as the landing place of the first European expedition to come ashore in present-day California. The peninsula has been described as "where California began". Today, Point Loma houses two major military bases, a national cemetery, a national monument, and a university, in addition to residential and commercial areas. History thumb left 1857 map showing Point Loma in relation to San Diego Bay (File:1857 U.S.C.S. Map of San Diego Bay, California - Geographicus - SanDiegoBay-uscs-1857.jpg) Loma is the Spanish (Spanish language) word for hill. The original name of the peninsula was La Punta de la Loma de San Diego, translated as Hill Point of San Diego. This was later anglicized (Anglicisation) to Point Loma. Fetzer,Leland: San Diego County Place Names A to Z , page 113 There were no permanent indigenous settlements on Point Loma because of a lack of fresh water. Kumeyaay people did visit Ocean Beach (Ocean Beach, San Diego) periodically to harvest mussels, clams, abalone and lobsters. Held, Ruth Varney, "Beach Town", privately published, San Diego, 1975, page 1 Point Loma was discovered by Europeans on September 28, 1542 when Portuguese (Portuguese people) navigator Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (''João Rodrigues Cabrilho'' in Portuguese) departed from Mexico and led an expedition for the Spanish (Spanish Empire) crown to explore the west coast of what is now the United States. Cabrillo described San Diego Bay as "a very good enclosed port". Historians believe he docked his flagship on Point Loma's east shore, probably at Ballast Point (Ballast Point Light). This was the first landing by a European in present-day California, so that Point Loma has been described as "where California began". Davidson, Winifred, ''Where California Began'', 1929, McIntyre Publishing Company, San Diego thumb right United States Boundary Survey of the San Diego area, 1850, showing the La Playa Trail (File:US Boundary Survey 1850.png) from La Playa to Old San Diego and the Mission More than 200 years were to pass before a permanent European settlement was established in San Diego in 1769. Mission San Diego (Mission San Diego de Alcala) itself was in the San Diego River valley, but its port was a bayside beach in Point Loma called La Playa (La Playa, San Diego) (Spanish for beach). The historic La Playa Trail, the oldest European trail on the West Coast (Western United States), Historic La Playa Trail Association website led from the Mission and Presidio to La Playa, where ships anchored and unloaded their cargoes via small boats. Part of the route became present-day Rosecrans Street. Scott, Byron N. "Old La Playa Trail Becomes Modern 4-Lane Divided Highway". California Highways and Public Works. Vol. 18, no.7. July 1940. p. 10. In his book Two Years Before the Mast, Richard Henry Dana, Jr. describes how sailors in the 1830s camped on the beach at La Playa, accumulated cattle hides for export, and hunted for wood and jackrabbits in the hills of Point Loma. On February 13, 1900, she transferred the Society's international headquarters from New York City to a new colony she called Lomaland, located in the Point Loma (Point Loma, San Diego) community near San Diego, California. Her settlement included Raja-Yoga School and College, Theosophical University, and the School for the Revival of the Lost Mysteries of Antiquity. San Diego Historical Society: Katherine Tingley biography '''Louis Rose''' (March 24, 1807 – February 14, 1888) was a pioneer developer of San Diego, California. The neighborhood of Roseville (Roseville-Fleetridge, San Diego) in Point Loma (Point Loma, San Diego) is named for him, as are Rose Creek and Rose Canyon. In 1866 Rose bought land and laid out a town he called "Roseville" adjacent to San Diego Bay on the Point Loma (Point Loma, San Diego) peninsula. He laid out streets and built a wharf. He thought it would be a future city, and for a time it was a separate city competing with San Diego's New Town (now Downtown San Diego) across the bay. He hoped to link Roseville to a railroad. Many were skeptical about the prospects for Roseville or San Diego, but he would always say "Just wait a while and you will see." City of San Diego proclamation, September 25, 2005 Roseville (Roseville-Fleetridge, San Diego) eventually became part of the city of San Diego. In 2011, Stone announced plans for major expansion, which will include a new restaurant and brewery in Point Loma (Point Loma, San Diego), expansion of its Escondido brewery to 500,000 barrel per year capacity, a 18.7 acre organic farm to supply produce to its current and future restaurants, and a shop in the South Park (South Park, San Diego) neighborhood which will sell its beer in bottles, kegs and growlers (Beer_bottle#Growler).
