Places Known For

main intelligence


PIDE

with the Portuguese colonial censorship system and the surveillance of PIDE (International and State Defence Police). Subversive activities could lead to torture and to the political prison of Tarrafal, on the Island of Santiago (Santiago, Cape Verde). thumb 150px right Logo of the SIED. (Image:Novobrasao_peq.gif‎) During the New State regime (New State (Portugal)) and until its end in 1974, the main intelligence agency in Portugal was the PIDE - ''Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado'' (International and State Defense Police). Nominally under jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior (Ministry of the Internal Administration (Portugal)), PIDE was in fact a secret police force controlled directly by Portuguese (Portugal) prime-minister António de Oliveira Salazar. In 1968, under Salazar's successor Marcello Caetano, PIDE was renamed the ''Direcção Geral de Segurança'' (DGS, Directorate General of Security) and underwent some reform. Following a coup (Carnation Revolution) by the Portuguese military (Military of Portugal) in 1974 the agency was immediately abolished due to the abhorrence felt for the PIDE DGS as a tool of the authoritarian regime. He soon became prosecuted by the fascist political police, the PIDE, being arrested in 1961. He was beaten and tortured continuously. He endured 11 and then another 7 days standing sleepless (a usual torture method carried by the police


Sicherheitspolizei

by the combined forces of the Gestapo (secret state police) and the Kripo (criminal police) between 1936 and 1939. As a formal agency, the SiPo was folded into the RSHA in 1939, but the term continued to be used informally until the end of the Third Reich. * Sicherheitsdienst (SD) — "security service"; the SS and Nazi Party security service. Later, the main intelligence-gathering, and counter-espionage sections of the RSHA; originally headed by Reinhard Heydrich. * Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) — "security police", the combined forces of the Gestapo and KriPo, made up of the Reich's criminal investigators and secret state police. * "sichern und laden" — "lock and load". History of Gęsiówka Before the war, Gęsiówka was a military prison of the Polish Army on Gęsia Street (now Anielewicza (Mordechaj Anielewicz) Street). Beginning in 1939, after the German (Nazi Germany) occupation (Military occupation) of Poland, it became a re-education camp of the German security police (Sicherheitspolizei) ('''''Arbeitserziehungslager der Sicherheitspolizei Warschau'''''). In 1943 it was turned into a concentration camp (Nazi concentration camp) for inmates from beyond Warsaw and Poland, equipped with a gas chambers and crematoriums. The camp was joined with a nearby Pawiak prison and formed the backbone of the Warsaw concentration camp complex. Inmates (mostly Jews) included prisoners from Czechoslovakia, France, Greece, Hungary, Belgium and Germany. On January 11, 1943, Höfle sent a radiogram (Radiogram (message)) from Lublin to ''SS-Obersturmbannführer'' Franz Heim in Kraków, who was at the time the deputy commander of the Security Police (Sicherheitspolizei) and SD (Sicherheitsdienst) in the General Government, and to ''SS-Obersturmbannführer'' Adolf Eichmann in Berlin. The message documented the total deportations of Jews to the four Operation Reinhard camps through 31 of December 1942. Today this document is called the Höfle Telegram. Organization of the ''Einsatzgruppen'' ''Einsatzgruppen'' (German: "task forces", "special-ops units") were paramilitary groups originally formed under the direction of Reinhard Heydrich, Chief of the SD (Sicherheitsdienst), and ''Sicherheitspolizei'' (Security Police, SiPo) in 1938. They were operated by the ''Schutzstaffel'' (SS). Per a Hitler-Himmler directive, the ''Einsatzgruppen'' were re-formed in anticipation of the assault on Russia (Operation Barbarossa). ''The Einsatzgruppen'' were once again under the control of Reinhard Heydrich as Chief of the ''Reichssicherheitshauptamt'' (RSHA—''Reich'' Main Security Office); after his death they were under the control of his successor, Ernst Kaltenbrunner. In autumn 1943 some detachments of the UPA attempted to find rapprochement with the Germans. Although doing so was condemned by an OUN UPA order from November 25, 1943, these actions did not end. p.190-194 In early 1944 UPA forces in several Western regions engaged in cooperation with the German Wehrmacht, Waffen SS, SiPo (Sicherheitspolizei) and SD (Sicherheitsdienst). p.192 p.192-194 Yaroslav Hrytsak, "History of Ukraine 1772-1999" However, in the winter and spring of 1944 it would be incorrect to state that there was a complete cessation of armed conflict between UPA and Nazi forces, because the UPA continued to defend Ukrainian villages against the repressive actions of the German administration. p.196 For example, on January 20, 200 German soldiers on their way to the Ukrainian village of Pyrohivka were forced to retreat after a several-hours long firefight with a group of 80 UPA soldiers after having lost 30 killed and wounded. Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, ''Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army'', Chapter 14, pg. 197 In March–July 1944 a senior leader of OUN(B) in Galicia conducted negotiations with SD and SS officials, resulting in a German decision to supply the UPA with arms and ammunition. In May of that year, the OUN issued instructions to "switch the struggle, which had been conducted against the Germans, completely into a struggle against the Soviets.". Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, ''Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army'', Chapter 14 parent_agency 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) ''Schutzstaffel'' child1_agency RSHA (Gestapo, Sicherheitspolizei, SD (Sicherheitsdienst) and Kriminalpolizei (Kriminalpolizei#Nazi_Germany)) child2_agency SS Economic and Administrative Departments (SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt) On 20 April 1934, Göring (Hermann Göring) and Himmler agreed to put aside their differences (largely because of mutual hatred of the SA). Göring transferred control of the Gestapo to Himmler, who was also named chief of all German police forces outside Prussia. The SS was further cemented when both it and the Gestapo participated in the destruction of the SA during the Night of the Long Knives from 30 June to 2 July 1934. They either killed or arrested every major SA leader – above all Ernst Röhm. Himmler was later named the chief of all German police in June, 1936. Williams, Max. ''Reinhard Heydrich: The Biography: Volume 1'', p 77. Therein, the Gestapo was incorporated into the SiPo (Sicherheitspolizei) with the Kripo (Kriminalpolizei#Nazi_Germany) (Criminal Police). Heydrich was made head of the SiPo and continued as chief of the SD (Sicherheitsdienst). Lumsden, Robin. ''A Collector's Guide To: The Allgemeine - SS'', p 83. Security forces From 1936, the state security police forces of the Gestapo and Kripo (Criminal Police) were consolidated and placed under the central command of Reinhard Heydrich, already chief of the party ''Sicherheitsdienst'' (SD), and named Sicherheitspolizei. Later from 27 September 1939 forward, they were all folded into the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) (RSHA) which was placed under Heydrich's control. The ordinary uniformed German police, known as the Ordnungspolizei (Orpo) were also under SS control after 1936 but never incorporated into the Allgemeine-SS, although many police members were also dual SS members. The police were divided into the ''Ordnungspolizei'' (''Orpo'' or regular police) and the Sicherheitspolizei (''SiPo'' or security police), which had been established in June 1936. Williams, p 77. The Orpo assumed duties of regular uniformed law enforcement while the SiPo consisted of the secret state police (Geheime Staatspolizei or Gestapo) and criminal investigation police (Kriminalpolizei or Kripo). The Kriminalpolizei was a corps of professional detectives involved in fighting crime and the task of the Gestapo was combating espionage and political dissent. On 27 September 1939, the SS security service, the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) and the SiPo were folded into the Reich Main Security Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt or RSHA). Lumsden, Robin. ''A Collector's Guide To: The Allgemeine - SS'', p 83. The RSHA symbolized the close connection between the SS (a party organization) and the police (a state organization). After Hitler took office in January 1933, he soon began a programme of ''Nazification (Gleichschaltung)'' of all aspects of German life, in order to consolidate the Nazi party's hold on power. In July 1936, the Kripo became the Criminal Police Department for the entire Reich. It was merged, along with the Gestapo into the ''Sicherheitspolizei'' (SiPo). Williams, Max. ''Reinhard Heydrich: The Biography: Volume 1'', p 77. At that point, Reinhard Heydrich was in overall command of the SiPo (Gestapo and Kripo) and the ''Sicherheitsdienst'' (SD) (Sicherheitsdienst). Williams, Max. ''Reinhard Heydrich: The Biography: Volume 1'', p 77. Nebe was appointed head of the ''Kriminalpolizei'' (Kripo). As head of the Kripo, Nebe reported to Heydrich. In May 1941, Stroop changed his name from Josef to Jürgen for ideological reasons and in honor of his deceased son. From 7 July to 15 September 1941, Stroop served in combat on the eastern front (Eastern Front (World War II)) with the infantry regiment of the 3rd SS Division ''Totenkopf'' (3rd SS Division Totenkopf). He was awarded a Clasp to the Iron Cross 2nd Class (Iron Cross#Design) and an Infantry Assault Badge in Bronze. On 16 September 1942, he was promoted to SS-''Brigadeführer'' and assigned as an Inspector of the SiPo (Sicherheitspolizei) and SD (Sicherheitsdienst) of the Higher SS and Police Leader for Russia South. In this position Stroop worked to help secure a key logistical (logistics) route for German forces on the Eastern Front. Beginning in October 1942, Stroop commanded an SS garrison at Kherson, before becoming the SS and Police Leader (SSPF) for Lemberg (Lviv) in February 1943. Eduard Strauch Commander of Einsatzkommando 2 (Einsatzgruppen), anschliessend commander of two Nazi organizations, the Security Police ( German: Sicherheitspolizei), or SiPo, and the Security Service ( German: Sicherheitsdienst, or SD, first in Belarus (then called White Russia or White Ruthenia) and later in Belgium. In October 1944, he was transferred to the military branch of the SS (Waffen-SS). 19.312 Werner Knab Gestapo chief in Norway Commander of the Security Police (Sicherheitspolizei) in Lyon, France 191584 Erich Priebke SD and Sicherheitspolizei commander in Rome, Italy '''Helmut Knochen''' (March 14, 1910 – April 4, 2003) was the senior commander of the Sicherheitspolizei (Security Police) and Sicherheitsdienst in Paris during the Nazi (Nazism) occupation of France during the World War II. '''Franz Walter Stahlecker''' (10 October 1900 – 23 March 1942) was Commander of the Sicherheitspolizei and the Sicherheitsdienst ( On April 7, 1945, the Soviet press published the "Declaration of the Special Government Commission charged with the inquiry into the crimes committed by the German-Fascist aggressors during their occupation of the Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic". This document devotes a chapter to the persecution and murder of Jews. The declaration lists Nazis held responsible for the crimes committed in Latvia under German occupation. They include Lohse, the Reich Commissioner for Ostland; Friedrich Jeckeln, chief of police (HSSPF) for Ostland; Drechsler, Commissioner General for Latvia; Rudolf Lange, chief of the security police (Sicherheitspolizei); Krause, chief of the Riga ghetto and commandant of the Salaspils concentration camp; Sauer, commandant of the Kaiserwald concentration camp; and several dozen other Nazi criminals involved in the destruction of Latvian Jewry. On January 26, 1946, the military tribunal of the Baltic Military District began a trial of a group of Nazi war criminals, among them Jeckeln, one of the men responsible for the Rumbula massacre at the end of 1941. He and six others were sentenced to death by hanging; the sentence was carried out in Riga on February 3, 1946. Other trials were held in the postwar Latvian SSR, but altogether only a small number of Germans and Latvians who had taken part in the murder of Latvian Jewry were brought to justice.


