2005, coupled with the arrest of a group of prominent local businessmen brought underlying tensions to a boil in the region around Andijan and Qorasuv during the May 2005 unrest in Uzbekistan in which hundreds of protestors were killed by troops. Violence started to pick up again in 2010 in Kyrgyz part of the valley, heated by ethnic tensions, worsening economic conditions due to the global economic crisis, and political conflict over ousting of Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev in April 2010. In June 2010, about 200 people have been reported to be killed during clashes in Osh and Jalal-Abad, and 2000 more were injured. http: www.un.org apps news story.asp?NewsID 35071&Cr Kyrgyz&Cr1 Between 100,000 and 300,000 refugees, predominantly of Uzbek ethnic origin, attempted to flee to Uzbekistan, causing a major humanitarian crisis. thumb right 250px Map of Tajikistan (File:LocationTajikistan.svg) thumb right 250px Dushanbe (File:Dushanbe panorama 07.jpg), Capital of Tajikistan thumb right 250px Khujand (File:Khujandsquare.jpg) The whirling dance or Sufi whirling that is proverbially associated with Dervishes is best known in the West by the practices (performances) of the Mevlevi order in Turkey, and is part of a formal ceremony known as the Sama (Sama (Sufism)). It is, however, also practiced by other orders. The Sama is only one of the many Sufi ceremonies performed to try to reach religious ecstasy (''majdhb'', ''fana''). The name ''Mevlevi'' comes from the Persian (Persian language) poet, Rumi (Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi) who was a Dervish himself. This practice, though not intended as entertainment, has become a tourist attraction in Turkey. B. Ghafurov, "Todjikon", 2 vols., Dushanbe 1983-5 Rumi Britannica.com Mahmadsaid Juraqulov, head of the anti-organized crime department in the Interior Ministry of Tajikistan, told reporters in Dushanbe on 16 October 2006 that the "Islamic Movement of Turkestan is the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan," and that Uzbek secret services manufactured the change in name. Juraqulov also said that the IMT is not a major security threat to Tajikistan or Kyrgyzstan. "Everyone knows that it is in Uzbekistan that the IMU wants to create problems. For them, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan are just regrouping bases they're trying to reach." Tajik official says Uzbeks invented regional terror group RadioFreeEurope RadioLiberty WikiPedia:Dushanbe Commons:Category:Dushanbe


Bishkek

it. This was compounded in 1928 when the Tajik ASSR became a fully-fledged republic, and the area around Khujand was made a part of it. This blocked the valley's natural outlet and the routes to Samarkand and Bukhara, but none of these borders was of any great significance so long as Soviet rule lasted. The whole region was part of a single economy geared to cotton production on a massive scale and the over-arching political structures meant that crossing borders was not a problem. Since 1991 this has changed, for the worse. Uzbekistan regularly closes its borders with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, causing immense difficulties for trade and for those who live in the region. Travellers from Khujand to Dushanbe, unable to take the route through Uzbekistan, have to cross a high mountain pass between the two cities instead, along a terrible road. Similarly communications between Bishkek and Osh pass through difficult mountainous country and are endangered by the attitude of President Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan. Ethnic tensions also flared at one stage, most notably in the town of Uzgen, near Osh, where were Uzbek-Kyrgyz riots in 1990 (Osh riots (1990)). There has been no further ethnic violence, and things appeared to have quietened down for several years. Weisbrode, K. (2001) ''Central Eurasia -- Prize or Quicksand?'' Oxford University Press, pp 46-48. However, the valley is a religiously conservative region which was particularly hard-hit by President Karimov's secularization legislation in Uzbekistan, together with his decision to close the borders with Kyrgyzstan in 2003. This devastated the local economy by preventing the importation of cheap Chinese consumer goods. The deposition of Askar Akayev in Kyrgyzstan in April 2005, coupled with the arrest of a group of prominent local businessmen brought underlying tensions to a boil in the region around Andijan and Qorasuv during the May 2005 unrest in Uzbekistan in which hundreds of protestors were killed by troops. Violence started to pick up again in 2010 in Kyrgyz part of the valley, heated by ethnic tensions, worsening economic conditions due to the global economic crisis, and political conflict over ousting of Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev in April 2010. In June 2010, about 200 people have been reported to be killed during clashes in Osh and Jalal-Abad, and 2000 more were injured. http: www.un.org apps news story.asp?NewsID 35071&Cr Kyrgyz&Cr1 Between 100,000 and 300,000 refugees, predominantly of Uzbek ethnic origin, attempted to flee to Uzbekistan, causing a major humanitarian crisis. - WikiPedia:Bishkek Commons:Category:Bishkek


Białystok

Security Corps Staff in Warsaw. WikiPedia:Białystok Commons:Białystok


Suzhou

Wikipedia:Suzhou commons:苏州


Burkina Faso

and severity of recent Sahelian droughts stands out. Famine and dislocation on a massive scale—from 1968 to 1974 and again in the early and mid 1980s—was blamed on two spikes in the severity of the 1960-1980s drought period. The Sahel region; assessing progress twenty-five years after the great drought. Simon Batterbury, republished paper from 1998 RGS-IBG conference. Global Environmental Change (2001) v11, no 1, 1-95.<


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