Census Bureau the island's population further declined to 39 persons. Its only remaining community, Nikolski (Nikolski, Alaska), comprised the island's entire population. Fort Glenn, a former major military facility on the northeast shore of the island, played an instrumental role in the North Pacific Theater (Pacific Ocean theater of World War II) in World War II. , but the lake ultimately drained through a notch eroded in the northeast rim. The prehistoric lake attained a maximum depth of about 150 m (500 ft) and the upper surface reached an elevation of about 475 m (1560 ft), at which point it overtopped the low point of the caldera rim. Small, shallow remnants of the lake remained north of Cone D at an altitude of about 1075 feet: a small shallow lake located between the caldera rim and Cone D; a smaller lake (named Cone B Lake) farther north near the caldera's gate. After the 2008 eruption, the hydrogeology of the caldera was greatly changed with five separate sizable lakes now emplaced. In addition to the caldera lakes, Cone A, Cone E, Cone G and the new 2008 vent on Cone D contain small crater lakes. left 300px Okmok Caledra thumb (File:Okmok Caldera.png) prominence location Umnak, Alaska, USA (Alaska) range Aleutian Range ''Union'' spent the month of January 1956 participating in Operation "Cowealex" which called for a landing on Umnak Island in the Aleutians (Aleutian Islands). Rough weather necessitated changing the landing site to Unalaska Island in Makuskin Bay. The ship returned to San Diego on 9 February and conducted local operations. ''Union'' then left California en route to Pearl Harbor to participate in a landing exercise, "Hawrltlex 1-56" which concluded on 11 April. She arrived at San Diego on 23 April and spent the months until November taking part in local operations and undergoing upkeep. Late in August, ''Union'' made a brief trip to Vancouver, British Columbia, to represent the United States Navy in the Pacific National Exhibit. On 13 November 1956, the ship sailed for San Francisco and an overhaul at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard at Hunters Point (Bayview-Hunters Point, San Francisco, California). History The airport was constructed during World War II as '''Fort Randall Army Airfield''' during the military buildup of Alaska in secret beginning in 1941. Disguised as civilian employees of the Blair Canning and Packing Company, Army personnel in civilian clothes were shipped to Cold Bay. Although construction began in December 1941, the airfield was ready for operation by March 1942. Because of the foresight of Alaska's military commanders, the new airfield, along with another new secret airfield Cape Field (Cape Field at Fort Glenn) at Umnak, was ready to contribute during the Battle of Dutch Harbor in June 1942. The airfield at Cold Bay would continue to contribute throughout the war.