Sicherheitsdienst

received a top secret order to proceed immediately to the police barracks at Pretzsch on the Elbe. He was met there by hand-picked members of the SD (Sicherheitsdienst), the Gestapo and the Orpo police. * Selbstschutz — ethnic German civilian militia. * Sicherheitsdienst (SD) — "security service"; the SS and Nazi Party security service. Later, the main intelligence-gathering, and counter-espionage sections of the RSHA; originally headed by Reinhard Heydrich. * Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) — "security police", the combined forces of the Gestapo and KriPo, made up of the Reich's criminal investigators and secret state police. result German victory combatant1 ''' Albert Bruce Matthews (Bruce Matthews (Canadian Army officer)) Aftermath In 1830 Albert had acquired a city palace in Berlin on Wilhelmstraße, then called ''Prinz-Albrecht-Palais''. An adjacent street off Wilhelmstraße laid out in 1891 was named ''Prinz-Albrecht-Straße''. After the Nazi ''Machtergreifung'' it became notorious as the seat of the Gestapo and the Reichsführer-SS. The ''Prinz-Albrecht-Palais'' itself from 1934 served as the headquarters of the SS Sicherheitsdienst under Reinhard Heydrich, from 1939 the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA). In 1944 the building was heavily damaged by air raids (Bombing of Berlin in World War II) and finally demolished in 1955. Since 1951 the street is named Niederkirchnerstraße, the area is now part of the Topography of Terror project. In 1940, Landau transferred to KdS SD (Sicherheitsdienst) in Radom governed by the General Government where he met typist Gertrude, to whom he later addressed his letters.


