Places Known For

major resistance


Najaf

anticolonial secret societies had been formed in Iraq during 1918 and 1919. The League of the Islamic Awakening (''Jamiyat an Nahda al Islamiya'') was organized at Najaf. The Muslim National League (''Al Jamiya al Wataniya al Islamiya'') was formed with the object of organizing and mobilizing the population for major resistance. In February 1919, in Baghdad, a coalition of Shia (Shi'a Islam) merchants, Sunni (Sunni Islam) teachers, and civil servants, Sunni and Shia ulama, and Iraqi

had been formed in the region during 1918 and 1919. At Najaf, Jamiyat an Nahda al Islamiya (The League of the Islamic Awakening) was organized. Al Jamiya al Wataniya al Islamiya (The Muslim National League) was formed with the object of organizing and mobilizing the population for major resistance. In February 1919, in Baghdad, a coalition of Shia (Shi'a Islam) merchants, Sunni (Sunni Islam) teachers and civil servants, Sunni and Shia ulama, and Iraqi officers formed the Haras al


Qazvin

to join Hulegu's expedition to Iran and strengthened the army with 1,000 siege engineers from China. Möngke's armies, led by his brother Hulegu (c. 1217–65), launched an attack on the Ismailis in Iran, crushing the last major resistance there by the end of 1256. The Hashashin Imam Rukn ad-Din requested permission to travel to Karakorum to meet with the Great Khan Mongke himself. Hulegu sent him on the long journey to Mongolia, but once the Imam arrived there, Mongke criticized his action and dismissed him. Rukn ad-Din was killed in uncertain circumstances. For the Abbasids, envoys from Baghdad attended the coronation of Mongke in 1251 to come to terms with the Mongols. However, Mongke told Hulegu whether the Caliph Al-Musta'sim refused to meet him in person, then Hulegu was to destroy Baghdad. Hulegu then advanced on Iraq, taking the capital at Baghdad in 1258. Hulegu sent Mongke some of his war booty with the news of his conquest of Baghdad. Mongke dispatched a Chinese messenger to congratulate for his victory in reply. Outraged by the attack on the caliphate, Malik Kamil revolted, killing his Mongol overseer. Hulegu's son Yoshumut invested Mayyafariqin and executed Malik Kamil. From there they moved into Syria in 1259, took Damascus and Aleppo, and reached the shores of the Mediterranean. Fearing of the Mongol advance, the Ayyubid Sultan Malik Nasir Yusuf refused to see Hulegu and fled. However, the Mongols captured him at Gaza. Attack on his vehicle On January 8, 2010, Karroubi's son, Hussein Karroubi reported on Karroubi's Web site, Saham News, that shots had been fired at his armored car by pro-government demonstrators in Qazvin. Demonstrators also threw "bricks and rocks" at the flat where he was staying. The New York Times newspaper reported that he "has been pushed and shoved" and had a shoe thrown "at him — a grave insult in Iran" — since the election. "But this was the first time someone shot at him." Shots Fired at Iran Opposition Leader’s Car, Son Says By NAZILA FATHI, January 8, 2010 Early life and origin He claimed to be of Afghan (Pashtun people) origin most of his life but evidence suggests that he was born in Iran. WikiPedia:Qazvin Commons:Category:Qazvin fa:قزوین


Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

6268680 agency Associated Press publisher NBC News title Al-Zarqawi group vows allegiance to bin Laden date 18 October 2004 accessdate 13 July 2007 Attacks by the group on civilians, the Iraqi Government and security forces continued to increase over the next two years. (See list of major resistance attacks in Iraq (Iraq War insurgent attacks).) In a letter to al-Zarqawi in July 2005, al-Qaeda's deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiri outlined a four-stage plan to expand the Iraq War, which included expelling US forces (Military of the United States) from Iraq, establishing an Islamic authority, as caliphate, spreading the conflict to Iraq's secular neighbors, and clash with Israel, which the letter says "was established only to challenge any new Islamic entity". Category:Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Category:2014 Iraq conflict Category:2015 Iraq conflict Category:Anti-government factions of the Syrian Civil War Category:Anti-Shi'ism Category:Designated terrorist organizations associated with Islam Category:Government of Canada designated terrorist organizations Category:Government of Egypt designated terrorist organizations Category:Government of India designated terrorist organisations Category:Iraqi insurgency Category:Islamic extremist groups restricting education Category:Islamism in Iraq Category:Islamism in Syria Category:Jihadist groups Category:Organisations based in Iraq Category:Organisations designated as terrorist by Australia Category:Organizations designated as terrorist by the Turkish Directorate General for Security Category:Organizations designated as terrorist by the United States government Category:Rebel groups in Egypt Category:Rebel groups in Iraq Category:Rebel groups in Libya Category:Rebel groups in Syria Category:Russian Federal Security Service designated terrorist organizations Category:Salafi groups Category:Sunni Islamist groups Category:Terrorism in Iraq Category:Terrorism in Lebanon Category:Terrorism in Syria Category:Terrorism in Turkey Category:United Kingdom Home Office designated terrorist groups Category:Wahhabism


Aleppo

and Chagataid families to join Hulegu's expedition to Iran and strengthened the army with 1,000 siege engineers from China. Möngke's armies, led by his brother Hulegu (c. 1217–65), launched an attack on the Ismailis in Iran, crushing the last major resistance there by the end of 1256. The Hashashin Imam Rukn ad-Din requested permission to travel to Karakorum to meet with the Great Khan Mongke himself. Hulegu sent him on the long journey to Mongolia, but once the Imam arrived there, Mongke criticized his action and dismissed him. Rukn ad-Din was killed in uncertain circumstances. For the Abbasids, envoys from Baghdad attended the coronation of Mongke in 1251 to come to terms with the Mongols. However, Mongke told Hulegu whether the Caliph Al-Musta'sim refused to meet him in person, then Hulegu was to destroy Baghdad. Hulegu then advanced on Iraq, taking the capital at Baghdad in 1258. Hulegu sent Mongke some of his war booty with the news of his conquest of Baghdad. Mongke dispatched a Chinese messenger to congratulate for his victory in reply. Outraged by the attack on the caliphate, Malik Kamil revolted, killing his Mongol overseer. Hulegu's son Yoshumut invested Mayyafariqin and executed Malik Kamil. From there they moved into Syria in 1259, took Damascus and Aleppo, and reached the shores of the Mediterranean. Fearing of the Mongol advance, the Ayyubid Sultan Malik Nasir Yusuf refused to see Hulegu and fled. However, the Mongols captured him at Gaza. WikiPedia:Aleppo commons:Aleppo


Damascus

, crushing the last major resistance there by the end of 1256. The Hashashin Imam Rukn ad-Din requested permission to travel to Karakorum to meet with the Great Khan Mongke himself. Hulegu sent him on the long journey to Mongolia, but once the Imam arrived there, Mongke criticized his action and dismissed him. Rukn ad-Din was killed in uncertain circumstances. For the Abbasids, envoys from Baghdad attended the coronation of Mongke in 1251 to come to terms with the Mongols. However, Mongke told Hulegu whether the Caliph Al-Musta'sim refused to meet him in person, then Hulegu was to destroy Baghdad. Hulegu then advanced on Iraq, taking the capital at Baghdad in 1258. Hulegu sent Mongke some of his war booty with the news of his conquest of Baghdad. Mongke dispatched a Chinese messenger to congratulate for his victory in reply. Outraged by the attack on the caliphate, Malik Kamil revolted, killing his Mongol overseer. Hulegu's son Yoshumut invested Mayyafariqin and executed Malik Kamil. From there they moved into Syria in 1259, took Damascus and Aleppo, and reached the shores of the Mediterranean. Fearing of the Mongol advance, the Ayyubid Sultan Malik Nasir Yusuf refused to see Hulegu and fled. However, the Mongols captured him at Gaza. The court could meet wherever necessary, not solely in Jerusalem. After around 1120 the court also included bishops, and according to tradition new crusaders were entitled to sit and vote; the first time this occurred was the Council of Acre on 24 June 1148 during the Second Crusade, when the fatal decision to attack Damascus was made. Later the masters of the military orders were entitled to sit and vote as well. During the 12th century there was also a smaller group of advisors to the king, but by the end of the century this group had fallen out of use. WikiPedia:Damascus commons:دمشق