for North Korea in the early part of the war came in at Wonsan, and from the beginning it was considered a major military target. This plan sought to cut the flow of North Korean troops and materiel from North Korea to the combat area. Two cut points, the P'yong-yang
Christiansen, and Malcolm Chapman. (2010) 'Chinese Consumers: The Romantic Reappraisal’. Ethnography, Sept 2010, 11, 331-357. Griffiths, Michael. B. (2010) ‘Lamb Buddha’s Migrant Workers: Self-assertion on China’s Urban Fringe’. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs (China Aktuell), 39, 2, 3-37. The Battle of Kunyang In the spring of 23, a major military confrontation sealed Wang Mang's fate. He sent his cousin Wang Yi (王邑) and his prime minister Wang Xun (王尋
Dezong due to incompetence, Yang was solely in charge of the government, and he revived major military projects that Yuan had advocated until his downfall — to rebuild Yuan Prefecture (原州, in modern Guyuan, Ningxia), formerly Tang territory but which had become part of the no man's land between territories held by Tang and Tufan, as a forward advance base for a campaign to recapture lands lost to Tufan; and to conscript labor from the regions of the two capitals (Chang'an and Luoyang) and Guanzhong to reopen Lingyang Aqueduct (陵陽渠, flowing through Bayan Nur, Inner Mongolia) in order to promote agriculture in the region by soldiers. When Duan Xiushi, the military governor of Jingyuan Circuit (涇原, headquartered in modern Pingliang, Gansu) opposed the projects on account that it would provoke a Tufan attack, Yang, angered by Duan's opposition, had Duan recalled to the capital to serve in the relatively powerless post as minister of agriculture. When the disciplinarian general Li Huaiguang was subsequently named to succeed Duan, Duan's soldiers, fearing Li Huaiguang's harshness, rebelled under the leadership of the officer Liu Wenxi (劉文喜). While Liu was quickly killed by his own subordinates, and the rebellion dissipated, neither Yuan Prefecture nor Lingyang Aquedate was actually ever rebuilt. Meanwhile, Emperor Dezong, under Yang's proposal, also began to consider campaigns to recapture the western prefectures lost to Tufan during and immediately after the Anshi Rebellion. However, his putting Li Huaiguang, known for being a harsh commander, in charge of the project caused a mutiny of the soldiers at Jingyuan Circuit (涇原, headquartered in modern Pingliang, Gansu) in 780. Emperor Dezong had the Jingyuan mutiny suppressed, to show resolve, but was forced to abandon the plans to act against Tufan. Around the new year 769, at the suggestion of the chancellor (chancellor of Tang Dynasty) Yuan Zai, the three prefectures belonging to Binning Circuit were merged into Guo Ziyi's command. Ma, along with his army, was moved to Jingyuan Circuit (涇原, headquartered in modern Pingliang, Gansu). Ma took part of the army to the capital of Jingyuan Circuit, Jing Prefecture, first, to rebuild the walls, while briefly having Duan remain at Bin Prefecture to oversee the troop movements. The soldiers under Ma's command were still largely soldiers who had come from Anxi in 756 to fight the Yan rebels and who had since been moved multiple locations. They were displeased about being moved once again, and the officer Wang Tongzhi (王童之) subsequently organized a plot to rise in mutiny. Duan found out about the plot and prepared to counteract; once Wang's plot exposed itself, he executed Wang and eight other coconspirators, and the rest of the army did not dare to resist the subsequent move to Jing Prefecture. The journey took the travellers from Peking to Tungkuan, then Sian (Xi'an), Pingliang, Lanchow (Lanzhou), Sining (Xining), Dzunchia, Teijinar, Issik Pakte, Cherchen, Niya, Keriya, Khotan, Guma (Guma, China), Karghalik, Yarkand (Yarkant County), Kashgar, Tashkurgan, Hunza (Hunza (princely state)), Nagar (Nagar, Pakistan), Gilgit (Gilgit, Pakistan) and finally Srinagar. In 367, after Murong Ke's death and replacement by the far less capable Murong Ping, Fú Jiān began plans to conquer Former Yan. He would soon, however, have to contend with the possibility that his empire would be the one so conquered, as in winter of that year, Fu Liu (at Puban (蒲阪, in modern Yuncheng (Yuncheng, Shanxi), Shanxi)), Fu Sou (at Shancheng (陝城), in modern Sanmenxia, Henan)), Fu Wu (at Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu)), and