Inter-Services Intelligence

that Pakistan's main intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), continues to give LeT intelligence help and protection. I Ibrahim Hyderi - Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar - Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar Road - Ibrahim Lodhi - Ichthyophagoi - Imran Khan - Indian Muslim - Indian Occupied Kashmir - Indian rebellion of 1857 - Indian subcontinent - Indian subcontinent earthquakes list - Indica (Indica (Megasthenes)) - Indo-Aryan migration - Indo-Iranians - Indology - Indo-Aryans - Indo-European languages - Indo-Hephthalites - Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 - Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 - Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 - Indo-Parthians - Indo-Parthian Kingdom - Indo-Scythians - Indo-Sassanian - Indo-Scythians - Indus Highway - Indus River - Indus Valley Civilization - Indus Valley Institute Of Art - Indus Valley Institute of Art and Architecture - Institute for Environmental Sciences and Engineering - Institute of Management Sciences (Pak-AIMS) - Institute of Space Technology - Inter-Services Intelligence - Islam - Islam Nagar (Islam Nagar (disambiguation)) - Islam Pir - Islam Pura - Islamabad - Islamabad (district) - Islamabad International Airport - Islamgarh - Islami Jamiat Talaba Pakistan - Islami Jamiat-e-Talaba - Islami Jamiat-e-Tulba - Islamia College (Islamia College (disambiguation)) - Islamia College Lahore - Islamia Science College - Islamic Action Society - Islamic conquest of Afghanistan - Islamic conquest of the Indian subcontinent - Islamic empires in India - Islamic Renaissance Movement - Islamic republic - Islamistan - Ismail of Ghaznavi - Ismail of Ghazni - Ismaili - Ijaz ul Hassan Another factor was the eradication efforts inside Pakistan (whose Inter-Services Intelligence was coincidentally huge supporters of the Mujahideen). The Pakistani government, USAID and other groups were involved in attempting to eliminate poppy cultivation from certain areas of the Northwest Frontier Province (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) bordering Afghanistan. The opium industry shifted from Pakistan into Afghanistan during the decade of the 1980s. pdf.usaid.gov pdf_docs PDABK009.pdf Project Assistance Completion Report , Northwest Frontier Area Development, 391-0485, USAID Mission to Pakistan and Afghanistan The Indian National Security Advisor M K Narayanan (w:M K Narayanan) has said that India doesn't have "clinching" evidence of the involvement of Pakistan's (Pakistan) intelligence agency, the ISI (w:Inter-Services Intelligence) in the Mumbai train blasts of July 11 (w:11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings), which killed 207 people and injured several hundred more. The corruption is in the ISI (w:Inter-Services Intelligence), the Pak army and the Pak system of Political Agents (PA) assigned to these tribal zones (FATA (w:Federally Administered Tribal Areas) & PATA). Talibanization has nothing to do with your premise there. Zilch. Nada. The corruption is in the ISI (w:Inter-Services Intelligence), the Pak army and the Pak system of Political Agents (PA) assigned to these tribal zones (FATA (w:Federally Administered Tribal Areas) & PATA). These PA have budgets that are much like the CIA (w:Central Intelligence Agency) in that they are a single line item in the national budget, there is no accountability of where or how the PA spends the money. If one followed the IRS rules and looked at the lifestyles of the PA and compared them with their income, you would soon understand what was going on. Musharraf critics are a larger issue. For eons, Republicans have coddled Pakistan with the belief that "as long as they are pro America" - democracy in Pakistan will come in due course. Democrats have, I think, insisted Democracy first, and then we can discuss the other issues later. For example, pre 9 11, compare how Carter's administration treated Gen Zia and how Reagan's administration treated him. Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (w:Inter-Services Intelligence) (ISI) and American Central Intelligence Agency (w:Central Intelligence Agency) (CIA) agents say they are interrogating Baradar, who was in charge of the Taliban's day-to-day military operations and its governing political council.


Gestapo

Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).


East Germany

by the East German (East Germany) Stasi to vote for Brandt. Guillaume had been an espionage agent for East Germany, who was supervised by Markus Wolf, the head of the "Main Intelligence Administration" of the East German Ministry for State Security. Wolf stated after the reunification that the resignation of Brandt had never been intended, and that the planting and handling of Guillaume had been one of the largest mistakes of the East German secret services. In the early 1980s


Argentina

and the neutralization of a suspected plan to bomb the U.S. Embassy in Asunción, Paraguay. The Secretariat embodies special internal suborganizations that aid its duties. The Escuela Nacional de Inteligencia (''National Intelligence School'', ENI) acts as the main intelligence academy, training and recruiting agents for SIDE, and providing tuition and assistance for personnel of other intelligence and law enforcement agencies (Police).