Syria

Mongke ordered the Jochid and Chagataid families to join Hulegu's expedition to Iran and strengthened the army with 1,000 siege engineers from China. Möngke's armies, led by his brother Hulegu (c. 1217–65), launched an attack on the Ismailis in Iran, crushing the last major resistance there by the end of 1256. The Hashashin Imam Rukn ad-Din requested permission to travel to Karakorum to meet with the Great Khan Mongke himself. Hulegu sent him on the long journey to Mongolia, but once the Imam arrived there, Mongke criticized his action and dismissed him. Rukn ad-Din was killed in uncertain circumstances. For the Abbasids, envoys from Baghdad attended the coronation of Mongke in 1251 to come to terms with the Mongols. However, Mongke told Hulegu whether the Caliph Al-Musta'sim refused to meet him in person, then Hulegu was to destroy Baghdad. Hulegu then advanced on Iraq, taking the capital at Baghdad in 1258. Hulegu sent Mongke some of his war booty with the news of his conquest of Baghdad. Mongke dispatched a Chinese messenger to congratulate for his victory in reply. Outraged by the attack on the caliphate, Malik Kamil revolted, killing his Mongol overseer. Hulegu's son Yoshumut invested Mayyafariqin and executed Malik Kamil. From there they moved into Syria in 1259, took Damascus and Aleppo, and reached the shores of the Mediterranean. Fearing of the Mongol advance, the Ayyubid Sultan Malik Nasir Yusuf refused to see Hulegu and fled. However, the Mongols captured him at Gaza. The CBRL currently sponsors a large number of research projects in the Levant, including archaeological excavation, survey and publication. Some of the major projects include work on the Palaeolithic in Lebanon; the beginnings of farming in southern Jordan; large regional multi-period archaeological and environmental surveys in Syria and Cyprus (combining traditional techniques with cutting edge use of satellite imagery and computerised recording); architectural surveys throughout the Levant, but perhaps especially in Jerusalem and the West Bank; and anthropological research on modern societies. PSA11 : ''Israeli Jet Fighters'' Kids playing soccer accost their goalkeeper for failing to stop a shot ("There's no retard in team!"). Flint (Flint (G.I. Joe)) approaches and gives the kids a bewildering account of the day's international news. The news is as follows, "Damage to the base is said to be heavy and the Israeli jets are reported to have made it back to their headquarters." The team scores and while celebrating Flint returns and his news report continues: "A 49-year-old unidentified man went berserk last night, opening fire with a 12-gauge shotgun in a crowded downtown restaurant... Fighting broke out overnight between rival factions along the Israeli-Syrian border. Initial reports claim the Israeli fighters bombed a guerrilla base, kill—" with the "G.I. Joe" chorus ending, cutting Flint off in mid-sentence. Other Other theories of the bills' origin have become increasingly popular; Iran remains a suspect to many, while others blame independent criminal gangs operating out of Russia or China. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria


Iraq

Commons:Category:Iraq WikiPedia:Iraq Dmoz:Regional Middle East Iraq


South Africa

The '''Namibia Defence Force''' was created when South West Africa gained full independence from South Africa in 1989. The new constitution of Namibia defines the role of the military as "defending the territory and national interests." * Botswana residents protest Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls * Managed dispute with South Africa over the location of the boundary in the Orange River * Dormant dispute remains where Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe boundaries converge The alliance between SWAPO and MPLA is old began as both Angola's and Namibia's ruling parties sought independence during the mid nineteenth century and into the Angolan Civil War. In Angola, the leftist movement MPLA was fighting the rightist movement UNITA, which was supported by South Africa. In Namibia, SWAPO, then being a rebel movement, was fighting for independence from South Africa. As MPLA and SWAPO shared a common


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