Fú Jiān's brother Fu Shuang (苻雙) the Duke of Zhao (at Shanggui (上邽, in modern Tianshui, Gansu)), rebelled together, offering to submit to Former Yan and seeking Former Yan aid. However, Murong Ping refused assistance. Fú Jiān sent forces to attack the four rebellious dukes separately. Fu Wu and Fu Shuang were quickly defeated and killed, followed by Fu Liu and Fu Sou. Later in the year, Emperor Zhaozong made another attempt to take back Fengxiang. Li Maozhen had submitted a petition accusing Wang Jian of attacking Dongchuan against imperial orders. Emperor Zhaozong reacted by issuing an edict demoting Wang to be the prefect of Nan Prefecture (南州, in modern Chongqing), making Li Maozhen the military governor of Xichuan to replace Wang, and making Li Sizhou the military governor of Fengxiang to replace Li Maozhen. Both Wang and Li Maozhen refused to follow the edict, and Li Maozhen further refused to let Li Sizhou to reach Fengxiang by putting Li Sizhou under siege at Fengtian. Only after Han wrote Li Maozhen did Li Maozhen lift the siege on Fengtian to allow Li Sizhou to return to Hua. (Li Sizhou — and 10 other princes — however, did not escape death. Soon after Li Sizhou's return to Hua, Li Jiepi returned from Hedong, thus exposing the fact that Li Keyong was in no shape to aid the emperor. With that possibility gone, Han slaughtered the imperial princes, including Li Sizhou, Li Jiepi, and Emperor Zhaozong's uncle Li Zi the Prince of Tong, and then claimed to Emperor Zhaozong that they were plotting treason.) Emperor Zhaozong did make Zhang Lian (張璉) the military governor of Zhangyi Circuit (彰義, headquartered in modern Pingliang, Gansu) the commander of the operations against Li Maozhen, but it appeared that Zhang was either unable or unwilling to attack Li Maozhen, for there was no further record of what Zhang did in the campaign. Emperor Zhaozong also stripped Li Maozhen of his titles and his imperially-bestowed name of LI Maozhen, referring to him as Song Wentong again. (After Emperor Zhaozong's declaration of the campaign against Li Maozhen, Li Jitang abandoned Kuangguo and fled back to Fengxiang; Han thereafter took over Kuangguo as well.) In 392, Yao Chang grew ill, and Fu Deng, hearing this, made a major attack on the important Later Qin city Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), but Yao Chang, in his illness, nevertheless faced him in battle, forcing Fu Deng to withdraw -- and then, in the engagement, made a clean evasive maneuver with his troops and disengaged, to Fu Deng's surprise, and Fu Deng commented: Later in 392, Yao Chang grew ill, and Fu Deng, hearing this, made a major attack on the important Later Qin city Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), but Yao Chang, in his illness, nevertheless faced him in battle, forcing Fu Deng to withdraw—and then, in the engagement, made a clean evasive maneuver with his troops and disengaged, to Fu Deng's surprise, and Fu Deng commented: In 783, when a mutiny by soldiers from Jingyuan Circuit (涇原, headquartered in Pingliang, Gansu) forced Emperor Dezong to abandon Chang'an and flee to Fengtian (奉天, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi), Li Song accompanied Emperor Dezong to Fengtian, and was said to have personally protected Emperor Dezong during the journey to Fengtian, along with his younger brother Li Yi (李誼) the Prince of Pu. ''Zizhi Tongjian'', vol. 228 (:zh:s:資治通鑑 卷228). Li Yi was biologically the son of Emperor Dezong's younger brother Li Miao, but was adopted by Emperor Dezong by Emperor Daizong's orders, presumably after Li Miao's death. See ''Book of Tang'', vol. 150. After the Jingyuan soldiers supported the general Zhu Ci as their emperor (of a new state of Qin), Zhu put Fengtian under siege, and Li Song was said to have personally participated in the defense of Fengtian, including personally encouraging soldiers and attending to the wounded. ''Zizhi Tongjian'', vol. 229 (:zh:s:資治通鑑 卷229). Late 416, Yao Yi, who was in charge of Puban (蒲阪, in modern Yuncheng (Yuncheng, Shanxi), Shanxi), rebelled, but with little popular support, Yao Shao was able to quickly capture Puban and arrest him. However, rebellions continued. In 417, Yao Hong's cousin Yao Hui (姚恢) the Duke of Qi rebelled, abandoning his post of Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu) and