Aires . '''Dirección de Observaciones Judiciales''' (''Directorate of Judicial Surveillance'', DOJ) is an Argentine (Argentina) intelligence service (Intelligence agency) responsible for intercepting communications as required by judicial officers. It is part of the Secretaría de Inteligencia, the main intelligence agency; and is a subagency of the National Intelligence System (Sistema de Inteligencia Nacional). It is known as "Division 84" or "Ojota" inside SIDE (Secretaría de Inteligencia). ("O-Jota" is the Spanish pronunciation of the letters OJ.) onedotzero holds an annual festival in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In September 2008 it's been reported that over 50,000 people attended over the weekend, making it one of their biggest events ever, and saw screenings, installations and live events from Mole Commons:Category:Argentina Wikipedia:Argentina Dmoz:Regional South America Argentina


Soviet Union

"fas.org" Later, the Comecon supplied aid to the eventually victorious Chinese Communist Party, and saw its influence grow elsewhere in the world. Fearing its ambitions, the Soviet Union's wartime allies, the United Kingdom and the United

Russian acronym '''ГРУ''', which stands for "Главное Разведывательное Управление", meaning '''Main Intelligence Directorate'''. The official full name translation is '''II Main Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation'''. It is also known as GRU GSh (short for ''GRU Generalnogo Shtaba'', or ГРУ Генерального штаба, i.e. "GRU of the General Staff"). "As originally established, the Registration Department was not directly subordinate to the General Staff (at the time called the Red Army Field Staff — ''Polevoi Shtab''). Administratively, it was the Third Department of the Field Staff's Operations Directorate. In July 1920, the RU was made the second of four main departments in the Operations Directorate. Until 1921, it was usually called the ''Registraupr'' (Registration Department). That year, following the Soviet-Polish War (Polish–Soviet War), it was elevated in status to become the Second (Intelligence) Directorate of the Red Army Staff, and was thereafter known as the ''Razvedupr''. This probably resulted from its new primary peacetime responsibilities as the main source of foreign intelligence for the Soviet leadership. As part of a major re-organization of the Red Army, sometime in 1925 or 1926 the RU became the Fourth (Intelligence) Directorate of the Red Army Staff, and was thereafter also known simply as the "Fourth Department." Throughout most of the interwar period, the men and women who worked for Red Army Intelligence called it either the Fourth Department, the Intelligence Service, the ''Razvedupr'', or the RU. ... As a result of the re-organization in 1926 , carried out in part to break up Trotsky's hold on the army, the Fourth Department seems to have been placed directly under the control of the State Defense Council (Gosudarstvennaia komissiia oborony, or GKO), the successor of the RVSR. Thereafter its analysis and reports went directly to the GKO and Politburo, even apparently bypassing the Red Army Staff." Leonard, ''Secret Soldiers of the Revolution'', p. 7. It was given the task of handling all military intelligence, particularly the collection of intelligence of military or political significance from sources outside the Soviet Union. The GRU operated residencies all over the world, along with the SIGINT (signals intelligence) station in Lourdes, Cuba (Lourdes SIGINT Station), and throughout the former Soviet (Soviet Union) bloc countries, especially in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The UN became a war combatant itself after North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950 (see Korean War). The UN Security Council condemned the North Korean action by a 9-0 resolution (with the Soviet Union absent) and called upon its member nations to come to the aid of South Korea. The United States and 15 other nations formed a "UN force" to pursue this action. In a press conference on June 29, 1950, U.S. President Harry S. Truman characterized these hostilities as not being a "war" but a "police action". Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


Norway

Personal life He was born in Balestrand, Norway to Karoline Metella Suur and Harald Ulrik Sverdrup (Harald Ulrik Sverdrup (politician)), a member of the Norwegian Parliament (Storting), whose brother Johan Sverdrup was Prime Minister of Norway between 1884 and 1889. ''Georg Sverdrup. Dictionary of American Biography Base Set'' (American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936) left thumb Arctic Char (File:Arctic Char.jpg) Research aimed at determining the suitability of Arctic char as a cultured species has been ongoing since the late 1970s. The Canadian government's Freshwater Institute of Fisheries and Oceans Canada at Winnipeg, Manitoba, and the Huntsman Marine Science Centre of New Brunswick, pioneered the early efforts in Canada. Arctic char is also farmed (fish farming) at least in Iceland, Estonia, Norway, Sweden, Finland, West Virginia, ARC Mining Fresh Water for Aquaculture and Ireland. The name is of Norse origin deriving from Setberg, meaning `flat topped hill', - an accurate description of the location of the village from where good views of the surrounding countryside can be obtained. The place name Setberg from which Sadberge derives also occurs in Norway and in Viking settled Iceland. Closer to home in Norse (Norsemen) settled Cumbria we may find the village of Sedbergh near Kendal which has the same meaning. * 3 November - Imvo Zabantsundu ''(Opinion of the People)'', South Africa's first newspaper for Black people is published by Thanda Press in King William's Town * 15 November - The Berlin Conference (Berlin Conference (1884)) starts: 14 countries (Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain


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