using all forces at Anding (a major defense post during Later Qin) against Yao Hong. Yao Shao and his son Yao Zan (姚讚), however, were able to capture and kill Yao Hui quickly as well. In 408, believing that Later Qin was growing weaker, he built a castle at Kanglang Mountain (嵻崀山, in modern Lanzhou, Gansu) to both prepare to defend himself against Later Qin's enemies and against a potential Later Qin campaign against him. In 409, he captured Fuhan from the Later Qin rebel Peng Xi'nian (彭奚念) and secretly sent messengers to inform Qifu Gangui of this. Qifu Gangui, who was then attending Yao Xing at Pingliang (平涼, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), then escaped and fled back to Wanchuan to join him. Soon, Qifu Gangui moved his home base to Dujianshan (度堅山, in modern Baiyin, Gansu) but left Qifu Chipan in command of Fuhan. Late that year, Qifu Gangui redeclared independence with the title Prince of Qin, and he created Qifu Chipan crown prince again. In 416, with Later Qin, now under the rule of Yao Xing's son Yao Hong, under a major attack by the Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)) general Liu Yu (Emperor Wu of Liu Song), Helian Bobo believed that Later Qin would fall to Jin, but that Jin would not be easily able to hold Later Qin's capital region -- Guanzhong. He therefore intensified his own attacks on Later Qin as well, and preparing to use the opportunity of Later Qin's destruction to seize more territory. As Later Qin neared destruction, Helian Bobo seized its western territory, centering Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), and then prepared for an eventual confrontation with Jin forces, which destroyed Later Qin in 417 and captured its capital Chang'an. In 428, Daxi and Qiudun Dui, trying to capture Helian Chang, instead became trapped by Helian Chang in the city of Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu). However, Daxi's subordinates Weichi Juan (尉遲眷) and Anchi Jia (安遲頡) made a surprise attack and captured Helian Chang. Helian Ding took over as the emperor of Xia. Meanwhile, Emperor Taiwu treated Helian Chang as an honored guest, supplying Helian Chang with the same supplies that he himself used, and he married his sister Princess Shiping to Helian Chang and created him the Duke of Kuaiji; he also rewarded Weichi and Anchi greatly and created them dukes. Subsequently, Daxi, humiliated that his subordinates captured Helian Chang and he himself appeared helpless, aggressively pursued Helian Ding, but instead was defeated and captured by Helian Ding. In fear, Qiudun and Tuoba Li (拓拔禮) the Prince of Gaoliang abandoned Chang'an as well and fled to Puban, allowing Xia to recapture Chang'an. In anger, although Qiudun had been a high level official for him since the days that he was crown prince, he had Anchi execute Qiudun and take over his position. For the time being, Emperor Taiwu left Helian Ding alone, while preparing an assault on Rouran instead, since Rouran had been harassing the northern border region. At this time, Western Qin not only had to face Northern Liang attacks, but had suffered a major earthquake in late 429 and a major drought for most of 430 as well. Most of Qifu Mumo's people fled. He felt that his state could no longer stand. He sent his officials Wang Kai (王愷) and Wuna Tian (烏訥闐) to submit to Northern Wei, requesting Northern Wei troops to escort him to Northern Wei territory. Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei was pleased, and promised that after he can destroy Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)), he would bestow Xia's Pingliang (平涼) and Anding (安定) Commanderies (collectively roughly modern Pingliang, Gansu) as Qifu Mumo's domain. Qifu Mumo therefore destroyed his own royal treasury and set Fuhan ablaze, heading east with the only 15,000 households that remained under him, to try to join Northern Wei troops at Shanggui (上邽, in modern Tianshui, Gansu), but the Xia emperor Helian Ding (Helian Chang's brother and successor), upon hearing this, engaged him and stopped his advances, and he was forced to take up defensive position at Nan'an. By this point, Nan'an was all he could hold; all of his old territory in the west had been seized by Tuyuhun. In 416, after Helian Bobo had captured the Later Qin city Yinmi (陰密, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), he commissioned Helian Chang as the governor of Yong Province (雍州, roughly modern central and northern Shaanxi, but at that point still mostly in Later Qin hands) to defend Yinmi. Meanwhile, two other Northern Wei forces were attacking two other key Xia cities—the general Daxi Jin (達奚斤) was attacking Puban (蒲阪, in modern Yuncheng (Yuncheng, Shanxi), Shanxi), and the general Pu Ji (普幾) was attacking Shancheng (陝城, in modern Sanmenxia, Henan). Pu was quickly able to capture Shancheng and then advanced into the Chang'an region, but died of an illness on the way, and so his army withdrew. Meanwhile, when Daxi approached Puban, the Xia general defending Puban, Helian Yidou (赫連乙斗) sent a messenger to Tongwan requesting help—but when the messenger arrived at Tongwan, he saw Northern Wei forces attacking it, and he ran back to Puban, informing Helian Yidou incorrectly that Tongwan had fallen. Helian Yidou therefore abandoned Puban and fled to Chang'an, and after he arrived there, he and Helian Chang's brother Helian Zhuxing (赫連助興), who was defending Chang'an, abandoned it and fled to Anding (安定, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), and Northern Wei thus captured the southern half of Xia. In spring 428, after initially withdrawing further from Shanggui to Pingliang (平涼, in modern Pingliang, Gansu), Helian Chang went back on the offensive and sieged Daxi's army, which was then afflicted by illnesses, at Anding (安定, also in modern Pingliang). However, during the siege, the Northern Wei officers Anchi Jia (安遲頡) and Weichi Juan (尉遲眷) made a surprise attack on him, and he fell of his horse and was captured. Helian Ding gathered the remaining troops and withdrew to Pingliang. He took the throne himself. (Name unknown) was the wife of Helian Ding, the last emperor of the Chinese (History of China) Xiongnu state Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)). Very little is known about her—not even her name. Helian Ding took the throne in 428 after his brother Helian Chang was captured by rival Northern Wei's forces, and it was sometime after that he created her empress. When his brothers Helian Shegan (赫連社干) the Duke of Shanggu and Helian Duluogu (赫連度洛孤) the Duke of Guangyang surrendered his capital Pingliang (平涼, in modern Pingliang, Gansu) to Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei in 430, she was captured. Emperor Taiwu gave her to his general Doudai Tian (豆代田) as a concubine. Nothing further is known about her.
Category:Populated places in Basra Province Category:Port cities and towns of the Persian Gulf Category:Port cities and towns in Iraq Category:Cities in Iraq The force's headquarters were in Umm Qasr, Iraq, within the DMZ. The maximum strength of the force was 1,187 on February 28, 1995. The Security Council extended its mandate (United Nations Security Council Resolution 1490) for a final time in July 2003. At the time of the withdrawal on September 30, 2003 there were four military observers and 131 civilian staff. During the mission there were 18 fatalities. A second revolt in 1999 led to mass executions in and around Basra. Subsequently the Iraqi government deliberately neglected the city, and much commerce was diverted to Umm Qasr. These alleged abuses are to feature amongst the charges against the former regime to be considered by the Iraq Special Tribunal set up by the Iraq Interim Government following the 2003 invasion. thumb 250px right Shatt al-Arab near Basra (Image:Basra-Shatt-Al-Arab.jpg) city, Iraq. In the 2003
- align center June 13 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Egyptian Republic''' supersedes the Kingdom of Egypt. Cairo remains the capital. - - align center February 2 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Kingdom of Egypt''' gains independence from the United Kingdom. Cairo is the capital. -
(now the site of Florida Citrus Bowl). By 1944, enough jobs were created to increase the city's population to 45,000 people. Orlando became a major military center when World War II brought the development of McCoy Air Force Base and Pinecastle AFB, located southeast of downtown. This status intensified with the 1968 opening of the Orlando Naval Training Center east of downtown. Decline and redevelopment Walt Disney World's 1971 opening in southwest Orange County brought
August 10 winds 40 cat storm Commons:Category:Vinh